Agric Ecosyst

Environ 181:101–107CrossRef Kącki Z, Dajdok

Agric Ecosyst

Environ 181:101–107CrossRef Kącki Z, Dajdok Z, Szczęśniak E (2003) The red list of vascular plants of Lower Silesia. In: Kącki Z (ed) IWP-2 nmr Endangered vascular plants of Lower Silesia. Instytut Biologii Roślin, Uniwersytet Wrocławski, Polskie Towarzystwo Przyjaciół Przyrody ‘pro Natura’, Wrocław, pp 9–65 Kędziora A, Kujawa K, Gołdyn H, Karg J, Bernacki Z, Kujawa A, Bałazy S, Oleszczuk M, Rybacki M, Arczyńska-Chudy E, Tkaczuk C, Łęcki R, Szyszkiewicz-Golis M, Pińskwar P, Sobczyk D, Andrusiak J (2012) Impact of land-use and climate on biodiversity in an agricultural landscape. In: Go6983 clinical trial Lameed GA (ed) Biodiversity enrichment in a diverse world. InTech, pp 281–336 Keenleyside C (2006) Farmland birds and agri-environment schemes in the New Member States. A report for the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds CREX Anglesey Klama H (2006) Red list of the liverworts and hornworts in Poland. In: Mirek Z, Zarzycki K, Wojewoda click here W, Szeląg Z (eds) Red list of plants and fungi in Poland. W. Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków Kleijn D, Baquero R, Clough Y, Díaz M, De Esteban J, Fernández F, Gabriel D, Herzog F, Holzschuh A, Jöhl R, Knop E, Kruess A, Marshall E, Steffan-Dewenter I, Tscharntke T, Verhulst J, West T, Yela J (2006) Mixed biodiversity benefits of agri-environment

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8 × 108 cells/experiment) as described by Lira et al [17] Chrom

8 × 108 cells/experiment) as described by Lira et al. [17]. Chromatin was immunoprecipitated selleck screening library with anti-LaTRF serum and DNA was extracted after cross-link reversal. DNA samples were slot-blotted and hybridized with Tel1 and kDNA probes by using a previously established protocol. Aliquots of 1% and 10% of total DNA used in each experiment (input) were tested separately. Control assays included immunoprecipitation of chromatin with pre-immuneserum (pre-immune) or without serum (mock). The probes used were 5′-end labeled with γATP [32P]: Tel1 (5′TTAGGG-3′)3 and kDNA (5′-TTTCGGCTCGGGCGGTGAAAACTGGGGGTTGGTGTAAAAT-3′), according to Lira et al. [17]. Acknowledgements The authors thank Drs. S.

Hyslop and J.P. Monteiro for revising the English version of the manuscript. This work was supported by FAPESP (06/58175-7) and CNPq (481850/2008). MSS is supported by an undergraduate

studentship from FAPESP. AMP is supported by a doctoral studentship from FAPESP. RCVS and CEM are respectively CHIR-99021 in vitro supported by doctoral and master studentships from CNPq (Brazil). Electronic supplementary material Additional file 1: Figure S1. Original and unmanipulated gel image shown in figure 4. EMSA done with radiolabeled double-stranded telomeric DNA (LaTEL) as probe. Protein:DNA complexes were separated in a 4% PAGE in 1X TBE. In lane 1, no STI571 research buy protein was added to the binding reaction. In lane 2, EMSA was done with E. coli BL21 protein extract. In lane 3, EMSA was done with recombinant full length LaTRF. In lane 4, EMSA was done with recombinant full triclocarban length LaTRF in the presence of 20 fold excess of non-labeled LaTEL as specific competitor. In lane 5, no protein was added to the binding reaction (as in lane 1). In lane 6, EMSA was done with recombinant full length LaTRF in the presence of 100 fold excess of double-stranded non-specific poly [dI-dC] [dI-dC] DNA. In lane 7, EMSA was done with recombinant full length

