0 Mb) was assembled with Velvet [32] and the consensus sequences

0 Mb) was assembled with Velvet [32] and the consensus sequences were shredded into 1.5 kb overlapped fake reads and assembled together with the 454 data. The 454 draft assembly was based on 152.9 Mb of 454 draft data and all of the 454 paired end data. Newbler parameters are -consed -a 50 -l 350 -g -m -ml 20. The Phred/Phrap/Consed software package [31] selleck chemical was used for sequence assembly and quality assessment in the subsequent finishing process. After the shotgun stage, reads were assembled with parallel phrap (High Performance Software, LLC). Possible mis-assemblies were corrected with gapResolution [30], Dupfinisher [33], or sequencing cloned bridging PCR fragments with subcloning or transposon bombing (Epicentre Biotechnologies, Madison, WI).

Gaps between contigs were closed by editing in Consed, by PCR and by Bubble PCR primer walks (J.-F.Chang, unpublished). A total of 24 additional reactions were necessary to close gaps and to raise the quality of the finished sequence. Illumina reads were also used to correct potential base errors and increase consensus quality using a software Polisher developed at JGI [34]. The error rate of the completed genome sequence is less than 1 in 100,000. Together, the combination of the Illumina and 454 sequencing platforms provided 219.5 �� coverage of the genome. The final assembly contained 438,623 pyrosequence and 43,957,307 Illumina reads. Genome annotation Genes were identified using Prodigal [35] as part of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory genome annotation pipeline, followed by a round of manual curation using the JGI GenePRIMP pipeline [36].

The predicted CDSs were translated and used to search the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) nonredundant database, UniProt, TIGRFam, Pfam, PRIAM, KEGG, COG, and InterPro databases. Additional gene prediction analysis and functional annotation was performed within the Integrated Microbial Genomes – Expert Review (IMG-ER) platform [37]. Genome properties The genome consists of a 2,157,835 bp long chromosome with a 36% GC content and a 58,717 bp plasmid with 31% GC content (Table 3 and Figures 3a and and3b).3b). Of the 2,278 genes predicted, 2,128 were protein-coding genes, and 50 RNAs; 27 pseudogenes were identified. The majority of the protein-coding genes (76.5%) were assigned with a putative function while the remaining ones were annotated as hypothetical proteins.

The distribution of genes into COGs functional categories is presented in Table 4. Table 3 Genome Statistics Figure 3a Graphical circular map of the chromosome. From outside to the center: Genes on forward strand (color by COG Cilengitide categories), Genes on reverse strand (color by COG categories), RNA genes (tRNAs green, rRNAs red, other RNAs black), GC content, GC skew. Figure 3b Graphical circular map of the plasmid (not drown to scale with chromosome).

[3] However, there are strategies ensuring that ion suppression c

[3] However, there are strategies ensuring that ion suppression can be identified and ameliorated (the real risk Tubacin clinical is lack of awareness that a problem exists and exaggerated claims by users). Another difficulty that I have found in my own laboratory with LC�CMS, especially when using an electrospray ionization (ESI) interface, is that after a few days of intense sample analysis, a fall off is observed in the sensitivity of the method. The problem is that the ESI needle gets dirty; cleaning of the needle and skimmer region rectifies the problem. Again, this is a shortcoming of LC�CMS that is not, I find, discussed broadly. I also feel that the complexity of the MS detector (especially when things go wrong) can lead to protracted down time when compared with the UV/DAD.

Do not misunderstand me, I am an advocate of LC�CMS in the pharmaceutical industry, and as a research tool, I find it indispensable but I predict that we will see the persistence of LC�CUV/VIS and DAD methodologies for many years to come. As sometimes what is adequate and simple is completely fit for purpose.
Ethacridine lactate [Figure 1], 2-ethoxy-6,9-diaminoacridine monolactate monohydrate (British Pharmacopoeia, 2005), also known as rivanol has been employed as a potent anti-microbial agent from the penicillin era and in various other tests on antigens too. In addition, it is a drug commonly used for second trimester termination of pregnancy which has associated with the lowest rate of complication. Ethacridine lactate as an abortifacient is found to be safer and better tolerated than 20% hypertonic saline.

