In 1883, biologist T H Huxley proclaimed to the London Fisheries

In 1883, biologist T.H. Huxley proclaimed to the London Fisheries Exhibition, “I believe then that the cod fishery, the herring fishery, pilchard fishery, the mackerel fishery, and probably all the great sea fisheries are inexhaustible…” [10]. These proclamations, however, have proven to be incorrect. Fisheries science has since demonstrated that there is a maximum amount of fish in the world’s oceans and as such, all fisheries are exhaustible [11]. Indeed, a plethora of studies has documented a worldwide decline in fishery and

ecosystem health [12], [13] and [14]. In an attempt to address increasing concern regarding the well-documented decline DAPT solubility dmso in global biological resources, in 1988 the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) selleck chemicals convened the Ad Hoc Working Group of Experts of Biological Diversity. The goal of the working group was to determine if an international convention was necessary to ensure the worldwide protection and conservation of biological diversity [15]. The resulting Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) entered into force on December 29, 1993. Parties to

the convention include all 27 European Union states as well as 166 additional states [15]. The CBD represents an international political consensus that action is required to assure the conservation of worldwide biological resources. In April 2002, Parties to the CBD agreed upon the 2010 target. This goal required the parties to achieve a “significant reduction of the current rate

of biodiversity loss at the global, regional, and national level… to the benefit of all life on earth” [15]. To measure progress toward the 2010 target, the CBD organized a Subsidiary Body on Scientific Technical and Technological Advice (SBSTTA). This group coordinated the identification and research of scientifically viable indicators to measure global trends in biodiversity change. Decision VIII/15 of the Conference of the Parties outlined a framework of indicators enough for monitoring progress toward the 2010 target. A subset of the proposed indicators was accepted as “ready for immediate testing and use,” among them was the Marine Trophic Index (MTI) [16]. The MTI is a term coined by the CBD to reference the MTL of ecosystems based on fisheries catch statistics. In their briefing papers, the SBSTTA explained the importance of changes in mean trophic level: “The biomass of top predators in the North Atlantic has decreased by two-thirds in approximately 50 years and the mean trophic level of fisheries landings globally has declined at a rate of 0.05 to 0.1 per decade. The resulting shortened food chains leave the ecosystem increasingly vulnerable to natural and human induced stresses and reduce the supply of fish for human consumption.

Similarly to this study, PBDE levels were reported in kidney of I

Similarly to this study, PBDE levels were reported in kidney of Irrawaddy dolphins from India ranging from 0.07 to 1.2 ng g−1 lipid wt (Kannan et al., 2005). The mean residual pattern of PCBs congeners in liver and muscle from croaker, scabbardfish and dolphins are shown in Fig. 2 and Fig. 3, respectively, for concentrations above LOQ. PCBs 28, 52, and 70 were the highest concentrations in liver and muscle of fish. Nevertheless, dolphins presented a different profile; where relatively concentrations showed the highest proportion of PCBs 153, followed by 138

and 180, evidencing a different accumulation pattern in tucuxi Oligomycin A cost dolphins. Similar contamination patterns have been found in several others marine mammals species all over the world in which hexa-CB congeners 153, 138, and 189 have also been detect at higher levels (Yogui et al., 2003 and Kannan et al., 2007). Elevated PCB concentrations showed to be associated with infectious diseases and frequent cause of death of marine mammals (Kannan et al., 2007). It is normally expected that the contribution of PCB congeners 101, 153, and 138 are higher in biota samples. However, the remarkable contribution of low chlorinated congeners of PCB in croaker and scabbarfish is Apoptosis inhibitor consistent with previous studies in marine and freshwater fish

species from other locations (Bordajandi et al., 2003 and Sapozhnikova et al., 2004). Scabbardfish presented high contribution of PCB 138, while no high chlorinated PCB is observed in croaker. In this study the ∑ PCBs in liver samples

