The differential diagnosis for endosalpingiosis also includes mul

The differential diagnosis for endosalpingiosis also includes multiple peritoneal inclusion cysts (benign cystic mesothelioma). The aim of this case ABT263 report has not been only to describe the rarity of this pathology, but it contributes to consider endosalpingiosis as a possible diagnostic hypothesis for which

may be indicated a conservative surgical treatment.”
“The effect of several new binary accelerator systems were studied with special emphasis to the relationship of nucleophilicity to their rheological and mechanical properties. In this study, dialkyl/azacycloalkyl substituted benzoylthioureas (BTU 1-5) were used as secondary accelerators (SA) along with three different primary accelerators (PA) viz., Cyclohexylbenzthiazylsulfonamide (CBS), Mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) or Zincdithiocarbamate(ZDC) in the sulfur vulcanization of natural rubber. The effect of these secondary accelerators on the rheological and mechanical properties was found to be improved when compared to the reference mixes. It is noted that the N-benzoyl-N’N'-piperidinylthiourea (BTU 4) is more effective as a secondary MLN4924 nmr accelerator due to the higher nucleophilicity

of the same when compared with the test compounds. The ZDC-BTU gives the best result as binary accelerator system in natural rubber. Chemical characterization was carried out by determining the total crosslink density. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2012″
“Background: We previously found that remnant-like lipoproteins (RLPs), lipolytic products of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins including very low-density lipoprotein and chylomicron, can accelerate endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) senescence, which involves

telomerase activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of RLPs on telomerase activity and the catalytic subunit telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) in EPCs and the associated signal pathway.

Methods: RLPs were prepared from plasma samples by the this website immunoaffinity method. EPCs at day 8 were incubated with RLPs at 10-, 50-, 100-, and 200-mu g/mL for 24 hours. Telomerase activity was measured with telomeric repeat amplification protocol assay, and optimum concentration of RLPs was determined. Human TERT (hTERT) and phosphorylated Akt protein kinase were detected by Western blot analysis in RLP-incubated EPCs with or without pretreatment of either superoxide dismutase or atorvastatin for 3 hours. Phosphorylated hTERT was measured by immunoprecipitation and Western blot assay. Nitrotyrosine was evaluated by immunofluorescence assay, and senescent EPCs were determined by senescence-associated beta-galactosidase staining.

Results: Dose dependently, RLPs resulted in a decrease in telomerase activity, with a maximal effect at 200 mu g protein/mL. The optimum concentration of RLPs was determined as 100 mu g protein/mL.

Summary of Background Data Determination of normal in vivo motio

Summary of Background Data. Determination of normal in vivo motion of the lumbar facet joints remains elusive despite numerous in vitro studies, animal models, and finite element simulations. Alterations in motion of the facet joints have been thought to be associated with various types of lumbar

spine pathology including disc degeneration, facet degeneration, and neural impingement.

Methods. Eleven healthy subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to obtain three-dimensional models of the lumbar vertebrae from L2-L5. Each patient was then scanned using a dual-fluoroscopic imaging system while positioning the body in different postures: maximal forward-backward bend, side-to-side bending, and maximal left-right torsion. This fluoroscopic set-up was then recreated in solid modeling software where positions of the vertebrae were reproduced at each studied posture by matching the MRI-based models to the MK-4827 nmr fluoroscopic images. The kinematics was measured using a Cartesian coordinate system placed in the center of each facet. The facet orientation in

the sagittal and transverse plane was also determined.

Results. During flexion-extension movements of the trunk, the facet joints rotated primarily along the mediolateral axis (average: 2-6) and were translated in the cephalad caudad direction (average: 2-4 mm). However, during lateral bending and twisting, the facet joints did not rotate or translate in 1 dominant direction. Instead, the resulting motion represented a coupling of rotation and translation in different directions (average: <5 degrees Vorinostat supplier and 3 mm). Further, the kinematic behavior of the facets of the upper lumbar spine check details (L2-L3 and L3-L4) were similar but different from that of the lower lumbar spine (L4-L5).

