LC- = Crude C. botulinum culture supernatants run on the Roche Light Cycler. 0-20 cycles = ++++, 21-30 cycles = +++,
31-40 cycles = ++, > 41 cycles = + Listed in this table are all strains tested by quantitative PCR for type-specific BoNT. All serotype primer and probe sets were tested against all strains indicated. Standards indicate the plasmid standards used to determine the quantity of BoNT DNA in each sample. Strains tested on the ABI 7700 machine (ABI) included purified DNA from bacterial cultures while MAPK inhibitor samples tested by the Roche Light Cycler (LC) were from crude toxin supernatants. With the same DNA preparations described in the previous section from healthy infant stool spiked with C. botulinum DNA, we were able to detect type-specific BoNT DNA reliably within all samples spiked with BoNT DNA at the equivalent of 10,000 genomic copies. The stool sample from the confirmed case of infant botulism yielded a positive result with 1650 BoNT/A specific gene copies detected in 5 μL of DNA extracted from the stool sample (Table 7). This confirms the result that had been obtained in the mouse protection bioassay that had been performed for clinical diagnosis. Table
7 BoNT DNA detection in spiked healthy infant stool and botulism clinical samples Spiked healthy infant stool BoNT A + 5525 BoNT B + 7179 BoNT PSI-7977 solubility dmso C + 234 BoNT D + 187 BoNT E + 4043 BoNT F + 604 BoNT G + 219 None – Stool sample from clinical infant botulism case BoNT A + 1650 BoNT B – BoNT C – BoNT D – BoNT E – BoNT F – BoNT G – DNA extracted samples
were tested by real time quantitative PCR (qPCR) for detection and copy number of each BoNT Montelukast Sodium serotype. Shown are results from approximately 104 genomic copies of DNA into each spiked sample prior to DNA extraction. (+) indicates a positive result with BoNT DNA copy number indicated in brackets. (-) indicates no amplification. Listed in this table are the three conditions we tested for serotype-specific BoNT DNA from spiked healthy infant stool and a clinical sample of a confirmed case of infant botulism. For healthy infant stool, shown are results from samples spiked with BoNT DNA with 104 genomic equivalents. The clinical sample was run without dilution. (+) indicates a positive result and the copy number calculated from standard curves specific to each serotype is indicated in brackets. (-) indicates no amplification. Discussion The spectre of bioterrorist use of botulinum toxin presents a new and real danger to public health [4, 41], and in such an event a sensitive, specific and rapid diagnostic assay to detect the presence of the GDC 0032 bacterium and/or its toxin will be needed. In addition, the possibility of botulinum toxin contamination of manufactured food requires constant monitoring.