was 105, 140, and 790 ng g−1 wet wt (1786, 2526, and 24312 ng g−1 lipid wt), while ∑ PCBs in muscles samples was 45, 106, and 124 ng g−1 wet wt (8074, 27673, and 41539 ng g−1 lipid wt) for scabbardfish, croaker and dolphins, respectively. Recently, elevated concentrations of PCBs were detected in small cetaceans stranded Amylase along the Brazilian coast (Kajiwara et al., 2002, Yogui et al., 2003 and Fillmann et al., 2007), and also in some locations offshore Brazil (Ueno et al., 2003), suggesting the presence of a highly polluted source in the Southern Hemisphere, which may be related to the industrial growth in recent years, as well as possible impacts from northern developed nations (Kajiwara et al., 2002). Therefore, our results corroborate the existence of a source of PCB contamination in Brazil. In Brazil there is a lack of legislation regarding PCBs and PBDEs maximum allowed concentration specifically to fish. The daily intake of PBDEs and PCBs was estimated for the population of this region. Considering a daily intake of 20 g of fish hab−1 corresponding to the average value of 7 kg of fish per inhabitant per year consumed in Brazil and a standard male adult of 70 kg body weight, it was estimated that PBDE intake through fish consumption was 42 ng day−1 or 0.6 ng kg bw−1 day−1 by croaker and 78 ng day−1 or 1.1 ng kg bw−1 day−1 by scabbardfish. The minimal risk level (MRL) of Health and human services is 0.

, 1988) However, the comparability of water flow through skin ti

, 1988). However, the comparability of water flow through skin tissue in vivo and in vitro is limited. Previous work about TEWL application in vitro indicates that only severe damages can be detected (Netzlaff et al., 2006). The same conclusion is drawn for the current work where no, poor or even inverse correlations were observed Selleck LDK378 between TEER, TEWL or TWF and test compound absorption (Table 7). Yet, the stated general applicability for in vitro testing failed to reflect 14C-mannitol (Lawrence, 1997) and 35sulfur mustard absorption in vitro (Chilcott et al., 2002). A lack of correlation

to highly lipophilic test compounds was reported, too (Levin and Maibach, 2005). Taken together all three standard tests are able to sort out a substantial part of impaired human skin samples in general. Limit values of 2 kΩ, 10 g m−2 h−1 and 4.5 ∗ 10−3 cm h−1 for TEER, TEWL and TWF, respectively, seem appropriate to judge between unwanted use of impaired skin and unnecessary rejection

of skin samples. However, destruction of barrier function during the experiment does not become obvious by these tests and – shown by falsely classified skin – only a rough differentiation is possible. Furthermore, none of the named integrity tests seems universally applicable. Defined ‘applicability domains’ for each integrity test which limits their use to test compounds in PD-0332991 price specific physico-chemical spaces or to specific experimental conditions (in vitro and/or in vivo, human and/or rat skin, excised and/or reconstructed skin etc.)

can help to choose the most indicative test for the relevant case. Moreover, future use of reconstructed human skin for testing of dermal absorption asks for the adjustment of the generated data to human skin based on a prediction model (Schäfer-Korting et al., 2008) which still needs to be set up. For this purpose, the cut-off values need to be adapted as well. Because of the limitations of the standard integrity tests (TEER, TEWL and TWF), two other integrity parameters (ISTD, BLUE) were checked for their ability to correlate with absorption results and explain continuous differences of the skin barrier function. Extreme outliers were clearly identified with BLUE, but correlations to test compound absorption were poor and partly even inverse. Although a general 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase applicability of BLUE cannot be ruled out, lack of advantage over established tests makes further investigations redundant. The opposite was true for ISTD. These results were positively and highly correlated with test compound results. The correlation over a wide absorption range of 14C-MCPA (6–100%) to 3H-testosterone as internal reference standard was 0.859 (n = 45). Comparison of results for normal and intentionally damaged rat skin samples suggests under these experimental conditions (rat skin, receptor fluid water) a provisional cut-off value of 35% AD 3H-testosterone ( Fig. 2).