Conclusion. These findings provide baseline information to enable

the study of kinematic changes that occur in pathologic conditions of the spine and to determine how these might be affected following surgical intervention.”
“Timeliness of response from referral to consultation is necessary to provide best standards of care to inpatients in the general hospital setting.

To measure the length of time from referral to consultation in a liaison psychiatry service, and improve service delivery by introducing guidelines for time to consultation.

Time to consultation was measured on all patients presenting to a liaison psychiatry consultation service over an initial 6-month period, with subsequent repeat measurement following the introduction of guidelines.

There were significant reductions for time to consultation in the service for the second cycle of the audit (chi(2) = 43.84, P < 0.001), and targets based on international standards were achieved.

Introduction of guidelines for time to consultation, may improve response times, leading to improved quality of service for inpatient consultation services.”
“Study Design. Case report.

Objective.

(C) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry”
“The citrus fruit pro

(C) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry”
“The citrus fruit processing industry generates substantial quantities of waste rich in glycosylated

phenolic substances such as naringin, which are a valuable natural source of polyphenols as well as L-rhamnopyranose. Naringin is the major polyphenol in bitter orange peel and its hydrolysis by alpha-L-rhamnosidase (EC 3.2.1.40) catalyzes the cleavage of the terminal rhamnosyl groups to form prunin and rhamnose. In this work, a recombinant alpha-L-rhamnosidase from C. stercorarium was shown to be suitable for narigin hydrolysis. The recombinant rhamnosidase was found to be relatively stable at 60 degrees C, and a residual activity close to 50% after 180 min of incubation was demonstrated. The purified enzyme established hydrolysis of naringin extracted from citrus peel waste (CPW). The result indicated that recombinant alpha-L-rhamnosidase has

industrial applicability and Milciclib molecular weight is an interesting candidate for producing Ulixertinib rhamnose from citrus peel. (C) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry”
“The first ECCO pathogenesis workshop focused on anti-TNF therapy failures in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). The overall objective was to better understand and explore primary non response and loss of response to anti-TNF agents in IBD. The outcome of this workshop is presented into two parts. This first section addresses definitions, frequency and pharmacological aspects of anti-TNF therapy failure, including pharmacokinetics of anti-TNF monoclonal antibodies

and immune and non-immune mediated clearance of anti-TNF mAbs. The second section concerns the biological roles of TNF and TNF antagonists, including mechanisms of action of anti-TNF agents, and discuss hypothesis regarding their failures and phenomenon of paradoxical inflammation, including the potential role of TNF independent inflammatory pathways. (C) Selleckchem Fer-1 2010 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“This second section of the first ECCO pathogenesis workshop on anti-TNF therapy failures in inflammatory bowel diseases addresses the biological roles of TNF alpha and the effects and mechanisms of action of TNF alpha antagonists. Mechanisms underlying their failure, including induction of TNF-independent inflammatory pathways and phenomena of paradoxical inflammation are discussed. (C) 2010 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Several old and new observations suggest the existence in Crohn’s disease of a phagocytic disorder of macrophages related to impaired bactericidal activity of host cells or to the presence of invasive bacteria that have developed strategies to counteract macrophage killing. It was recently reported that disordered macrophage cytokine secretion underlies impaired acute inflammation and bacterial clearance in Crohn’s disease. Secretion of proinflammatory cytokines by CD macrophages was impaired in response to E.

The patient underwent a trans-nasal, trans-sphenoidal surgical de

The patient underwent a trans-nasal, trans-sphenoidal surgical decompression of the lesion. Histopathology revealed a tuberculous lesion in the pituitary. The characteristic radiological features of sellar tuberculomas are discussed along with a review of literature. Atypical sellar radiology in the presence of a thickened pituitary stalk could point to pathology other than pituitary adenoma, possibly a chronic inflammatory condition like tuberculoma.”
“Bisphosphonates suppress bone turnover by disrupting osteoclast signal transduction, maturation, and longevity. In some patients, it has been hypothesized that suppressed turnover Quizartinib clinical trial can impair oral wound healing, leading to a

