Their interviews were transcribed
verbatim and analyzed by the content analysis method.\n\nResults: Three themes were extracted from the data: impact on health, changes in mother’s roles, and changes decision making ability. Several categories and sub-categories also emerged from the data (physical and psychological problems, bonding with the child, relationship with husband, social role, cesarean request and psychological inability to have another child).\n\nConclusions: By considering the mothers’ responses to traumatic labor, which endangers the health of the child as well as that of the mother and impairs their familial and social relationships, midwives should notice the consequences of psychological birth trauma in order to plan selleck chemicals supportive and timely interventions.”
“Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometry (F’TR-MS) is a very useful tool for high frequency detection and quantification of gas-phase volatile organic compounds (VOCs) but the soft ionization means it is Bcl-2 protein family difficult to discriminate structural isomers. For example, to date it has only been possible to measure the sum of monoterpene concentrations, which have been monitored most commonly at m/z 81 and 137 at a constant drift
voltage and pressure. We show here that FTR-MS is capable of discriminating individual monoterpenes when operating in the alternating drift voltage (AD) mode. The approach is based on the principle that slightly different energies are required for the fragmentation/clustering of a given monoterpene, so in AD mode each monoterpene has different
time points for fragmentation. Therefore from a fragmentation analysis of background-subtracted standards it is possible to calculate the percentage of each monoterpene in an absolute concentration of their sum. Although Vactosertib monoterpenes have been chosen as an example, the method is likely to be effective for other structural isomeric species such as the sesquiterpenes or methyl vinyl ketone/methacrolein (MVK/MACR). (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Efforts to improve the quality of in vitro matured oocytes by blocking germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) and allowing more time for ooplasmic maturation have achieved little due to a lack of knowledge on the molecular events during GVBD blocking. Such knowledge is also important for studies aimed at regulating gene expression in maturing oocytes prior to GVBD. We studied species difference and signaling pathways leading to the carrying-over effect of GVBD blocking on post-blocking meiotic progression (PBMP). Overall, GVBD-blocking with roscovitine decelerated PBMP of mouse oocytes but accelerated that of pig oocytes. During blocking culture, whereas cyclin B of pig oocytes increased continuously, that of mouse oocytes declined first and then increased slowly.
To obtain sparse and MEK162 supplier confluent monolayers, human umbilical vein endothelial cells were seeded at a density of 7.3×10(3) cells/cm(2) and 29.2×10(3) cells/cm(2), respectively, followed by culturing for 36
h and stimulation with tumor necrosis factor alpha. The levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced E-selectin protein and mRNA expression were higher in the confluent monolayer than in the sparse monolayer. The phosphorylation of c-jun N-terminal kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase or nuclear factor-kappa B activation was not involved in this phenomenon. A chromatin immunoprecipitation assay of the E-selectin promoter using an anti-acetyl-histone H3 antibody showed that the E-selectin promoter was highly and specifically acetylated in the confluent monolayer after tumor necrosis factor alpha activation. Furthermore, chromatin accessibility real-time PCR showed that the chromatin accessibility at the E-selectin promoter was higher in the confluent PD173074 mw monolayer than in the sparse monolayer. Our data suggest that the inflammatory response may change during blood vessel maturation via epigenetic mechanisms that affect the accessibility of chromatin.”
“Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is divided into two clinical subtypes: MSA with predominant parkinsonian features (MSA-P) and MSA with predominant cerebellar dysfunction (MSA-C). We
report a 71-year-old Japanese man without clinical signs of MSA, in whom post mortem examination revealed only slight
gliosis in the pontine base and widespread occurrence of glial cytoplasmic inclusions in the central nervous system, with the greatest abundance in the pontine base and cerebellar white matter. Neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCIs) and neuronal nuclear inclusions (NNIs) were almost restricted to the pontine and inferior olivary nuclei. It was noteworthy that most NCIs were located in the perinuclear area, and the majority of NNIs were observed adjacent to the inner surface of the nuclear GSK2399872A clinical trial membrane. To our knowledge, only four autopsy cases of preclinical MSA have been reported previously, in which neuronal loss was almost entirely restricted to the substantia nigra and/or putamen. Therefore, the present autopsy case of preclinical MSA-C is considered to be the first of its kind to have been reported. The histopathological features observed in preclinical MSA may represent the early pattern of MSA pathology.”