LaTRF in the presence of anti-LaTRF serum (supershift assay). Please check the supershifted complex at the top of the lane. In lane 8, EMSA was done with the mutant recombinant protein bearing the C-terminal Myb domain. In lane 9, EMSA was done with the mutant recombinant protein bearing the C-terminal Myb domain in the presence of 20 fold excess of non-labeled LaTEL. In lane 10, the same experiment shown in lane 9. In lane 11, EMSA was done with the mutant recombinant protein bearing the C-terminal Myb domain in the presence of 100 fold excess of double-stranded non-specific poly [dI-dC] [dI-dC] DNA. In lane 12, the same supershift assay shown in lane 7. (PNG 466 KB) Additional file 2: Table S1 Primers used for PCR amplification and sequencing of the putative L. amazonensis TRF gene and the deletion mutant LaTRFMyb. Table containing a list of the primers used for PCR and sequencing assays (DOC 30 KB) References 1.

They recommended

a colostomy with distal irrigation and t

They recommended

a colostomy with distal irrigation and then delayed resection when the patient condition improved. Over the next 20 years, a variety of procedures were performed for perforated diverticulitis. In 1942 the Massachusetts General Hospital reported their experience with these different procedures and concluded that the best outcomes were achieved with proximal diverting colostomy and then resection of the diseased colon in three to six months after the inflammation had resolved [18]. Thereafter the three stage procedure became the standard of care: 1st – diverting transverse colostomy and drainage; 2nd – definitive resection and colostomy after three to six months and 3rd – colostomy closure after three to six months.

Two stage procedure MK-1775 nmr After the introduction of perioperative antibiotics and improved perioperative care, case series emerged starting in the late 1950s that demonstrated that in select circumstances the diseased colon could be safely resected at the 1st operation. The two stage procedure: 1st – segmental sigmoid resection with end colostomy [i.e. the Hartmann’s procedure (HP) originally described Henri Hartmann in 1921 for treatment of colorectal cancer] [19] and 2nd – colostomy closure after three to six months was increasingly practiced and became standard of care by the 1980s. This approach was supported by a study QNZ chemical structure published in 1984 which Compound C datasheet combined patient data from 36 case series published since the late 1950s [20]. The study include a total of 821 cases of diverticulitis PRKACG with purulent (i.e. stage III disease) or feculent (i.e. stage IV disease) peritonitis of which 316 patients underwent a HP (with a mortality of 12%) compared to the 505 patients who underwent diverting colostomy with no resection (with a mortality of 29%). While these retrospective case series suffer from selection bias in that the less healthy patients were more likely to undergo a diverting colostomy with no resection, this report established that a substantial portion of patients can undergo an emergency HP

with an acceptable mortality. Additionally, acute resection avoided missing a colon cancer (which occurs in up to 3% of cases) and decreased morbidity because up to 20% of the non-resected patients developed a fistula. Interestingly, there were two subsequent prospective randomized trials (PRTs) that showed divergent results. In a single center Swedish PRT, of 46 patients with stage III purulent peritonitis, 25 patients who underwent a HP (with 24% mortality) compared to 21 patients who underwent colostomy with no resection (with 0% mortality) [21]. In a multicenter French PRT of 103 patients with purulent or feculent peritonitis, 55 patients underwent a HP and had a < 2% rate of post-operative sepsis with a mortality of 23% [22].

05) All

05). All identified proteins were functionally classified according to the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) PATHWAY database (http://​www.​genome.​ad.​jp/​kegg/​pathway.​html). In addition, BLAST (http://​blast.​ncbi.​nlm.​nih.​gov/​Blast.​cgi) and CCD conserved domain ( searches were performed on the predicted check details or hypothetical proteins that had unknown functions to identify structurally and/or functionally conserved motifs. Carotenoid

extraction and HPLC analysis Total carotenoids were extracted from the cell pellets according to the methods described by An et al. [51]. Carotenoids were quantified by absorbance at 465 nm with an absorption coefficient of A1% = 2,100. The analyses were performed in triplicate, and pigments were normalized relative to the dry weight of the yeast. Acknowledgements We thank Carola this website Eck for assistance during MALDI-TOF MS. We gratefully acknowledge the scientific and technical support given by the Genomics Technology Platform of the Center for Biotechnology at Bielefeld University. This work was supported by Fondecyt 1100324 and Deutscher