distressing, osteopetrosis-like jaw necrosis called bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (BRONJ). Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO), as an adjunct to surgery and antibiotics, might have utility in the treatment of BRONJ because it produces reactive oxygen and nitrogen species that positively modulate the redox-sensitive intracellular signaling molecules involved in bone turnover. The efficacy of HBO in the treatment

of BRONJ is currently under investigation in randomized controlled trials at Duke University and the University of Minnesota, and the early results have been encouraging. This report discusses osteoclast selleck compound biology, how HBO has the potential to augment bone turnover by way of the signaling effects on osteoclasts, the available clinical data on HBO in the treatment of BRONJ, the ongoing randomized controlled trials of HBO, and the study-associated efforts to find biomarkers to characterize an individual’s risk of developing

this disease. (C) 2009 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons J Oral Maxillofac Surg 67:96-106, 2009, Suppl 1″
“Microwave (8.43 GHz) absorption properties have been measured for multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-epoxy composites. A microwave resonant cavity technique was utilized as a probe. Six groups of MWCNT-epoxy composite samples with different MWCNT outside diameters were fabricated and tested. The weight percentages of MWCNTs in each sample group were in the range of 1%-10%. Dinaciclib The amplitudes of the absorption profiles, the linewidths at half-power maxima, and the shifts in resonant frequencies under load for the six groups of MWCNT-epoxy composite samples were compared. Similar to our previous results measured at 9.968 GHz [Z. Ye et al., J. Appl. Phys. 108, 054315 (2010)], the microwave absorption properties of our samples strongly rely on two parameters: the number of nanotubes and the density of nanotube bundles. It was found that the measured microwave absorption properties of the samples around 8.43 GHz showed a more sensitive response to the magnetic component of the microwave field rather than the electric component. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.

Although a number of questionnaires are available, we currently h

Although a number of questionnaires are available, we currently have no evidence that these tests are able to assess drug effects on the postictal state, if they exist. In addition to the need for sensitive, reproducible and objective measures of the postictal state, we need instruments to differentiate the specific effects of AEDs or non-pharmacological therapy on the postictal state from indirect effects because of overall reduction in seizure severity. Although it would be naive

Screening Library nmr to think that the mechanisms of seizure termination are necessarily less complex than those involved in ictal onset, it is certainly worthwhile to explore strategies for the development of a new class of drugs for seizure control that work primarily through mechanisms involved in seizure termination and postictal refractoriness. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“In this work, we investigated the design and fabrication of porous polyacrylamide hydrogels via a thermal reverse-casting technique. The porous hydrogels were prepared by the free-radical

crosslinking polymerization of the monomer solution within the space of an agarose gel, which after the setting of the chemical gel, was removed to allow for the formation of an interconnected porosity pathway. Two different agarose/monomer solution ratios were selected to modulate the porosity of the hydrogels, and the as-obtained samples were characterized in terms of their chemical structure, morphology, thermal properties, and swelling behavior in 26s Proteasome structure different ionic strength https://www.selleckchem.com/products/crenolanib-cp-868596.html solutions. The results of this study demonstrate that the reverse-casting process enhanced the solventretaining capability of the hydrogels and that their swelling ratio increased with increasing concentration of the agarose solution in the initial formulation. All of these results finally demonstrate that the pore structure features

played a key role in defining the swelling behavior of the hydrogels. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 122: 3651-3660, 2011″
“The transport properties of armchair graphene nanoribbons with two structural nanoconstrictions are studied by atomistic simulations. With the appropriate geometry and size, the central region between the two constrictions can behave as a single tunneling quantum dot. Within the low energy range around the Dirac point, the conductance of the structure shows strong resonances that are related to the quasi-bound states localized in the dot. The quasi-bound states are associated with the standing waves confined by the two constrictions, and can be effectively modulated by the geometric parameters of the structure. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3592204]“
“A series of biostable polyurethane (PUR) formulations, including a composite containing a clay as filler, were prepared as new biomaterials for cardiovascular applications.

