The epidemiology of the acquired forms is arguably more interesti

The epidemiology of the acquired forms is arguably more interesting, tractable, and pertinent to their elimination. Kuru for example, is virtually extinct now, despite its very long incubation periods.[17] It had a circumscribed geographical and temporal epidemiology, restricted to ethnic groups in a prescribed region of Papua New Guinea beginning early in the 20th century, presumably originating from a case of sCJD.[17, 18] Cases of iatrogenic CJD (iCJD), as transmitted by dura mater grafting and human pituitary-derived growth hormone are similarly in sharp click here decline, exposures

by these routes having ceased. iCJD in dura mater and growth hormone recipients can probably be viewed as problems that occurred in, and were resolved during, the 20th century.[19] It might appear that vCJD similarly belongs to the past. The epidemic of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle that occurred in the UK peaked in 1986 and the peak of resultant zoonosis (vCJD) occurred in 2000, with 28 patients dying of the disease, and five or fewer patients dying of the diseases

per annum in 2005 onwards. There have been no cases of vCJD reported in 2012 in the UK at the time of writing (late 2012).[20] Cases of BSE in cattle have occurred outside the UK, but on a very limited scale by comparison to the UK. The total number of vCJD cases in the UK is 176. The total number of cases in France is 27 selleck screening library and the other 10 affected countries have had five cases or fewer in total.[21] It is important to note that the scale of exposure to BSE in the UK is probably of a different order of magnitude than any previous exposure of a human population to prion infectivity. It is estimated that greater than 400 000 infected cattle entered the human food chain in the UK during the BSE epidemic. A number of

post-hoc explanations for the apparent discrepancy in likely exposure and resultant cases have been advanced, including a substantial species barrier between cows and humans, effects of dose, genetic susceptibility related to variations in both PRNP and non-PRNP genes, age-related susceptibility, and the possible necessity for co-factors, such as inflammation. A role for the codon 129 polymorphisms is plausible, but methionine homozygotes constitute 37% of the oxyclozanide normal population, so this can only be part of the answer. All definite clinical cases of vCJD that have been tested are MM at codon 129 of the prion protein gene, although a single case of possible vCJD has been reported in a PRNP codon 129 heterozygous patient.[22] However, a retrospective prevalence study carried out in the UK, based on the immunohistochemical detection of abnormal prion protein in appendix and tonsil tissue, indicated a prevalence of infection much higher than the numbers of clinical cases would suggest.

After 20 weeks of infection, all participants were given an oral

After 20 weeks of infection, all participants were given an oral gluten challenge to induce coeliac pathology. Again, a nonsignificant trend for less pathology was seen in the hookworm-infected group. Because of the coeliac status of the participants, endoscopy was carried out to check for pathology and also allowed for the assessment of the hookworm response in the mucosa. Spontaneous production of IL-5 from duodenal biopsies was detected in the hookworm group, with highest levels in biopsies taken

immediately adjacent to the hookworm bite site. Interestingly, no other TH2 cytokines (IL-4 or IL-13) were spontaneously produced by duodenal biopsies in the hookworm group. These data may give more credence to the hypothesis that eosinophil recruitment, dependent on IL-5, is directly responsible for the degradation of the hookworm bite site, forcing the parasite to select a new feeding area (60). The source of this IL-5 in the mucosa is not known but could be mast cells PI3K Inhibitor Library rather than TH2 cells, especially when considering the lack of other TH2 cytokines (88). TH1 and TH17 inflammatory cytokines from the mucosa were suppressed during hookworm infection, showing immunomodulation by the parasite at the site of infection

and (coeliac) inflammation. Some systemic suppression was also seen, with a trend for less gluten-specific TH1 cells in the blood. This trial gives strong evidence that hookworm infection can suppress inflammatory phosphatase inhibitor library responses. The differences between the British study (8) and our own may be because of a number of factors. The British study was designed to investigate suppression of allergic airway responses, whereas ours investigated a TH1/TH17 gut enteropathy. Although there is good epidemiological data to support hookworm suppression of allergic responses, allergy may be more difficult to assess in an experimental setting: the time and dose of antigen are uncontrolled, the pathology is physically separated from the adult parasites and the TH2 nature of the immune response may be harder to suppress in this system. Coeliac disease is well established as a TH1-mediated pathology, with recent articles showing a role