In this study, various gene copy numbers of AVR-Pita1 were identi

In this study, various gene copy numbers of AVR-Pita1 were identified in most of the transformants. However, the level of avirulence of these transformants remained unchanged find more when compared with other transformants. In fact, all of the transformants became avirulent, suggesting that the position and arrangement of AVR-Pita1 had no effect on the level

of avirulence. Previously, Khang et al. [11] identified three members in the AVR-Pita gene family and confirmed the function of each member as well as their promoters by transferring different combinations of the coding regions and promoter regions. In their study, both AVR-Pita1 and AVR-Pita2 conferred avirulence on isolates virulent toward Pi-ta-containing rice cultivars but AVR-Pita3 failed to do so [11]. These findings are consistent with the predicted role of AVR-Pita1 as an elicitor interacting specifically with the Pi-ta protein in triggering resistance in plant cells [12] and [13]. Major R gene-mediated resistance can be robust and complete, but may not be long-lasting.

That Pi-ta has been defeated by race IE1k suggests an urgent need for exploring novel approaches. In this study, we altered isolates by converting isolates back to their presumed wild-type state. When this was done, the isolates were no longer able to infect Pi-ta-carrying cultivars. For the first time, we experimentally demonstrated that Pi-ta in the U.S. cultivars recognizes the original Olaparib mw AVR-Pita identified from a Chinese isolate O-137 and initially named AVR2-YAMO. Our findings also suggest that the development of a novel race carrying the AVR-Pita1 allele from isolate O-137 of the pathogen could allow the development of rice lines that have more effective, or durable, resistance

to the rice blast pathogen. We thank the University of Arkansas Rice Research and Promotion Board for financial support to Y. Dai; Barbara Valent of Kansas State University for plasmids PCB980 and PCB1003; Michael Lin, Ellen McWhirter and Tracy Bianco of USDA ARS DB NRRC; and Jin-Rong Xu of Purdue University ID-8 for the technical assistance. USDA is an equal-opportunity provider and employer. “
“Comprising approximately 50% of wheat gluten proteins, gliadins have essentially a plasticizing effect on gluten structure and mainly impart viscosity to dough [1]. Though it is generally concluded that gliadins exert mainly negative effects on overall dough strength, positive contributions of these proteins to loaf volume have also been detected [2], [3], [4] and [5]. Based on their mobility in the A-PAGE gels, as well as their different primary structures, gliadins can be divided into three groups: α-, γ- and ω-gliadins [6].

4 million people yearly [41] Although the primary injury to

4 million people yearly [41]. Although the primary injury to BIBF 1120 supplier the brain sustained at the time of the trauma is usually not reversible, it is the secondary injury occurring in the hours and days following the initial injury that provides more opportunities for treatment to preserve tissue and function. In addition to the initial injury, a large contributor to morbidity and mortality is cerebral ischemia resulting from post-traumatic hypoxia and hypotension [42]. On a microscopic level, abnormalities

of calcium and potassium homeostasis, mechanical membrane disruption, excitotoxicity, and altered glucose metabolism also contribute to cellular damage, which in turn cause edema and neuronal cell death [43]. Cell death in the form of both necrosis and apoptosis occurs in the areas surrounding the primary injury, but can also occur at more distant areas [44]. Increased intracranial pressure from edema, as well as from contusions and hemorrhages, contributes to secondary injury by increasing ischemia, and derangement of cellular metabolism, and can lead to herniation and death [45] and [46]. The interest in using HBO2T

to treat TBI is based upon the premise that hypoxia, edema and apoptosis selleck chemical play significant roles in the pathophysiology of the disease. Only a few studies have directly compared HBO2T to standard of care in acute TBI. Most recently Rockswold et al. [47] published a treatment effect in acute TBI lowering intracranial pressure for 3 days using 60 min of HBO2T at 1.5 ATA. In 1976, Artru et al. [48] randomized 60 patients