Before July 2002, the number of recovered kidneys with 0-1 comorb

Before July 2002, the number of recovered kidneys with 0-1 comorbidities dropped at age 60, but transplantation probabilities given recovery did not. After July 2002, the number of recovered kidneys with 0-1 comorbidities rose at age 60, but transplantation probabilities contingent on recovery declined. No similar trends were observed at donor age 50 among donors with >= 2 comorbidities. Overall, implementation

of the ECD definition coincided with a reversal of an apparent AS1842856 cell line reluctance to recover kidneys from donors over age 59, but increased selectiveness on the part of surgeons/centers with respect to these kidneys.”
“P>Stomata are vital for the adaptation of plants to abiotic stress, and in turn stomatal density is modulated PF-03084014 ic50 by environmental factors. Less clear, however, is whether regulators of stomatal development themselves participate in the sensing or response of stomata to abiotic stress. FOUR LIPS (FLP) and its paralog MYB88 encode MYB proteins that establish stomatal patterning by permitting

only a single symmetric division before stomata differentiate. Hence, flp-1 myb88 double mutants have an excess of stomata, which are often misplaced in direct contact. Here, we investigate the consequences of loss of FLP/MYB88 function on the ability of Arabidopsis plants to respond to abiotic stress. While flp-1 myb88 double mutants are viable and display no obvious aerial phenotypes under normal greenhouse growth conditions, we show that flp-1 myb88 plants are significantly more susceptible to drought and high salt, and have increased rates of water loss. To determine Bafilomycin A1 whether flp-1 myb88 plants are already challenged under normal growth conditions, we compared genome-wide transcript levels between flp-1 myb88 and wild-type green tissues. Unexpectedly,

uninduced flp-1 myb88 plants showed a reduced accumulation of many typical abiotic stress gene transcripts. Moreover, the induction of many of these stress genes under high-salt conditions was significantly lower in flp-1 myb88 plants. Our results provide evidence for a new function of FLP/MYB88 in sensing and/or transducing abiotic stress, which is severely compromised in flp-1 myb88 mutants.”
“Leaves of different Vitis vinifera L cultivars, susceptible or resistant to downy mildew, Chasselas, Solaris, IRAC 2091 (cvs. Gamaret x Bronner) and Muscadinia rotundifolia were inoculated with Plasmopara viticola. Samples were then examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, by light microscopy and for their ability to synthesise stilbenes. These phytoalexins were strictly analysed at infection sites. In the susceptible Chasselas, P. viticola colonises, at 72 h post-infection (hpi), all of the spongy mesophyll with functional haustoria and produces mainly the non toxic piceide. No necrotic zone was observed on Chasselas leaves.

Herein, we report a 12-year-old girl who was complaint with intra

Herein, we report a 12-year-old girl who was complaint with intractable sneezing. She was diagnosed as intractable psychogenic sneezing and haloperidol treatment was started. All symptoms had resolved completely within 2 weeks. As a result, haloperidol can be considered as a different treatment modality for intractable psychogenic sneezing. MS-275 purchase (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background

and Objectives G-CSF-mobilized peripheral blood stem cells have long replaced marrow as the major source for allogeneic transplants. Conclusive evidence questioning the long-term safety of G-CSF for donors has not been provided, but the cumulative number of followed donors remains insufficient to rule out rare adverse events. A long-term active follow-up study of G-CSF-mobilized healthy volunteer donors was therefore performed. Patients and Methods Two hundred and three successive donors were evaluated pre-apheresis, subjected to G-CSF-mobilization/apheresis, and actively followed for 5 years by the same physicians and laboratories. Follow-up laboratory work included standard biochemical/haematological

tests and T-cell phenotyping. Results Donor epidemiology was typical for reported stem cell donor cohorts. Acute adverse effects of G-CSF and apheresis were mild and transient, consistent with the previous reports. Mean circulating CD34+ cells after nine doses of

G-CSF were 124 per mu l. find more Other biochemical/haematological parameters were also altered, consistent with G-CSF treatment. Spleen enlargement was modest. At first follow-up, all clinical and laboratory parameters had normalized. Leucocyte/lymphocyte counts and CD4/CD8 ratios were the same as during premobilization work-up and remained unchanged throughout. A single severe but likely unrelated adverse event, a case of papillary thyroid carcinoma, was reported. Conclusion The studies add an observation time of almost 500 donor years to the growing body of evidence of the long-term safety of G-CSF for allogeneic donor stem cell mobilization.”
“Background: Vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) can have a marked anti-inflammatory effect. We have previously shown that preinjury GSK2118436 VNS prevented intestinal barrier breakdown and preserved epithelial tight junction protein expression. However, a pretreatment model has little clinical relevance for the care of the trauma patient. Therefore, we postulated that VNS conducted postinjury would also have a similar protective effect on maintaining gut epithelial barrier integrity.