The drug is official in British Pharmacopeia[1] and Martindale.[2] The literature survey revealed that one HPLC method is reported for ethacridine lactate in human plasma[3] and one SP-HPLC method is developed.[4] There are no spectrophotometric Entinostat methods reported on ethacridine lactate in pharmaceutical dosage form. Therefore, the main objective of this work is to develop a simple, selective, accurate, and precise spectrophotometric method for ethacridine lactate. The second objective is to validate the method as per the ICH guidelines.[5�C7] Figure 1 Chemical structure of ethacridine lactate MATERIALS AND METHODS Chemicals Ethacridine lactate is obtained from Venus Remedies Ltd., Haryana, India as a gift sample. Methanol (HPLC Grade) was purchased from Merck (India) Ltd., Worli, Mumbai, India. Ethacridine lactate solution infusion was purchased from Indian market, containing ethacridine lactate 1 mg per 100 ml. Instrumentation conditions Analysis was performed on UV-visible spectrophotometer Schimazdu 2450. Before analysis, the sample solution was filtered through a 0.

For example, one particular Salmonella genome exhibits an increas

For example, one particular Salmonella genome exhibits an increased coding density, ratio of short proteins, and number of hypothetical proteins along with a decreased average protein length (Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Paratyphi B str. SPB7). In other cases subclusters of a particular species are formed due to potential erroneous annotations such as the three Yersinia pestis genomes that cluster separately from other Y. pestis strains due to skews in annotation that were derived from the same pipeline [72]. In other cases, substrains do not cluster together as the annotations were derived from three different annotation pipelines such as the case for E. coli BL21 where three isolates were sequenced and annotated by three different research groups [73]. Evolutionary events that result in altered annotations in a particular organism are significant and aid our understanding of the biology of not only that particular organism but of related organisms. Annotation differences due to the utilization of different methods and sources skew these results and the conclusions that result from them. Researchers are encouraged to update their annotations on archival records to meet the minimal standards and to correct any annotation discrepancies. Systems are being developed at NCBI to check newly submitted genomes for compliance with minimal standards and reports will be provided to submitters for quality assurance. Genomic records where the minimal standards cannot be met for real biological reasons will have explanatory comments added to the record. Pseudogene Identification, Nomenclature, and Annotation Pseudogene definitions take a variety of forms and the difficulties in properly defining and labeling pseudogenes stem from the same problem: a negative cannot be experimentally verified [74]. In eukaryotes, pseudogenes are defined as non-functional copies of gene fragments due to retrotransposition or genomic duplication, while in prokaryotes they result from degradation processes of either single copy or multiple copy genes either after duplication or failed horizontal transfer events [74,75]. A recent analysis of pseudogenes in Salmonella genomes suggests that they are cleared relatively rapidly from a genome indicating that their presence is a recent evolutionary event [76]. Although a clear definition of pseudogenes was not put forth, it was stressed that INSDC expects that all genome annotation should reflect the biology as determined by the underlying sequence. The INSDC feature table format provides several exceptions for cases of unusual biology but there are consequences for these unusual annotations that serve as flags in genome records (Table 3). A proposal was made to alter the pseudogene qualifier “/pseudo” to both”/pseudogene” and “/nonfunctional” as /pseudo is not considered to equate 100% to /pseudogene and that request is still being discussed by INSDC.

16S rRNA sequences were retrieved from Genbank (NCBI), and access

16S rRNA sequences were retrieved from Genbank (NCBI), and accession numbers are given in parentheses. Strains from which www.selleckchem.com/products/MLN-2238.html a … Genome project history Table 2 presents the project information in compliance to MIGS version 2.0 [24]. Table 2 Project information Growth conditions and DNA isolation Dehalobacter restrictus strain PER-K23, DSM9455, was cultivated anaerobically as previously described [1]. DNA was extracted from bacterial pellets using the protocol recommended by the JGI. In brief, cell walls were digested with lysozyme before DNA was purified with hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide, phenol and chloroform, and precipitated with isopropanol. Quality and quantity of the obtained DNA were checked by running aliquots on agarose gels using lambda phage DNA as mass standard and HindIII digested lambda phage DNA as a size marker.