who were in coma after TBI for an average of 4.5 days after their injuries, and treated them at 2.5 ATA for 60 min daily over 10 days with a 4 day break repeated versus standard of care. At one year, the study showed non-significant trends towards shorter coma and higher rate of consciousness in the HBO2T group. Mortality was not affected. The only significant improvements were in a subgroup of young patients with brainstem injury who had higher rates of consciousness at one month, (HBO2T 67% vs control 11%). In 1974, Holbach alternated 99 patients find more in coma with acute midbrain syndrome to either standard care or HBO2T at 1.5 ATA and saw significant improvements in mortality (53% vs 74%) and good outcome on the Glasgow Outcome Scale (33% vs 6%) [49]. More recently, Rockswold et al. randomized 168 TBI patients between 6 and 24 h after injury with GCS of 9 or less to HBO2T at 1.5 ATA for 60 min every 8 h for 2 weeks versus standard care [50]. At 12 months, blinded examiners saw no change in outcome among survivors, but there was a significant decrease in mortality (17% vs 32%) at one year. A small more recent trial randomized patients at day 3 with a GCS of less than 9 to HBO2T at 2.5 ATA for 400–600 min every four days for 3 or 4 treatments versus standard care [51].

In this process, Esrrb forms a complex with Oct4 and Sox2, and sy

In this process, Esrrb forms a complex with Oct4 and Sox2, and synergistically upregulates the expression of pluripotency genes in MEFs. Remarkably, with the help of other Yamanaka factors (Klf4/Sox2/c-Myc), another orphan nuclear receptor, Nr5a2, was able to substitute for Oct4 in iPSC generation [38]. In addition, Nr5a2 could greatly enhance iPSC reprogramming in conjunction with activation of another nuclear receptor, RARa/g [39]. The finding that the RARa agonist (CD437) and RARg agonist (AM580) dramatically increased reprogramming efficiency further supports the notion that nuclear receptors play important roles in regulating

somatic cell reprogramming. Many studies demonstrated that small-molecule epigenetic modifiers could significantly influence reprogramming process and even substitute for certain reprogramming AZD6244 purchase transcription factors (Figure 2). BIX01294, an inhibitor of G9a histone methyltransferase (HMTase),

was shown to enable reprogramming of neural precursor cells or fibroblasts transduced with only two TFs, Oct4 and Klf4 [6]. Besides well-known HDAC inhibitors (e.g. VPA, NaB) that have been demonstrated to facilitate reprogramming in various contexts [40 and 41], Parnate, an inhibitor of histone demethylase LSD1, was shown to enhance iPSC reprogramming as well [9]. Interestingly, the well-known antioxidant compound vitamin C was recently shown to enhance reprogramming by modulating the activity of the histone demethylases Jhdm1a/1b [42]. These findings highlight the dynamic changes of histone PTC124 order modifications in reprogramming. Recent mechanistic studies of iPSC reprogramming further illustrated how epigenetic changes are orchestrated in the early and late stages of reprogramming. Koche et al. showed that activated chromatin marks (e.g. H3K4 methylation) were targeted to promoters of pluripotency and developmentally regulated genes (e.g. Fgf4 and Lin28) before transcriptional

activation during the early phase of iPSC reprogramming [ 43]. It was also reported that two epigenetic factors, Parp1 and Tet2, were recruited to pluripotency loci (e.g. Nanog and Esrrb) and established early epigenetic marks by converting 5-methylcytosine (5mC) into 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) during reprogramming [ 44]. Interestingly, it was reported that along with Klf4, Sox2, and c-Myc, another GNA12 Tet family protein Tet1 could enable somatic cell reprogramming in the absence of the key transcription factor Oct4 or nuclear receptors Esrrb and Nr5a2 [ 45], highlighting the important role of DNA demethylation (through hydroxymethylation) in reprogramming. Furthermore, other specific histone modifications were identified to occur in reprogramming. For example, inhibition of the H3K79 histone methyltransferase DOT1L (e.g. by a small molecule inhibitor) and the H3K9 methyltransferase Setdb1 (e.g. by RNAi) was shown to enhance iPSC generation [ 46 and 47].