Methods: Male balb/c mice were subjected to a 30% total body surface area, full-thickness steam burn followed by right cervical VNS at 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 minutes postinjury.


“BACKGROUND Melanoma in dark-skinned individuals often dev


“BACKGROUND Melanoma in dark-skinned individuals often develops in an acral lentiginous fashion on the foot. After wide excision, substantial defects usually develop and they may endure insufficient vascular flow. In addition, the final scar must withstand the mechanical stress of daily

walking. Various repair methods are used to repair these defects, but secondary intention healing has not been evaluated in the repair of wounds of the foot.

OBJECTIVE To compare the functional and cosmetic results of secondary intention healing and full-thickness skin graft after wide excision of melanoma on the foot.

METHODS click here Retrospective review of 25 patients who were treated using excision for melanoma on the foot. The defects of 13 patients were healed by secondary intention (secondary intention healing group; SIHG), and those of 12 patients were repaired by full-thickness skin graft (skin graft

group; SGG).

RESULTS The SGG showed more rapid healing than the SIHG, but the SIHG showed better functional and cosmetic outcomes at complete re-epithelialization than the SGG as evaluated by patients and independent physicians.

CONCLUSIONS Secondary intention healing after excision of melanoma from the foot is a therapeutic option with acceptable functional and cosmetic outcomes.

The authors have indicated no significant interest with commercial supporters.”
“During the relaxation of the plasma plume generated by laser ablation of an aluminum target, a pronounced intensity enhancement PXD101 mw Small molecule library is observed at the central wavelength of the 396.15 nm self-reversed resonant line. This spectral special feature is analyzed and related to the interaction of the plasma edge with the background

air excited by the shockwave, prompt electrons, and extreme ultraviolet radiation produced at the earliest times of the ablation. In this article, the electron density, the aluminum ground state, and resonant level populations are determined from the fitting of the 396.15 nm calculated line profile to the experimental one at two background pressures (100 and 1000 Pa). The evolution of these densities is derived from experiments performed at delays, after the laser pulse arrival, ranging from 120 to 180 ns.”
“BACKGROUND People with cancer are increasingly turning to the Internet for health-related information.

OBJECTIVE To compare the patterns of Internet use of people with skin cancer with previous findings by including people with nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) using a comprehensive survey. To evaluate perceived anxiety levels and overall satisfaction after searching the Internet of people with skin cancer.

METHODS & MATERIALS We conducted a survey study and prospectively collected data from people newly diagnosed with melanoma or NMSC.

RESULTS Four hundred fifteen participants with melanoma and 400 with NMSC completed the questionnaire.

94 %, p = 0 019; and 1 8 +/- A

2 9 vs 10 4 +/- A 7 5 day

94 %, p = 0.019; and 1.8 +/- A

2.9 vs. 10.4 +/- A 7.5 days, p = 0.0003).

The duration and occurrence of TD and the pain severity were significantly less in pancreatic cancer patients who underwent neurolytic CPB.”
“Introduction: Postradiation sarcomas constitute approximately 0.5% to 5.5% of all sarcomas. They develop locally approximately 3 to 20 years after the administration Selleck Y-27632 of radiotherapy (RT). They are generally high-grade tumors. Osteosarcomas, fibrosarcomas, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, angiosarcomas, and leiomyosarcomas are the most frequently observed. It is rare for these tumors to originate from free flaps, and this patient report is one of the first in the literature.