Genome sequencing and assembly The draft genome of Dehalobacter restrictus PER-K23 was generated at the DOE Joint genome Institute (JGI) using a combination of Illumina [25], and 454 technologies [26]. For this, genome we constructed and sequenced an Illumina GAii shotgun library which generated 77,929,756 reads totaling 5,922.7 Mb, and 1 paired end 454 library with an average insert size of 10 kb which generated 318,117 reads totaling 59.3 Mb of 454 data. All general aspects of library construction and sequencing performed at the JGI can be found at the JGI website [27]. The initial draft assembly contained 90 contigs in 1 scaffold. The 454 paired end data were assembled together with Newbler, version 2.3-PreRelease-6/30/2009.

The Newbler consensus sequences were computationally shredded into 2 kb overlapping fake reads (shreds). Illumina sequencing data was assembled with VELVET, version 1.0.13 [28], and the consensus sequence were computationally shredded into 1.5 kb overlapping fake reads (shreds). We integrated the 454 Newbler consensus shreds, the Illumina VELVET consensus shreds and the read pairs in the 454 paired end library using parallel phrap, version SPS – 4.24 (High Performance Software, LLC). The software Consed [29-31] was used in the following finishing process. Illumina data was used to correct potential base errors and increase consensus quality using the software Polisher developed at JGI (Alla Lapidus, unpublished).

Possible mis-assemblies were corrected using gapResolution (Cliff Han, unpublished), Dupfinisher [32], or sequencing cloned bridging PCR fragments with subcloning. Gaps between contigs were closed by editing in Consed, by PCR and by Bubble PCR (J-F Cheng, unpublished) primer walks. A total of 134 additional reactions were necessary to close gaps and to raise the quality of the finished sequence. The total size Dacomitinib of the genome is 2,943,336 bp and the final assembly is based on 24.6 Mb of 454 draft data which provides an average 8.

First, in the course of the GEBA pilot project the problem someti

First, in the course of the GEBA pilot project the problem sometimes occurred that comparatively closely related organisms were targeted. Second, it is more likely for a more densely sampled group of organisms that a genome of at reference 4 least one of its members will be targeted by a genome project other than GEBA than for an isolated organism or group of organisms. The final goal of the novel algorithm was that the score, if summed up over all leaves (i.e., species or subspecies present; see below) of the underlying phylogenetic tree, yielded a value that served as the score of the entire tree in some biologically sensible manner. This feature allowed for estimates of the number of genome projects needed to cover a certain percentage of the total phylogenetic diversity.

If phylogenetic diversity was measured using a sum-of-branch-length approach, it should be possible to simply add the scores of distinct subtrees, including the scores of distinct leaves, together to obtain the scores of their parent subtrees or the entire underlying phylogenetic hypothesis. With such an approach, it would be easily possible to assess saturation effects caused by the inclusion of suitable targets. Algorithm We devised a scoring system for the leaves in a rooted topology with branch lengths. To comply with the second design goal, it was obvious that the branch lengths between each leaf and the root node had to be added up in some manner. To agree with the first design goal, this had to be done irrespective of whether any leaves were already marked in some way (e.g., as already targeted for genome projects).

That is, none of the leaves themselves could be downweighted or even deleted. For compliance with the fourth design goal, however, some downweighting had to be applied to avoid counting branches several times, thus overestimating overall phylogenetic diversity. For this reason, we considered scores, henceforth called Relative Phylogenetic Diversity (RPD), which proportionally downweighted the lengths of shared (i.e., internal) branches. Two versions were examined, a balanced (bRPD) and an unbalanced (uRPD) version. The latter weights each pair of sister clades equally, irrespective of the respective number of leaves, whereas bRPD takes the subtree sizes into account. Probabilistic interpretations come into play here. For example, consider leaf A in Figure 1.

The branch between nodes A and AB is not shared with another leaf; character changes that occurred on it (whose amount is proportional to the branch length) may have led to, e.g., novel sets of proteins in A [10], Entinostat but not in any other leaf. Changes on the branch between nodes AB and ABC, however, have affected both A and B, whereas those on the branch between ABC and ABCDE have influenced the leaves A, B and C.