eFT508 in vitro Akademischer Austauschdienst (DAAD) through a graduate scholarship to P. Martinez-Moya. Electronic supplementary material Additional file 1: Fig. S1. 2D gels of soluble proteins from X. dendrorhous in the exponential and stationary phases of growth. Shown are a representative 2D gels for both the exponential and stationary growth phases. (TIFF 2 MB) Additional file 2: Table S1. X. dendrorhous proteins identified by MALDI-TOF MS. This table lists all Org 27569 MS-identified proteins that were separated by 2D electrophoresis. (DOC 394 KB) Additional file 3: Table S2. Comparative proteomic data from yeast and the carotenogenic

alga H. pluvialis. This table compares the most significant results from previous proteomic works on yeast and carotenogenic algae. (DOC 70 KB) Additional file 4: Fig. S2. Differential abundance proteins from X. dendrorhous. Shown are a representative proteins spots during the growth. (JPEG 281 KB) References 1. Rodriguez-Saiz M, de la Fuente JL, Barredo JL: Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous for the industrial production of astaxanthin. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2010, 88:645–658.PubMedCrossRef 2. Schmidt I, Schewe H, Gassel S, Jin C, Buckingham J, Humbelin M, Sandmann G, Schrader J: Biotechnological production of astaxanthin with Phaffia rhodozyma/Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous . Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2010, in press. 3. Schroeder W, Johnson EA: Antioxidant role of carotenoids in Phaffia rhodozyma . J Gen Microbiol 1993, 139:907–912. 4. Higuera-Ciapara I, Felix-Valenzuela L, Goycoolea FM: Astaxanthin: a review of its chemistry and applications. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2006, 46:185–196.PubMedCrossRef 5. de la Fuente JL, Rodriguez-Saiz M, Schleissner C, Diez B, Peiro E, Barredo JL: High-titer production of astaxanthin by the semi-industrial fermentation of Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous .

Pei J, Grishin NV: COG3926 And COG5526: a tale of two new lysozym

Pei J, Grishin NV: COG3926 And COG5526: a tale of two new lysozyme-like

protein families. Protein Sci 2005, 14:2574–2581.find more PubMedCrossRef 30. Novik G, Astapovich N, Ryabaya N: Production of Hydrolases by Lactic Acid Bacteria and Bifidobacteria and Their Antibiotic Resistance. Appl Biochem Microbiol 2007, 43:292–297.CrossRef 31. Pessione E: NCT-501 Lactic acid bacteria contribution to gut microbiota complexity: lights and shadows. Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2012., 2: 32. Jeffery CJ: Moonlighting proteins: old proteins learning new tricks. TRENDS Genet 2003, 19:415.PubMedCrossRef 33. Kinoshita H, Uchida H, Kawai Y, Kawasaki T, Wakahara N, Matsuo H, Watanabe M, Kitazawa H, Saito T: Cell Surface Lactobacillus plantarum LA318 glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) adheres to human colonic mucin. J Appl Microbiol 2008, 104:1667–1674.PubMedCrossRef

34. Hu S, Kong J, Sun Z, Han L, Kong W, Yang P: Heterologous protein display on the cell surface of Lactic acid bacteria mediated by S-layer protein. GM6001 research buy Microb Cell Fact 2011.,10(86): 35. Sara M, Sleyter UB: S-layer proteins. J Bacteriol 2000, 182:859.PubMedCrossRef 36. Åvall- Jääskeläinen S, Palva A: Lactobacillus surface layers and their applications. FEMS Microbiol Rev 2005, 29:511–529.PubMedCrossRef 37. Poppinga L, Janesch B, Fünfhaus A, Sekot G, Garcia-Gonzalez E, Hertlein G, Hedtke K, Schäffer C, Genersch E: Identification and functional analysis of the S-layer protein SplA of Paenibacillus larvae , the causative agent of american foulbrood of honey bees. PLoS Pathog 2012, 8:e1002716.PubMedCrossRef 38. LeBeer S, Vanderleyden J, De Keersmaecker SC: Genes and molecules of lactobacilli supporting probiotic action.

Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 2008, 72:728–764.PubMedCrossRef 39. Johnson-Henry K, Hagen K, Gordonpour M, Tompkins T, Sherman P: Surface-layer protein extracts from Lactobacillus helveticus inhibit enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 adhesion to epithelial cells. Cell Microbiol 2007, 9:356–367.PubMedCrossRef 40. Guglielmetti S, Tamagnini I, Mora D, Minuzzo M, Scarafoni A, Arioli before S, Hellman J, Parini C: Implication of an outer surface lipoprotein in adhesion of Bifidobacterium bifidum to caco-2 cells. Appl Environ Microbiol 2008., 74: 41. Sugimoto S, Al-Mahin A, Sonomoto K: Molecular chaperones in Lactic acid bacteria: physiological consequences and biochemical properties. J Biosci Bioeng 2008, 106:324–336.PubMedCrossRef 42. Flower AM: The secY translocation complex: convergence of genetics and structure. Trends Microbiol 2007, 15:203–210.PubMedCrossRef 43. Bergonzelli GE, Granato D, Pridmore RD, Marvin-Guy LF, Donnicola D: GroEL of Lactobacillus johnsoni La1 (NCC533) is cell surface associated: potential role in interactions with the host and the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori . Infect Immun 2006, 74:425.PubMedCrossRef 44. Bukau B, Horwich AL: The Hsp70 and Hsp60 chaperone machines. Cell 1998, 92:351–366.PubMedCrossRef 45.

High levels of p53 have been associated with apoptosis but, in

High levels of p53 have been associated with apoptosis but, in

SC75741 concentration the presence of BCLXL-mediated survival signals, p53 can induce senescence Emricasan cell line instead of apoptosis [38]. Conclusions In conclusion, our study shows that MEIS1 and PREP1 mRNA levels are significantly up-regulated in patients with ALL in comparison with healthy controls and inversely, that PBX4 is down-regulated in patients with ALL. Importantly, utilizing silencing assays, we confirmed that down-modulation of MEIS1 produces a lower leukemic-cell proliferation rate, an effect that was most notorious in the K562 myeloblastic cell line. Etoposide- induced apoptosis leads to changes in the expression of PREP1 and MEIS1; up-regulation of PREP1 and down-regulation of MEIS1 were independently related with resistance to apoptosis. Taken together, these results support the important role that TALE genes play in leukemic cell proliferation and survival, in addition to their probable involvement during leukemia development. Therefore, it could be important to evaluate MEIS1 and PREP1 expression in patients with leukemia

prior to and after chemotherapeutic treatment and to correlate these findings with the clinical response. Methods Cells and cell culture We used five commercially available human leukemia-derived cell lines: MOLT-4; Jurkat and CEM cells derived from lymphoid leukemia; HL-60 derived from promyelocytic selleck chemicals llc leukemia, and K562 from erythroleukemia. Cells were grown

in RPMI-1640 Evodiamine medium supplemented with 10% Fetal bovine serum (FBS), penicillin (100 U/mL,) and streptomycin (100 μg/mL); all products mentioned previously were obtained from GIBCO™ (Invitrogen Corp., Carlsbad, CA, USA). Cultures were maintained at 37°C in a humidified atmosphere with 5% CO2. Patients and sample collection Peripheral blood samples were collected from 14 patients with Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) according to World Health Organization (WHO) classification criteria at the Centro Médico Nacional de Occidente of the Mexican Social Security Institute (CIBO-IMSS) and the Hospital Civil de Guadalajara Fray Antonio Alcalde. Additionally, blood samples from 19 healthy donors were also collected from the IMSS Blood Bank. Letters of informed consent and protocols were approved by the CLIS-1305 Ethical Board of CIBO-IMSS. Drugs and in vitro cell treatments Etoposide was obtained from Lemery Laboratorios, México. The drug was stored at 4°C for <4 days and adjusted to the desirable concentration with DMEM culture medium immediately prior to utilization. The concentration employed was 170 μM etoposide. RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis Total RNA was isolated by using the PureLink™ Micro-to-Midi Total RNA Purification System (Invitrogen Corp.) from 5 × 106 cultured cells as described by the manufacturer.