Patient: A 59-year-old man was operated

on because of ethmoid sinus cancer in 2004, and the reconstruction was performed with a rectus abdominis free muscle flap. He received postoperative RT and subsequently presented to our clinic with a medially protruding mass on his upper jaw. A biopsy was performed. Its pathologic diagnosis was reported as malignant mesenchymal tumor. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were performed, demonstrating that the mass originated from the free muscle flap (m. rectus abdominis) at the front wall of the sphenoid sinus. A total excision of the free muscle flap and near-total maxillectomy were performed. The pathologic finding was reported as leiomyosarcoma with bone invasion.

Discussion: With the advancement of medical and pharmaceutical technologies, AZD8055 price our patient’s Stattic order life expectancy is increasing. In long-living patients who have received RT, tumors can develop 20 years after the RT. The close

follow-up of patients receiving RT is of utmost importance because treatment survival is linked to early diagnosis and resection with negative surgical margins. We must not forget that, even if years have passed since receiving RT, these patients may present with such tumors.”
“Purpose of review

Successful outcome in pregnancy hyperthyroidism depends on the cause, interpretation of laboratory tests, and careful use of antithyroid drug (ATD) therapy. Planning of a pregnancy in a woman with active or past history of Graves’ hyperthyroidism is mandatory in order to avoid complications.

Recent findings

Fetal health may be affected by three factors: poor control of maternal hyperthyroidism, titer of maternal TRAb, and inappropriate use of ATD. Careful assessment of thyroid function through pregnancy and evaluation of fetal development by ultrasonography is the cornerstone for a successful outcome. In a subgroup of women previously treated with ablation therapy, those whose serum TSRAb titers remained elevated, are at risk of having a fetus/neonate with Graves’ hyperthyroidism. Use of ATD during lactation is well tolerated, if recommended guidelines are followed.

Summary

Women during their childbearing age with active Graves’ hyperthyroidism should plan their pregnancy.

Recent studies suggest that macrophages exist in several differen

Recent studies suggest that macrophages exist in several different phenotypic states within the healing wound and that the influence of these cells on each stage of repair varies with the specific phenotype. Although the macrophage is beneficial to the repair of normally healing wounds, this pleotropic cell type may promote excessive inflammation or fibrosis under certain circumstances. Emerging

evidence suggests that macrophage dysfunction is a component of the pathogenesis of nonhealing and poorly healing wounds. As a result of advances in the understanding of this multifunctional cell, the macrophage continues to be an attractive therapeutic target, both to reduce fibrosis and scarring, and to improve healing of chronic wounds.”
“Neurons transform time-varying inputs click here into action potentials emitted stochastically at a time dependent rate. Nepicastat clinical trial The mapping from current input to output firing rate is often represented with the help of phenomenological models such as the linear-nonlinear (LN) cascade, in which the output firing rate is estimated by applying to the input successively a linear temporal filter and a static non-linear transformation. These simplified models leave out the biophysical details

of action potential generation. It is not a priori clear to which extent the input-output mapping of biophysically more realistic, spiking neuron models can be reduced to a simple linear-nonlinear cascade. Here we investigate

this question for the learn more leaky integrate-and-fire (LIF), exponential integrate-and-fire (EIF) and conductance-based Wang-Buzsaki models in presence of background synaptic activity. We exploit available analytic results for these models to determine the corresponding linear filter and static non-linearity in a parameter-free form. We show that the obtained functions are identical to the linear filter and static non-linearity determined using standard reverse correlation analysis. We then quantitatively compare the output of the corresponding linear-nonlinear cascade with numerical simulations of spiking neurons, systematically varying the parameters of input signal and background noise. We find that the LN cascade provides accurate estimates of the firing rates of spiking neurons in most of parameter space. For the EIF and Wang-Buzsaki models, we show that the LN cascade can be reduced to a firing rate model, the timescale of which we determine analytically. Finally we introduce an adaptive timescale rate model in which the timescale of the linear filter depends on the instantaneous firing rate. This model leads to highly accurate estimates of instantaneous firing rates.”
“Background : A filtered bipolar electrogram (EG) amplitude <1.5 mV is a robust indicator of relatively dense scar, but is influenced by the wavefront direction. Unipolar recordings are not subject to directional influence.