“Objective. The purpose of this series was to determine the sensitivity of ultrasonography in early gestation (UEG) using nuchal translucency (NT) and the 4-chamber view (4CV) in the early diagnosis of congenital heart defects (CHDs). Methods. This was a retrospective chart review of all patients presenting for UEG between 2002 and 2009. At our center, a survey of fetal anatomy is performed at the time of the NT assessment at 11 weeks to 13 weeks 6 days.
“Aims Cross-sectional evidence indicates that abdominal adiposity, hypertension, dyslipidaemia and glycaemia are associated with reduced metabolic clearance rate of insulin (MCRI). Little is
known about the progression of MCRI and whether components of metabolic syndrome are associated with the change in MCRI. In this study, we examined the association between components of metabolic syndrome and the 5-year change of MCRI. Methods At baseline and 5-year follow-up, we measured fasting plasma triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, blood pressure (BP), waist check details circumference (WC) and fasting blood glucose (FBG) in 784 non-diabetic find more participants in the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study. MCRI, insulin sensitivity (SI) and acute insulin response (AIR) were determined from frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance
tests. Results We observed a 29% decline of MCRI at follow-up. TG, systolic BP and WC at baseline were inversely associated with a decline of MCRI regression models adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, smoking, alcohol consumption, energy expenditure, family history of diabetes, BMI, SI and AIR [=0.057 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.11, 0.0084) for TG, =0.0019 (95% CI: 0.0035, 0.00023) for systolic BP and =0.0084 (95% CI: 0.013, 0.0039) for WC; all p<0.05]. Higher HDL cholesterol at baseline was associated with an increase in MCRI [multivariable-adjusted =0.0029 (95% CI: 0.0010,
0.0048), p=0.002]. FBG at baseline was not associated with MCRI at follow-up [multivariable-adjusted =0.0014 (95% CI: 0.0026, 0.0029)]. Conclusions MCRI declined progressively over 5years in a non-diabetic Bafilomycin A1 order cohort. Components of metabolic syndrome at baseline were associated with a significant change in MCRI.”
“Expert Rev. Anti Infect. Ther. 10(11), 1241-1247 (2012) Although the use of combination antiretroviral therapy has resulted in spectacular improvements in morbidity and mortality of HIV-1 infected patients, a need for the development of antiretroviral compounds with new mechanisms of action remains. Maraviroc (Celsentri (R); ViiV Healthcare, Middlesex, UK) is the only drug of the class of chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 antagonists registered for treatment for HIV-1-infected antiretroviral therapy-experienced patients. Registration was based on the MOTIVATE-1 and -2 studies, which compared the efficacy and tolerability of maraviroc in combination with optimized background therapy with placebo. The aim of this paper is to review the MOTIVATE studies and to discuss issues related to maraviroc therapy in clinical practice such as assessment of HIV-1 coreceptor tropism.