Overall patient satisfaction, assessed by a Visual Analogue Scale

Overall patient satisfaction, assessed by a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS, 0 to 100%) was 94%. A reduction in the Epworth score (mean ESS improvement was 5.9 + 4.4SD) and Apnoea-Hypopnoea Index was seen (mean AHI improvement was 24.6 + 22.2SD). All patients were decannulated between day 4 and 13 after surgery and regained a satisfactory ability to swallow within 2 never weeks. No operative or postoperative complications (10 months of followup) were seen. This study showed the feasibility and safety of robotic tongue base resection techniques. Another cadaveric study conducted at the University of Pennsylvania in 2010 by Lee et al. showed the feasibility of transoral approach for decompression of the craniocervical junction, demonstrating the possible use of the robot in the future for conditions such as compression for basilar invagination, congenital skull base malformations, extradural lesions, and skull-base tumors [46].

7.3. Robot-Assisted Thyroidectomy The transaxillary robotic technique was first described in 2005 by Lobe et al. [47], where a hemithyroidectomy was successfully performed in a pediatric patient. In 2008, the same group reported a bilateral axillary approach for total thyroidectomy in two pediatric patients [48]. In adults, the largest experience in robot-assisted thyroidectomy by Kang et al. who developed the gasless transaxillary technique [49, 50] and reported a series of 338 patients. In 2009, a case control study of 41 robotic cases and 43 conventional thyroid surgery patients was reported [51, 52].

Unlike the transoral technique described previously, this procedure dissects a tunnel on the anterior surface of the pectoralis major muscle and clavicle by electrocautery under direct vision, before the robotic portion of the surgery. With the patient-placed supine under general anesthesia, the neck is slightly extended, and the ipsilateral arm is abducted at the shoulder to minimize the distance between the axilla and neck. A second incision is made on the medial side of the anterior chest wall to insert the 4th robot arm that will be used for thyroid retraction, and it is connected to a continuous suction system. The dissection is approached through the avascular space of the sternocleidomastoid muscle branches and beneath the strap muscle until the contralateral lobe of the thyroid is exposed.

Next, the operation proceeds in the same manner as a conventional open thyroidectomy. Two 8mm instruments are introduced through the breast incision, and the 3rd arm carries the 12mm endoscope [51]. Robotic thyroidectomy using a transaxillary approach leaves Carfilzomib a scar in the axilla that is covered by the patient’s arm. This is important when we consider that thyroid disease is more common in women, and the incidence is increasing in young women, raising concerns about cosmetic results [53].

Oral inoculation of foals with virulent Rhodococcus equi bacteria

Oral inoculation of foals with virulent Rhodococcus equi bacteria demonstrated accelerated cytotoxic T lymphocyte development and IFN-�� production [24]. In sheep, Emery et al. determined that lambs repeatedly infected with infectious larvae of Haemonchus controtus or Trichostronglyus colubrifomis starting from the then day of birth for 4�C6 weeks showed significant reduction in mean faecal egg count compared to control lambs [25,26]. Importantly, the cell-mediated immune responses (i.e. antigen-specific cellular proliferative response and IFN�� production) by trickle-immunised lambs was not significantly greater than that in control animals, which corroborates our CMI response [25]. Although at least 50% of all vaccinated animals some induction of IFN�� compared to media controls, the level of response was very low (Figure 3A) and no proliferative response was observed (Figure 3B).

Emery et al. also show that lambs were protected despite no significant increase in serum antibody production [25]. When they repeated their trial to include lambs repeatedly infected with infectious T. colubrifomi larvae, only animals also immunised i.p. with 50 ��g of the recombinant T. colubriformis derived protein in the presence of IFA showed induction of IgG1 and IgG2 isotypes antibody secreting cells in mesenteric lymph nodes [26]. In contrast, data from our study showed significant induction of OVA-specific serum IgG prior to and post i.p. immunization (Figure 1A-C) and significant mucosal IgA but not IgG was induced after i.p. immunization (Figure 2A, B). Experiments by Mutwiri et al.

(2001) determined that consistent exposure of a localized region of the newborn GALT to antigen was sufficient to promote mucosal and systemic immunity [15]. Specifically, they localized adenovirus coding for TgD antigen to a segment of the newborn gut. They presumed that antigen would be consistently expressed (although the levels and duration of expression were not assessed [27]). While their results were intriguing, antigen in this study was introduced to the gut with several potentially confounding factors. Because the immunized intestinal ��loops�� were created in fetal lambs at late gestation and the ��loops�� were made to be sterile, the antigen was not diluted out by the presence of commensal flora.