Additionally, the Escherichia coli position data was kindly provi

Additionally, the Escherichia coli position data was kindly provided by staff at the RDP. The downloaded sequences were filtered based on E. coli position. Only sequences with data present in the qPCR assay amplicon of interest were considered to be eligible for sequence matching for the particular qPCR assay. Numerical and taxonomic coverage analysis was performed for the BactQuant assay and a published qPCR assay [15] by developing a web service for the RDP Probe Match Tool for sequence matching. C. Overview of sequence matching analysis for determining assay coverage. All sequence matching for the in silico coverage analysis was performed using

two conditions: a) perfect match of full-length primer and probe sequences and b) perfect find more match of full-length probe sequence and the last 8 nucleotides of primer sequences at the 3´ end. For each sequence matching condition, the in silico coverage analysis was performed at three taxonomic levels: phylum, genus, and species, as well as for all sequences eligible for sequence Barasertib matching. The remaining taxonomic levels were omitted due to the large amounts of missing and inconsistent data. Details of in silico coverage analyses are as follows: D. Numerical coverage analysis. At each analysis level, unique operational taxonomic unit (OTU), i.e., each unique taxonomic group Ro 61-8048 research buy ranging from

unique phyla to unique species, containing at least one sequence that is a sequence match

(i.e., “match”) for all three components of the assay of interest were identified using the following requirement: [Forward Primer Perfect Match](union)[Reverse Primer Perfect Match](union)[Probe Perfect Match]. The in silico coverage analysis was performed in a stepwise fashion, beginning with all eligible sequences, then proceeding to analysis at the species-, genus-, and phylum-level. At each step, the taxonomic identification of each sequence was generated by concatenation of relevant taxonomic data (e.g., for species-level analysis, a unique taxonomic identification consisting of concatenated Phylum-Genus- species name was considered as one unique species). The sequence Exoribonuclease IDs were used in lieu of a taxonomic identification for the first analysis step, which included all eligible sequences. The stepwise numerical coverage analysis was performed as follows: all eligible sequences underwent sequence matching with all three components of the assays of interest using a select matching condition (i.e., the stringent or the relaxed criterion). The sequence IDs of matched sequences were assigned and binned as Assay Perfect Match sequence IDs. For this first analysis step, the numerical coverage was calculated using the total number of sequences with Assay Perfect Match sequence IDs as the numerator and the total number of eligible sequences as the denominator.

Science 295:666–669PubMedCrossRef Crous PW, Rong IH, Wood A et al

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in the rain forest of NW Amazonia. Dissertation, University AZD5582 nmr of Amsterdam, Amsterdam Egli S, Peter M, Buser C, Stahel W, Ayer F (2006) Mushroom picking does not impair future harvests:results of a long-term study in Switzerland. Biol. Cons. 129:271–276CrossRef Franco-Molano AE, Vasco-Palacios A, López-Quintero CA, Boekhout T (2005) Macrohongos de la región del Medio Caquetá. Multimpresos, Medellín Gentry AH (1988a) Tree species richness of upper Amazonian forest. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85:156–159PubMedCrossRef Gentry AH (1988b) Changes in plant community diversity and floristic composition on environmental and geographical gradients. Ann Mo Bot Gard 75:1–34CrossRef Gibbs HK, Ruesch AS, Achard MK et al (2010) Tropical forest were the primary sources of new agricultural

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This might explain why we were not able to demonstrate protective

This might explain why we were not able to demonstrate protective effects of IPC and IPO as judged by liver parameters, i.e., the duration of ischemia was too short. Furthermore, 30 min of reperfusion might be too short follow up to demonstrate the full extent of the I/R injuries. The cytoprotective effect of IPO, defined as brief periods of ischemia and reperfusion after liver ischemia, is less well established [15, 16]. In the present study, we could

not demonstrate any hepatoprotective effects of IPO assessed by liver parameters, and we speculate that the explanation may be the same as above. We choose the actual time protocol with 30 minutes of ischemia because we wanted to create a setting relevant for normal clinics. Even though longer periods of liver ischemia have been safely applied, most surgeons would be reluctant to induce more than 30 minutes of ischemia on the liver. The mechanisms responsible for the protective effects of IPC and IPO are only partially understood. In the present study, IPC