Crown Copyright (C) 2009 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of mobile-bearing implant design and activity on knee arthroplasty kinematics during three activities of daily living.\n\nMethods: In vivo kinematics were analyzed using 3D model registration from fluoroscopic images of non-weightbearing knee flexion-extension, weight-bearing
squatting and stair activities AG-014699 solubility dmso in 20 knees in 10 patients with bilateral total knee arthroplasty. Each patient had one rotating-platform and one meniscal-bearing variant of the same prosthesis design.\n\nResults: Anteroposterior translations in meniscal-bearing knees were larger than those in rotating-platform knees for the different dynamic conditions. Meniscal-bearing knees showed more posterior femoral locations with activities that increased demand on the quadriceps. Condylar translations changed little in rotating-platform knees with different activities.\n\nConclusions: Activity dynamics can have a significant influence on knee kinematics, and have a greater effect on the kinematics of unconstrained meniscal-bearing prostheses than rotating-platform
knee prostheses. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Objectives: The study evaluated the antibacterial CP-456773 effect of VIOlight (R) (VL) Personal Travel Toothbrush Sanitizer on biofilms after toothbrush exposure to human saliva compared EPZ5676 datasheet to Listerine (R) Antiseptic (LA), 3% hydrogen peroxide (3%HP) and water.\n\nMethods: Twenty toothbrush heads (n = 5/Gp) were immersed in saliva and to allow for bacterial growth and biofilm formation for
24 h. VL sanitizer and antiseptic(s) were used for 7 min; after treatment, brush heads were rinsed and placed into 10 mL of 2 x AOAC Letheen Broth, sonicated and vortexed for 10 s. Tenfold serial dilutions were prepared and plated and incubated aerobically and anaerobically. Log(10) CFU/mL data were compared utilizing ANOVA ( p < 0.05).\n\nResults: Results showed 3%HP with significantly lower counts than LA, VL and control for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. LA had significantly lower counts than VL and control for both types of bacteria and VIOlight (R) had significantly lower counts than the control for aerobic bacteria. 3%HP and LA were most effective in rapidly killing bacteria when compared to VIOlight (R).\n\nConclusions: Results showed that 3% hydrogen peroxide was most effective in reducing the numbers of both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria present on the toothbrush heads. Under the same test conditions, Listerine (R) Antiseptic was shown to be secondarily effective for the same bacteria while the VIOlight (R) unit was the least effective when compared to the other treatment groups. (C) 2010 Published by Elsevier Ltd.”
“Dermal skin substitutes can be used to overcome the immediate problem of donor site shortage in the treatment of major skin loss conditions, such as burn injury.
3, 95% confidence interval [Cl] 1.1,15.4; Rotarix (R) RR 3.5,95% Cl 0.7,10.1; 1-21 days: RotaTeq (R) RR 3.5,95% CI 1.3,7.6; Rotarix (R) RR 1.5, 95% CI 0.4, 3.9). There was no evidence that clinical outcome of intussusception occurring within 21 days of rotavirus vaccination differed from that in cases occurring later post-vaccination.\n\nConclusion: Although we found no overall increase in intussusception following receipt of rotavirus vaccine, there was some evidence of an elevated risk following the first dose of both vaccines. Larger population-based studies using linked databases are required to provide more definitive evidence. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
values have been effectively used to evaluate the amount of BI, the brainstem and medulla compression, and the amount of postoperative decompression. However, the reliability and reproducibility of this measurement selleck products have yet to be determined. In www.selleckchem.com/products/CAL-101.html addition, the information that is available concerning CMA values in normal individuals has been limited to small series of patients. We
recruited 200 patients that underwent MR imaging of the craniovertebral junction (CVJ) for unrelated reasons. None of the patients had evidence of abnormalities at the CVJ. Two senior spine surgeons then measured the CMAs of these patients in a blind manner on three separate occasions. The CMA values ranged from 139.0 degrees to 175.5 degrees, with an average value of 158.46 degrees, and a 95% confidence interval from 144.8 degrees to 172.1 degrees. Overall, the CMA had excellent intraobserver repeatability
and interobserver reliability. The CMA also had excellent intraobserver repeatability based on both the age and gender of the patients (P = 0.87 and 0.93, respectively). At the same time, the CMA also demonstrated excellent interobserver reliability based on gender (P = 0.97), while good interobserver reliability based on patients age (P = 0.23). No significant correlation between the actual CMA values and the patients’ gender (P = 0.17), age (P = 0.058), or spinecho series used (P = 0.342). This study demonstrated that CMA values obtained from midsagittal T1 MR images were a highly reliable and repeatable CA3 datasheet measurement. The data reported in this study can be used as baseline parameters for normal individuals.”
“Most malaria infections contain complex mixtures of distinct parasite lineages. These multiple-genotype infections (MGIs) impact virulence evolution, drug resistance, intra-host dynamics, and recombination, but are poorly understood. To address this we have developed a single-cell genomics approach to dissect MGIs. By combining cell sorting and whole-genome amplification (WGA), we are able to generate high-quality material from parasite-infected red blood cells (RBCs) for genotyping and next-generation sequencing.