Further, because the ��loops�� were removed from the active digestive tract (while still keeping lymphatics, enervation and blood flow intact), antigen was not influenced by the potentially inhibitory factors present in colostrum and milk and the peristaltic action of the gut. Regardless, these experiments showed that antigen Anacetrapib alone (or at least one coded for by adenovirus) introduced to a localized region of a sterile gut could promote mucosal and systemic immunity in newborn lambs.

coli strains from clusters 1 to 4 Antimicrobial sensitivity patt

coli strains from clusters 1 to 4. Antimicrobial sensitivity patterns did not differ significantly between phylogenetic groups (Fig. S4). However, E. coli from MLST clusters 2, 3 and 4 were more likely to have resistance to at least one antimicrobial than cluster 1 bacteria (cluster 1, 0/5; cluster selleckchem Ponatinib 2, 2/7; cluster 3, 2/7; cluster 4, 7/7; P<0.05). Oxytetracycline is widely used to treat PID and resistance to oxytetracycline also differed amongst the E. coli (cluster 1, 0/5; cluster 2, 0/7; cluster 3, 2/7; cluster 4, 7/7; P<0.05). E. coli or LPS Infused into the Uterus of Mice Causes PID or Endometritis Live bacteria and purified LPS from MLST cluster 1 and 4 E. coli were infused into the uterine lumen of C57BL6 mice.

Within 24 h of infusion 5/5 mice administered the cluster 4 O73:H16 bacteria showed signs of toxaemia (cold extremities, reduced appetite, inactivity), one animal had a uterus distended with purulent material and one animal died. No clinical signs were observed in animals administered cluster 1 O(84,172):H+ bacteria (n=5), LPS from either cluster (n=5 per cluster) or vehicle (n=5). The endometrium from the mice infused with live bacteria or LPS was inflamed with evidence of neutrophil accumulation (Fig. 6A�CC). Immunhistochemistry confirmed the location of neutrophils (Fig. 6D�CF) and macrophages (Fig. 6G�CI) with the immune cells localised to the epithelium and lumen in mice infused with LPS but more widespread in the endometrium of mice infused with live bacteria. E.

coli were detectable by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) colonising the endometrium only in animals infused with bacteria, and could be seen invading throughout the endometrium and myometrium (Fig. 6J�CL). Figure 6 Uterine-derived E. coli cause PID in mice. LPS from Uterine E. coli Provokes Endometrial Cell Inflammation via TLR4 The key receptor for LPS on professional immune cells is TLR4, leading to activation of immune and inflammatory pathways [17]. To test the role of TLR4 in the endometrium, epithelial and stromal cells from C57Bl6 wild type or TLR4?/? mice were challenged with LPS purified from MLST cluster 4 E. coli, using commercially purified LPS as a positive control. As for the bovine cells, the response to LPS was tested by measuring the accumulation in the medium of prostaglandin PGE and a chemokine similar to IL-8, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1; also known as keratinocyte-derived chemokine, KC).

Epithelial and stromal Cilengitide cells from wild type but not TLR4?/? mice secreted PGE and CXCL1 in response to LPS (Fig. 7). Figure 7 Endometrial cells respond to LPS and the response is TLR4 dependent. Discussion Gram-negative infections of the upper female genital tract are an important cause of PID and infertility in humans and animals [2], [9]. The present study focussed on E.


Smoking ZD6474 Experience Smoking status was determined by the response to the following questions: (a) ��During your ENTIRE LIFE, about how many times have you smoked a few puffs of a cigarette?�� and (b) ��During your ENTIRE LIFE, about how many times have you smoked a whole cigarette?�� ��Never-smokers�� were defined as never having smoked a cigarette or even having a few puffs, and ��ever-smokers�� were defined as having ever smoked at least one cigarette. Qualitative Measures During the interviews, adolescents were asked, ��How do you define a smoker?�� Probes were used to generate more detail, such as, ��Is there a certain amount of cigarettes you need to smoke to be a smoker?��, and adolescents were encouraged to clarify and expand on their answers.