for TH17 also (89,90). Hookworms induce a strong TH2 response, and TH2 N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate transferase responses are known to cross-regulate TH1 and TH17 responses (91). Thus, in our coeliac disease trial, two mechanisms could be suppressing pathology – the regulatory responses which control immune dysregulation in endemic populations and also cross-regulation by a TH2 response of an inflammatory TH1/TH17 response occurring in the same physical location. Human coevolution with hookworms has reached a stage where humans are relatively asymptomatic when harbouring low-intensity infections, assuming reasonable nutritional status of the host. Evidence is gathering that the hookworm manipulates the human immune system such that the infection is tolerated with minimal pathology to either the worm or the host.

Along with the progression of diabetes and diabetic nephropathy,

Along with the progression of diabetes and diabetic nephropathy, circulating miR-1179 was gradually increased (2.03 times in DM/N and 2.14 times in DN/DM) , and circulating miR-148b, miR-150 were gradually reduced (2.04 times in DM/N, 2.02 times in DN/DM and 2.03 times in DM/N, 2.02 times in DN/DM respectively). The differentially expressed proteins and the targets of miRNAs induced by high glucose involved in mitochondrial oxidative stress, autophagy and EMT. Ursolic acid and LY294002 inhibited HG-induced mesangial cell

proliferation and decreased ROS generation. The expression of podocin, ZO-1 was down-regulated and the expression of α-SMA was up-regulated in podocyte cultured by high glucose and inhibited by ursolic acid. The cells exposed to HG for 48h showed up-regulated p85PI3K, pAkt, pmTOR and down-regulated LC3BII expression. Ursolic acid down-regulated p85PI3K, p62/SQSTMI, pAkt,

pmTOR and GSK3β Roscovitine expression and up-regulated Wnt5a, LC3BII expression in mesangial cell and podocyte cultured by HG. Mass abnormal mitochondrion and decreased autophagosomes were observed by electron microscopy in cells cultured by HG for 48h and ursolic acid decreased autophagosomes expression. Conclusion: The differentially expressed proteins and the target of miRNAs induced by high glucose involved in mitochondrial oxidative stress, autophagy and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. The over-expression of miR-503 and miR-181d in KKAy mice glomeruli may be responsible for the pathogenesis of DN by regulating the expression of the target proteins, such as heat shock protein 75, GRP75 and GRP78 CDK inhibitor et al. The differentially expression of serum miR-1179, miR-148b and miR-150 may be responsible for the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy and are potential biomarkers for DN. Ursolic acid can regulate autophagy and EMT and ameliorate high glucose induced podocyte and mesangial cell injury by inhibiting PI3K/AKT/mTOR

pathway, implying that ursolic acid could be a potential treatment for diabetic nephropathy. PRANOTO AGUNG1,2 1Surabaya Diabetes & Nutrition Center; 2Endocrinology check details Division, Department of Internal Medicine, Dr Soetomo General Hospital, Airlangga University Teaching Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Airlangga University, Indonesia Diabetes can be found in every country. Without effective prevention and management programs, the burden will continue to increase worldwide. Some 382 million people worldwide, by 2035, some 592 million people, will have diabetes. People with diabetes are at risk of developing a number of disabling and life-threatening complications. Consistently high blood glucose levels can lead to serious diseases affecting the heart and blood vessels, eyes, kidneys, and nerves. People with diabetes are also at increased risk of developing infections (IDF Diabetes Atlas 2013).