6–14 7 mM), variable concentrations of Cl− (0 2–6 2 mM) and other

6–14.7 mM), variable concentrations of Cl− (0.2–6.2 mM) and other major cations, Ca2+ (1.2–4.8 mM), Mg2+ (0.5–2.6 mM), Na+ (0.2–7.3 mM) and K+ (0.01–5.7 mM). The groundwater displayed low concentrations of SO42− (0.0–1.5 mM), PO43−(0–9.7 μM), NH3+ (0–2.8 μM), NO2− (0–0.2 μM) and negligible amounts of nitrate and sulfide below detection limits. A piper plot (Fig.

3) indicates that shallow groundwater of Nawalparasi is Ca-HCO3 dominant. Selleckchem Antiinfection Compound Library Anions are clearly dominated by HCO3−. Ca2+ dominated cations in the upper and lower region and a localized increase in Na+ was observed in the middle region. Bivariate plots of major ion ratios may help to identify the relative importance of processes such as silicate weathering, carbonate weathering and evaporite dissolution on the concentration of major cations and anions in groundwater (e.g. Mukherjee and Fryar, 2008). The Na normalized Ca versus HCO3− plot [after Gaillardet et al. (1999) and Mukherjee and Fryar (2008)] (Fig. 4a) suggests that the tubewell water samples range from being influenced by silicate weathering to carbonate dissolution. The ratio of Na normalized Mg:Ca [after Gaillardet et al. (1999) and Mukherjee and Fryar (2008)] (Fig. 4b) suggests that the source of Mg is mostly by carbonate dissolution and partly

by silicate weathering. A bivariate plot of Ca + Mg versus HCO3− [after Mukherjee and Fryar (2008)] (Fig. 4c) displays a broader scatter and suggests that the source of HCO3− is mostly carbonate dissolution or organic matter oxidation (Mukherjee and Fryar, 2008). Average (Ca + Mg)/HCO3− of tubewell water samples HDAC cancer DNA ligase of the upper region were found to be 0.48, middle region was 0.38 and the lower region was 0.50. The molar ratio of (Na + K) to Cl was greater than 1 for 59 tubewell water samples, which suggests silicate weathering is an important process

(Mukherjee and Fryar, 2008 and Stallard and Edmond, 1983), especially in the middle region. A bivariate plot of (Na + K)/Cl and Si suggests that these cations relative to Cl increase as Si becomes >250 μM (Fig. 4d), which is an indicator of significant silicate weathering (Mukherjee and Fryar, 2008). Si also generally increased along the flow-path of the aquifer (Fig. 5). Aqueous geochemistry is summarized in Table 1 and bivariate plots of AsTot and other species are shown in Fig. 6. The concentration of AsTot in the filtered water samples from tubewells in the upper region ranged from below detection limits (BDL) to 1.7 μM with an average of 0.5 μM. Eighteen groundwater samples exceeded the WHO limit in this region. The aqueous speciation of As is dominated by As(III). The concentration of Fe(aq) varied from BDL to as high as 121.6 μM with mean of 54.9 μM. Fe aqueous speciation is dominated by Fe2+ which varied from 0.0 to 121.6 μM with an average of 59.2 μM. Manganese concentrations are also high and varied from BDL to 45.5 μM with an average of 8.3 μM.