resulted in a significantly lower expression of HIF-1α mRNA compared with rats subjected to liver ischemia without IPC. This leads us to conclude that HIF-1α, in our model of modest I/R-injuries, does not seem to be a mediator of the cyto-protective effects of IPC. In rats subjected to IPO there was a tendency towards lower HIF-1α mRNA expression, although not significant, when compared to the sheer liver ischemia group. This indicates that HIF 1α is not involved in the cytoprotective effects of IPO. In this sense, the HIF-1α mRNA response could to be a marker of the degree of I/R injury, Arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase i.e., the GM6001 ic50 higher HIF-1α mRNA response after ischemia,

the more pronounced I/R injuries. Further studies need to be performed to address this issue, but it is first and foremost supported in a study by Cursio et al., where they showed that the expression of HIF-1 and the degree of apoptosis was increased in rats subjected to 120 min of warm liver ischemia compared to non-ischemia [32]. Another study supporting the conclusion in the present paper is that by Feinman et al. [33]. They used partially HIF-1 Ferrostatin-1 deficient mice in a hemorrhagic shock model and concluded that HIF-1 activation was necessary for ischemic gut mucosal injury. The expression of VEGF mRNA was regulated upwards by the ischemic episodes in the group subjected to sustained ischemia and in the IPC+IPO group. A higher expression of VEGF in the group with liver ischemia only, correlates with the elevated HIF-1α expression in this group. TGF-β expression levels were not affected in any of the groups. Both VEGF and TGF-β are, as previously described, genes that are regulated downstream of HIF-1α. However, as this study only focuses on the expression levels after 30 min of reperfusion, we cannot be sure that we are measuring the full effect of the changed HIF-1α levels.

2 mM of the drug (Figure 5D-F) We detected important decrease in

2 mM of the drug (Figure 5D-F). We detected important decrease in the microfilament density in the peripheral cytoplasm and an accumulation of fragmented F-actin near the nucleus in HT-144 cells treated with the higher drug concentration. Figure 5 selleck kinase inhibitor Effects of cinnamic acid on microfilaments organization of HT-144 cells. Images obtained by Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy of phalloidin FITC-conjugated staining (green) preparations: A,B,C) HT-144 control cells; D,E,F) HT-144 cells treated with 3.2 mM cinnamic acid. DNA was counterstained with propidium iodide (red). Note the stress fiber formation in control cells (above) and the decreasing of peripheral actin filaments

and perinuclear accumulation of F-actin in treated groups

(below). Figure 6 Cytoskeleton organization in NGM control cells. F-actin (green) was stained with phalloidin FITC-conjugated. Microtubules (blue) were labeled with anti-α and β tubulin and secondary antibody CY-5-conjugated. DNA was counterstained with propidium iodide (red). Note the stress fiber formation (actin filaments). The cells showed a microtubule network that was very finely departed from the centrosome region near the nucleus. We can also observe a mitotic cell (right column). The images were obtained by Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy. We also observed microtubule disruption in HT-144 cells after treatment with cinnamic acid. Cells treated with 0.4 mM cinnamic acid maintained a normal distribution of microtubules, whereas treatment Selleck Vorinostat with 3.2 mM induced very diffuse labeling in the cytoplasm with accumulation around the cell

nuclei (Figure 7). Figure 7 Effects of cinnamic acid on microtubules organization of HT-144 cells. Images obtained by Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy of anti-tubulin immunofluorescence (blue) preparations: A) interphasic HT-144 control cells; B) mitotic HT-144 control cell; C,D) HT-144 cells treated with 3.2 mM cinnamic acid. DNA was counterstained with propidium iodide (red). We can observe Phloretin cells with a microtubule network that was very finely departed from the centrosome region near the nucleus (up left) and a normal mitosis (up right). On the other hand, we found cells with microtubule disorganization and tubulin bunches near the nuclei. Treatment with 3.2 mM cinnamic acid induced robust morphological changes in some NGM cells. In addition to changes that occurred in less than 2% of the cases, a cytoskeletal analysis revealed the presence of coiled actin filaments and microtubules (Figure 8). Moreover, the nuclei exhibited an alteration in their morphology, which were observed in NGM cells that were treated with 3.2 mM cinnamic acid; however, a low frequency was observed when compared to HT-144 cells. There was no cytoskeleton reorganization in the NGM cells treated with 0.4 mM of the drug. Figure 8 Cytoskeleton organization in NGM cells treated with 3.2 mM cinnamic acid. The cells were treated with the drug for 48 hours.