Flow cytometry data were acquired on a LSRFortessa


Flow cytometry data were acquired on a LSRFortessa

(Becton Dickinson) and analyzed with FlowJo software (version 8.8.6, Tree Star). Female (BALB/c×C57BL/6) F1 mice were irradiated at 600+600 Rad with an interval of 3 h and received 107 BM cells from IL-10-GFP C57BL/6 female mice 22, provided by Giorgio Trinchieri (NCI, Frederick). After 8 wk correct reconstitution was checked by flow cytometry, after staining peripheral blood cells with PE anti-Kd, PE-Cy7 anti-CD4 and allophycocyanin anti-Foxp3. Transplanted mice were inoculated with CT26 subcutaneously and treated with OX86 or PBS. After 24 h, tumors were collected and GFP fluorescence was GDC-0449 evaluated in CD4+CD25high cells without any restimulation. In this experiment we could not identify Treg cells by Foxp3 staining because the fixation/permeabilization step induced the loss of GFP expression. BALB/c and CD40−/− tumor-bearing mice were intratumorally injected with OX86 or rat IgG plus 4×107 FITC-conjugated latex micro-spheres of 1 μm diameter (Polysciences). After 24 h, dLNs were mechanically and enzymatically disaggregated (by incubation for 30 min at 37°C with 400 U/mL of collagenase

D). The absolute counts of FITC+ CD11c PE-Cy7+ cells were done for each sample. BMs were collected from femurs and tibias of BALB/c and CD40−/− mice. Cells were cultured for 10 days in IMDM with 10% FBS supplemented with conditioned medium from a murine fibroblast cell line engineered Akt inhibitor to express mouse GM-CSF (corresponding to 20 ng/mL of recombinant GM-CSF). The differentiation state of cells was checked by flow cytometry. TILs were enriched by ficoll gradient from single-cell suspensions of mechanically disaggregated tumors 24 h after OX86 or rat IgG treatment. CD4+CD44highCD62Llow Tem cells were sorted using a FACSAria (Becton Dickinson) from TILs pooled from different mice

and cultured with BMDCs at 1:1 ratio. After 24 h, BMDC activation was analyzed by flow cytometry. Treg cells pooled from splenocytes from different Foxp3-GFP mice were sorted using a FACSaria (Becton Dickinson) as CD4+GFP+CD8−B220−CD11b− cells. Sclareol Purity after sorting was assessed around 98%. Sorted Treg cells were activated overnight with coated anti-CD3 (1 μg/mL) plus OX86 or rat IgG (10 μg/mL). RNA was purified using mirVana Kit (Ambion), and checked for integrity and purity by Agilent Bioanalyzer. Each sample was analyzed in duplicate. RNA (0.2 μg) was reverse transcribed, labeled with biotin and amplified using the Illumina RNA TotalPrep amplification kit (Ambion). Biotinylated sample (1 μg) was hybridized at 58°C overnight to an expression Bead Chip MouseRef_8_v2.0 array (Illumina). Array chips were washed, stained with 1 μg/mL Cy3-streptavidin (GE Healthcare Europe GmbH) and scanned with an Illumina BeadArray Reader (Illumina).

Future studies using assays that measure both cleaved and full-le

Future studies using assays that measure both cleaved and full-length forms of these chemokines would be informative. In addition, as

we were only able to measure changes in peripheral blood it is possible that sitagliptin, via effects on chemokine activity, could alter migration of leucocytes within tissues, thus altering immune responses in these locations with potential effects on infection or autoimmunity. Taken together, no sustained differences in the immune readouts were observed between the sitagliptin and placebo groups in the 4-week study period, and therefore we conclude that sitagliptin is not overtly systemically immunomodulatory in healthy individuals. This work was supported by the Intramural Research Program Kinase Inhibitor Library manufacturer of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK). We would like to thank Michelle Ashmus for coordinating patient recruitment, Dr Monica KPT-330 price Skarulis for serving as the medically responsible investigator, Drs Xiongce Zhao and Elizabeth Wright for help with statistical analysis, the NIH Center for Human Immunology, specifically