However, the number of cases missed is unlikely to be significant

However, the number of cases missed is unlikely to be significant; Singapore health care statistics indicate that 80% of patients seek hospitalization in the public sector. Second, there were relatively few patients with an AS of 9 and above

(5 male CX-5461 purchase and 11 female patients). This is not surprising because such obvious cases usually warrant surgical exploration without further CT evaluation, which was an inclusion criterion in our study. The small number of patients with an AS of 9 and 10 may lead to a type II error during comparison of performance measures for these score values with CT scans. This is a limitation that may be overcome only by performing a study in which CT evaluation is performed uniformly in all cases, even in those with obvious clinical features of acute appendicitis. Even then, a large study population would be required because the prevalence of those with an AS of 9 and above in our study was less than 5%. Such a study design may pose ethical concerns for CT scans; though noninvasive, they are not without accompanying risks. Subjecting patients with an obvious clinical diagnosis of acute appendicitis to CT evaluation may not be justified. Among the 100 patients without CT evaluation who were excluded from our study,

15 had AS of 9 and above. All 15 patients underwent surgery without any negative appendectomies. check details This concurs with our study findings that CT scans are unnecessary in those with an AS of 9 and 10. An AS of 7 and above

in males and 9 and above in females had positive likelihood ratios not significantly different from those of CT scan. These patients (males with AS 7 and above, females with AS 9 and above) are least likely to benefit from CT evaluation. Evaluation by CT is of value mainly in patients with AS of 6 or less in males and 8 or less in females. We propose an objective management selleck chemicals algorithm with the AS guiding subsequent evaluation and management. Study conception and design: Tan, Acharyya, Ong Acquisition of data: Tan, Goh, Chan, Wong Analysis and interpretation of data: Tan, Acharyya, Ooi Drafting of manuscript: Tan, Acharyya, Ooi, Ong Critical revision: Chan, Wong, Ooi, Ong “
“Novel technologic advances, better understanding of physiology, and improved surgical technical skills allow surgeons to offer patients better outcomes after colorectal resections with primary anastomosis.1, 2 and 3 For example, over the past 2 decades, long-term oncologic outcomes of rectal cancer have improved as a result of improved surgical technique and neoadjuvant treatment. Advances in surgical technique, technology, and neoadjuvant treatments currently allow surgeons to create lower anastomoses as an alternative to permanent colostomies.

After pre-incubation, [U-14C] glucose (0 055 μCi) plus 5 0 mM of

After pre-incubation, [U-14C] glucose (0.055 μCi) plus 5.0 mM of unlabeled glucose or 0.055 μCi [1-14C] acetate plus 1.0 mM of unlabeled acetate were added to the incubation medium. The flasks were gassed with a O2/CO2 (95:5) mixture and sealed with rubber stoppers Parafilm M. Glass center wells containing a folded 60 nm/4 nm piece of Whatman 3 filter paper were hung from the stoppers. After 60 min incubation

at 35 °C in a metabolic shaker (90 oscillations min−1), 0.2 mL of 50% trichloroacetic acid was supplemented to the medium and 0.1 mL of benzethonium selleck hydroxide was added to the center of the wells with needles introduced through the rubber stopper. The flasks were left to stand for 30 min to complete CO2 trapping and then opened. The filter paper were removed and added to vials containing scintillation fluid, and radioactivity was counted ( Assis et al., 2004). Results were calculated as pmol CO2 h−1 g tissue−1. Citrate synthase activity was measured according to Srere (1969), by determining DTNB reduction at λ = 412 nm. The activity of the enzyme aconitase was measured according to Morrison (1954), following the reduction of NADP+ at wavelengths of excitation and emission of 340 and 466 nm, respectively. Isocitrate dehydrogenase Wortmannin chemical structure activity was accessed by the method of Plaut (1969), by following NAD+ reduction at wavelengths of excitation and emission of 340 and 466 nm, respectively. The activity