Statistical Analysis Descriptive measures were generated for all variables of interest. Independent sample t tests with Levene��s test for equality of variances and chi-square tests were employed in order to test for significant differences in definitions between never-smokers and ever-smokers as well as between genders. All quantitative analyses were performed using SPSS 17.0. For the qualitative data, verbatim transcripts were independently reviewed by the principal investigator and research team. The use of an interdisciplinary research team and presentation of preliminary findings with colleagues helped to validate the themes that were extracted and identified from the transcripts and to clarify investigator biases. For the purposes of this study, representative themes and quotes were selected to illustrate the quantitative findings.

Results Sample Characteristics The gender distribution of the survey sample was balanced (47.3% male, 52.7% female) with an age range of 12�C16 years (mean = 14.6 years, SD = 0.7). The sample was ethnically diverse, with 48.7% White/Non-Hispanic, 23.7% Asian/Pacific-Islander, 17.5% Hispanic or Latino, and 5.1% of other ethnicities. Nineteen participants (5.1%) declined to state their ethnicity. The qualitative interview sample showed similar gender distribution as the main sample (45.0% male and 55.0% female). Forty interviews were conducted with 22 never-smokers (32.0% male and 68.0% female) and 18 ever-smokers (55.0% male and 45% female). Adolescent Characterization of Smoker Types Adolescent characterization of smoker types by frequency, amount, place, and length of cigarette smoking is shown in Tables 1�C4, respectively.

Given Entinostat that our focus is on how adolescents define different types of smokers, we present the results by smoker type. Nonsmoker The majority of adolescent participants (>90%) characterized a ��nonsmoker�� as an individual who never smokes, smokes 0 cigarettes (92.5%), and smokes nowhere (96.0%). However, some adolescents described a nonsmoker as an individual who does smoke.

At colonoscopy there were innumerable polyps (from 0 5 to 3 cm) e

At colonoscopy there were innumerable polyps (from 0.5 to 3 cm) extending from the rectum (Fig. 1) to the cecum (Fig. 2), in spite of a colonoscopy that identified any lesions two years before. Upper GI endoscopy disclosed multiple small, sessile polyps in the stomach and in the duodenum. Fig. 1 Polyposis of the rectum. Fig. 2 Polyposis of selleck products the cecum. Histopathologic study of endoscopic biopsies from the colon and the stomach showed an uniform lymphoid infiltrate. Immunoistochemical evaluation confirmed that the lymphoma was positive for CD20 and cyclin D1, while it was negative for CD10, CD23 and CD5, features compatible with diagnosis of non-Hodgkin mantle lymphoma. Bone narrow biopsy was negative for lymphoid proliferation. Abdominal and pelvis TC revealed anomalies of the rectum wall, pelvic lymphadenopaty and two liver metastasis.

Abdominal and pelvis RM imaging showed lombo-aortic lymphadenopaty and massive thickening of the rectum. Total body PET-TC detected rachis involvement, specifically at D1, L2 and L3 vertebrae, and an intense signal of the whole ileum. The patient was transferred to Department of Haematology to plan chemotherapeutic strategy. Discussion and conclusion The gut mucosa contains more lymphocytes than the other immune system organs. Nevertheless, only 10% of all lymphomas present in the gut (5). Most of primary GI NHL occur with single lesion, which more frequently involves the stomach and small intestine. Single colorectal lymphomas are relatively rare (6). MCL is an uncommon type of primary GI NHL with particular clinic, morphological and immunophenotypic features.

Clinically, patients with a diagnosis of MCL are often elderly adults with a male predominance and present a disease in an advanced stage (7). Abdominal pain, diarrhea, hematochezia and organomegaly are the most common presenting symptoms (8). Liver and spleen involvement are common clinical features too (9). The incidence of GI tract involvement ranged from 10% to 28% in various series (10). The typical endoscopic findings of early MCL is the appearance of MLP with innumerable, small, spherical or hemispherical polyps (11). On the other hand, when an advanced MLP is identified we can classify endoscopic features in three types: 1) elevation type; 2) diffuse infiltration type and 3) ulceration type (12). The diagnosis is finally based on peculiar immunoistochemical findings.

MCL cells can express B cell markers including CD19, CD20, CD22, as well as T cell marker such as CD5, and cyclin D1. The classic cytogenetic t (11, Batimastat 14) translocation with subsequent overexpression of cyclin D1 protein, caused by the translocation of the cyclin D1 gene to the promoter of the immunoglobulin heavy chain, are diagnostic for MCL (13). In the series of MLP cases by Ruskone-Fourmestraux et al.