Serum soluble major histocompatibility complex class I-related chain A protein (sMICA) concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. NKG2D-expressing natural killer and T cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. A correlation analysis was also performed to associate sMICA levels with NKG2D expression. The expression of MICA was examined in specific tissues by use of the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. A significant amount of sMICA, was detected in the serum of nearly all patients. We found decreased percentage and mean fluorescence intensity of NKG2D-expressing
Selleck CBL0137 natural killer and T cells from patients with prolactinoma and non-secreting pituitary adenoma compared to those from healthy donors. Pearson analysis showed a negative correlation between sMICA and NKG2D-expressing cells. The immune-escape of pituitary adenoma is related to the down-regulation of NKG2D and the up-regulation of its ligand MICA. Crown Copyright (C) 2009 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: It is crucial to identify risk factors for poor evolution of patients admitted to hospital with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in order to provide adequate intensive therapy and closer follow-up. Objectives: To identify predictors of adverse outcomes in patients hospitalised for exacerbation of COPD. Methods: A prospective, observational study was conducted in
patients admitted for exacerbation of COPD. Demographic and clinical parameters were evaluated, including 3-MA ic50 different multidimensional prognostic scores. Adverse outcomes included the following: death during hospitalisation or 1-month follow-up, intensive care unit admission, invasive or non-invasive mechanical ventilation, prolonged hospitalisation (> 11 days) and COPD-related emergency visit or readmission within 1 month after discharge. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed. Results: Of 155 patients included, an adverse outcome occurred in 69 (45%). Patients with an adverse out-come had lower forced expiratory
volume in 1 s (p = 0.004) and more frequent exacerbations (p = 0.011), more frequently used oxygen at home (p = 0.042) and presented with lower pH (p < 0.001), lower ratio of arterial oxygen pressure to the fraction of inspired oxygen Lazertinib in vivo (p = 0.006), higher arterial carbon dioxide pressure (p ! 0.001) and a worse score on several prognostic indices at admission. Independent predictors of adverse outcome were exacerbation of COPD in the previous year [odds ratio 3.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6-9.9; p = 0.004], hypercapnia (odds ratio 9.4, 95% CI 3.7-23.6; p ! 0.001) and hypoxaemia (odds ratio 4.3, 95% CI 1.5-12.6; p = 0.008). In the presence of all three characteristics, the probability of an adverse outcome was 95%, while hypercapnia was the strongest prognostic factor with a risk of 54%.
The giant noctule bat (Nyctalus lasiopterus) constitutes fission-fusion societies whose members spread every day in multiple MK-4827 price trees for shelter. To assess how the pattern of roosting use determines the potential for information exchange or disease spreading, we applied the framework of complex networks. We found a social and spatial segregation of the population in well-defined modules or compartments, formed by groups of bats sharing the same trees. Inside each module, we revealed an asymmetric use of trees by bats representative of a nested pattern. By applying a simple epidemiological model, we show that there is a strong correlation between network structure and
the rate and shape of infection dynamics. This modular structure slows down the spread of diseases and the exchange of information through the entire network. The implication for management is complex, affecting differently the cohesion SBE-β-CD cell line inside and among colonies and the transmission of parasites and diseases. Network analysis can hence be
applied to quantifying the conservation status of individual trees used by species depending on hollows for shelter.”
“Glass system with compositions xTiO(2).(60 – x)Bi2O3.40SiO(2) has been prepared by standard melt quench technique. The amorphous nature of the glass samples has been ascertained by the X-ray diffraction. It is observed that density and molar volume of the studied glasses decrease with increase in TiO2 content whereas the glass transition temperature shows the reverse trend; indicating the increase in Z-DEVD-FMK ic50 compactness of the glass structure with increase in TiO2 content. The Raman and FTIR studies reveal that on addition of TiO2, some of SiO4 tetrahedra units with three non-bridging oxygens (NBOs) per silicon are converted into Slat tetrahedral units with four NBO per silicon and number of network forming BiO3 pyramidal units goes on decreasing and no BiO3 pyramidal units are observed in glass composition with x = 20. Bismuth plays the role of network modifier with BiO6 octahedral units for all the studied glass compositions.