of α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex was evaluated according to Viegas et al. (2009). The reduction of NAD+ was recorded in a Hitachi F-4500 spectrofluorometer at wavelengths of excitation and emission of 340 and 466 nm, respectively. The activity of succinate dehydrogenase was determined as described by Fischer et al. (1985). Fumarase activity was measured according to O’Hare and Doonan (1985), measuring

the increase of absorbance at λ = 250 nm. Malate dehydrogenase activity was measured according to Kitto (1969) by following the reduction of NADH at wavelengths of excitation and emission of 340 and Niclosamide 466 nm, respectively. The activities of the CAC enzymes were calculated as nmol min−1 mg protein−1, mmol min−1 mg protein−1 or μmol min−1 mg protein−1. The activities of succinate-2,6-dichloroindophenol (DCIP)-oxidoreductase (complex II) and succinate/cytochrome c oxidoreductase (complex II–III) were determined according to Fischer et al. (1985). The activity of NADH/cytochrome c oxidoreductase (complex I–III) was assayed according to the method described by Schapira et al. (1990) and that of cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV) according to Rustin et al. (1994). The methods described to measure these activities were slightly modified, as described in details in a previous report ( Silva et al., 2002). The activities of the respiratory chain complexes were calculated as nmol min−1 mg protein−1 or mmol min−1 mg protein−1.


review by Alongi (2008) concluded that tsunami wave flo


review by Alongi (2008) concluded that tsunami wave flow pressure was significantly reduced when the mangrove forest was 100 m wide. The wave energy spectrum and wave power are dissipated within a mangrove forest even over a small distance (Vo-Luong & Massel 2008). The magnitude of the energy absorbed depends strongly on the mangrove structures (e.g. density, stem and root diameter, shore slope) and the spectral characteristics of incident waves (Massel et al. 1999, Alongi 2008). The dissipation of wave energy JQ1 mw inside mangrove forests is caused mostly by wave-trunk interactions and wave breaking (Vo-Luong & Massel 2006). Mazda et al. (1997a) in their study in the Red River Delta, Vietnam, showed that wave reduction due to drag force on the trees is significant in high density, six-year-old mangrove forests. The hydrodynamics of mangrove swamps changes over a wide range, depending on their species, density and tidal condition (Mazda et al. 1997b).

The high tree density and the overground roots in a mangrove forest present a much higher drag force to incoming waves than the bare sandy surface of a mudflat does. The wave drag force can be expressed as an exponential function (Quartel et al. 2007). The general objective of this paper is to analyse the relationship between wave height and mangrove forest structures, and then to define minimum mangrove forest band width for coastal protection from waves for the coastline of Vietnam. The study was conducted in two coastal mangrove forests of Vietnam. The northern study site is located in the delta (the Ganetespib ic50 second largest in Vietnam) of the Red River, which flows into the Bay of Tonkin (Figure 1). Tides in the Bay of Tonkin are diurnal

with a range of 2.6–3.2 m. Active intertidal mudflats, mangrove swamps and supratidal marshes in estuaries and along open coastlines characterize the coastal areas (Mathers & Zalesiewicz 1999, Quartel et al. 2007). The mangroves in the Red River delta are one of the main remaining large tracts of mangrove forest in Vietnam, which are important sites for breeding/stopover along the East-Asian or Australian flyways. In this northern region, four mangrove locations were selected for the research: Tien Lang, Cat Ba–Hai Etomidate Phong, Hoang Tan– Quang Ninh and Tien Hai–Thai Binh. In each location, four mangrove forest plots were set up to measure mangrove structure and wave height at different cross-shore distances. The southern study site is the Can Gio mangrove forest. The first Biosphere Reserve in Vietnam, it is located 40 km southeast of Ho Chi Minh City and has a total area of 75 740 ha (Figure 1). Can Gio lies in a recently formed, soft, silty delta with an irregular, semi-diurnal tidal regime (Vo-Luong & Massel 2006). The major habitat types in Can Gio are plantation mangroves, of which there are about 20 000 ha, and naturally regenerating mangroves.