TiO2 acts as network former with TiO4 tetrahedral units in all the glass compositions having titanium besides acting as network modifier TiO6 octahedral units in glass compositions with x = 10, 15 and 20. However, the glass composition with x = 15 has maximum number of TiO4 structural units among all the studied glass compositions. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The liquidus projection of the U-rich corner of the B-Fe-U phase diagram is proposed based on X-ray powder diffraction measurements, differential thermal analysis, and scanning electron microscopy observations complemented with energy- and wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectroscopies. Two ternary reactions in this U-rich region were observed and their approximate temperatures were established.
We applied newly developed methods for modelling the distribution of invasive species to the invasive shrub Rhododendron ponticum-a foliar reservoir host for the Phytophthora oomycete plant pathogens, P. ramorum and P. kernoviae, that threaten woodland and heathland habitat in Scotland. We compiled eleven datasets of biological records for R. ponticum (1,691 points, 8,455 polygons) and developed Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) models incorporating landscape, soil and climate predictors. Our models produced accurate predictions of current suitable R. ponticum habitat (training AUC = 0.838; test AUC = 0.838) that corresponded Selleckchem Androgen Receptor Antagonist well with population performance
(areal cover). Continuous broad-leaved woodland cover, low elevation (< 400 m a.s.l.) and intermediate levels of soil moisture (or Enhanced Vegetation Index) favoured presence of R. ponticum. The high coincidence of suitable habitat with both core native woodlands (54 % of woodlands) and plantations of another sporulation host, Larix kaempferi (64 % of plantations) suggests a high potential selleck for spread of Phytophthora infection to woodland mediated by R. ponticum. Incorporating non-equilibrium modelling methods did not improve habitat suitability predictions of this invasive host, possibly because, as a long-standing invader, R. ponticum has filled more of its available habitat at this national scale than previously suspected.”
physiological and behavioural responses of early life phases in
American Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus) towards sand and gravel substrate were examined during the first 15 days post-hatch. The free embryos were reared in circular tanks with approximately 30% of the bottom surface covered with either coarse gravel or sand. A group reared in tanks without additional substrate served as a control. Diurnal differences in activity patterns were observed. Substrate use by the free embryos revealed significant differences during the first 5 days post-hatch, being higher in the gravel group than in the sand group. The results in size of the free embryos revealed significant differences, with the gravel group showing the lowest total length and wet mass until the onset of exogenous feeding – although dry mass and energy contents were highest. In contrast, length and wet mass during yolk sac absorption were highest in the control Ilomastat group, but energy content at onset of exogenous feeding was 14% lower compared to the gravel group. The onset of exogenous feeding in the gravel group had a 1-day delay when compared to the two other treatments. On day 14, following the successful establishment of exogenous feed uptake, the specific growth rate in wet mass (SGR) for the gravel group (0.250 +/- 0.088) exceeded those of the two other treatments (sand 0.132 +/- 0.038 and control 0.095 +/- 0.020) significantly (Dunn’s n = 10 and n = 5, P < 0.05), indicating a compensational growth pattern.
The probability of faecal contamination of milk, and thus the risk of pathogens transfer appears to be modulated more by farm management than by the structure of the farm or the health status
of the herd. Such a method, combined with the microbiological evaluation of the prevalence of faecal excretion of such pathogens, can be used to implement a risk-based surveillance programme and to apply targeted control measures. (c) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Cardanol-based novolac resins were separately prepared with different mole ratios of cardanol-to-formaldehyde with different acid catalysts. These resins were epoxidized with epichlorohydrin, in basic medium, at 120 degrees C. The resins were, separately, blended with different weight percentages of carboxyl-terminated butadiene acrylonotrile copolymer and cured with polyamine. Structural ROCK inhibitor changes during blending were studied by FTIR spectroscopic analysis. Coats-Redfern equation was utilized to calculate the kinetic parameters, viz., order of decomposition reaction (n), activation energy (E), pre-exponential factor (Z), and rate decomposition constant (k), for the decomposition of the samples. It was found that the degradation selleck kinase inhibitor of the epoxies and their blend samples proceeded in two steps. (C) 2009 Wiley
Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 114:1694-1701, 2009″
“Aim. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis treatment is IWR-1-endo nmr difficult to assess and there is a need for new tools. The aim of this observational pilot study is to evaluate the potential
role of 18F-FDG PET/CT in the initial staging and treatment evaluation of extrapulmonary tuberculosis.\n\nMethods. Twenty-eight patients were included between January 2009 and 2010. Twenty-three had a 18F-FDG PET/CT before treatment and/or during and/or after treatment. All patients will be followed for 18 months after the end of treatment. A control group of five patients with previous history of tuberculosis was also included and PET/CT was performed.\n\nResults. Three cases of differential diagnosis were excluded of the study. The initial PET for staging showed additional lesions in 8/10 patients compared to conventional imaging. At the end of treatment, 6/11 patients had a negative PET, and 5/11 patients had a positive PET. PET had a significant clinical impact for 3/10 patients at initial staging (guiding biopsy or increase of planned treatment duration), and for 3/16 during follow up (extend or early interruption of the treatment). All PET scans in the control group were negative.\n\nConclusion. 18F-FDG PET has an excellent sensitivity for the detection of extrapulmonary tuberculosis lesion and excellent negative predictive values. The impact of initial PET staging seems significant.
“Butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP) is used as a plasticizer
to import flexibility to polyvinylchloride plastics. In this study, hydrolysis of BBzP to monobutyl phthalate (MBP) and monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) in liver microsomes of humans, monkeys, dogs, rats and mice was examined. The kinetics for MBP formation by human, dog and mouse liver microsomes followed the Michaelis-Menten model, whereas the kinetics by monkey and rat liver microsomes fitted the Hill model. The kinetics for MBzP formation fitted the Hill model for all liver microsomes. The V-max and in vitro clearance (CLint CLmax) ratios of MBP/MBzP formation varied among animal species, although the Km for MBP and MBzP formation in each liver microsomes were generally comparable. The hydrolysis of BBzP to monoester phthalates in mammalian liver microsomes could be classified into two types: MBzP bigger than MBP type for Crenolanib in vitro humans and dogs, and MBP bigger than MBzP type for monkeys, rats and mice. These findings suggest that the formation profile of MBzP and MBP from BBzP by liver microsomes differs extensively among animal species.”
“One of the unique characteristics of cellular signaling pathways is that a common signaling pathway can selectively regulate multiple
cellular functions of a hormone; however, this selective downstream control through a common signaling pathway is poorly understood. Here we show that the insulin-dependent AKT pathway uses temporal selleckchem patterns multiplexing for selective regulation of downstream molecules. Pulse and sustained insulin stimulations were simultaneously encoded into transient Pinometostat and sustained AKT phosphorylation, respectively. The downstream molecules, including ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K), glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), and glycogen
synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK3 beta) selectively decoded transient, sustained, and both transient and sustained AKT phosphorylation, respectively. Selective downstream decoding is mediated by the molecules’ network structures and kinetics. Our results demonstrate that the AKT pathway can multiplex distinct patterns of blood insulin, such as pulse-like additional and sustained-like basal secretions, and the downstream molecules selectively decode secretion patterns of insulin.”
“For many years, it was generally accepted that mRNA is too unstable to be efficiently used for gene therapy purposes. In the last decade, however, several research groups faced this challenge and not only proved the feasibility of mRNA-mediated transfection with surprising results regarding transfection efficiency and duration of protein expression, but also were able to demonstrate major advantages over the use of pDNA. These advantages will be the first issue discussed in this review, which first of all addresses the notions that mRNA does not need to cross the nuclear barrier to exert its biological activity and in addition lacks CpG motifs, which reduces its immunogenicity.