Phil McCoy and Angélique Biancotto for flow cytometry and multiplex support, and Dr Francesco Marincola, Ena Wang and Hui Liu for help with gene expression analysis. In addition, Mary Walter and the NIDDK Central Laboratory helped with GLP-1 assays, DPP-4 activity assays, sample storage and database maintenance. NIH pharmacy, including Judith Starling provided the drug with matching placebo and

performed randomization. The authors have nothing to disclose. Fig. S1. Change in neutrophil percentage (top) and absolute count per µl (bottom) were measured in participants in both the sitagliptin group (left) and placebo group (right). No significant changes were observed between placebo and sitagliptin groups (P = 0·41 for percentage and P = 0·59 for absolute number change from days 0 to 28). Table S1. Demographic characteristics of study subjects (n = 36). Table S2. Significant (P < 0·001) genes changed greater than 1·2-fold after sitagliptin or placebo treatment. "
“The autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus is characterized by loss of tolerance Farnesyltransferase to nuclear Ags and a heightened inflammatory environment, which together result in end organ damage. Lyn-deficient mice, a model of systemic lupus erythematosus, lack an inhibitor of B-cell and myeloid cell activation. This results in B-cell hyper-responsiveness, plasma cell accumulation, autoantibodies, and glomerulonephritis (GN). IL-21 is associated with autoimmunity in mice and humans and promotes B-cell differentiation and class switching. Here, we explore the role of IL-21 in the autoimmune phenotypes of lyn–/– mice. We find that IL-21 mRNA is reduced in the spleens of lyn–/–IL-6–/– and lyn–/–Btklo mice, neither of which produce pathogenic autoantibodies or develop significant GN.

The TST was performed by trained personnel on all study participa

The TST was performed by trained personnel on all study participants, using PPD as the antigen, in accordance with the standard intradermal Mantoux method protocol. The test reading was conducted 72 h after the subcutaneous injection, based on the size of induration measured. The individuals were scored as non-reactive (0–4 mm), low reactive (5–9 mm) and strongly reactive (>10 mm). The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Centro de Pesquisas Aggeu Magalhães – FIOCRUZ (number 55/02) and by the Instituto Materno Infantil Professor Fernando Figueira, and informed consent was obtained from the parents or legal representatives of the participants.

Cell preparation and culture.  Blood samples (3 ml) were taken with heparin (10 U/ml) by venipuncture. The whole blood was cultivated in an RPMI 1640 medium with penicillin/streptomycin (100 U/ml, 100 μg/ml) and incubated with ESAT-6 (3 μg/ml), CFP-10 (3 μg/ ml), PPD (5 μg/ml) or PMA/Iono (Phorbol Miristate Acetate, 5 μg/ml/ Ionomicin, 1 μg/ml) at 37 °C in a humidified CO2 atmosphere for 120 h. This time period was chosen after kinetic PLX-4720 in vitro study of INF-γ. The supernatants were harvested and immediately frozen at −70 °C until analysis. ESAT-6

and CFP-10 were obtained by donations from FIOCRUZ and Statens Serum Institute (Copenhagen, Denmark), respectively. PPD in vitro (1 mg/ml) was commercially obtained by FIOCRUZ. The interferon-γ release assay.  The concentration of IFN-γ in duplicate samples was determined using the Quantikine kit (R&D Systems, Minneapolis, RVX-208 MN, USA) ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) as described in the manufacturer’s instructions, and the results were processed using Microplate Manager, version 4.0 (BIORAD laboratories, Hercules, CA, USA) and expressed as pg/ml with detection limits ranging from 15.6 to 1000.00 pg/ml. Statistical analysis

and determination of sensitivity and specificity.  The differences between the mean IFN-γ levels of the groups were evaluated using an unpaired Student’s t-test. P values of <0.05 were considered significant. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, cut-off, sensitivities and specificities for each antigen were estimated using the specific spss Base software, version 13 (Chicago, IL, USA), with a confidence interval of 95%. The areas under the curve (AUC) show the sensitivity versus 1-specificity, having values between 0.5 and 1.0, with those closer to 1.0 possessing better discriminatory power. The Kappa statistic represents the level of agreement between the clinical classifications of the children and the test results and was obtained using Epi Info, Version 6.04 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA). The likelihood ratios for each test were calculated as described by Sackett et al.

Several approaches involving DC-based vaccines were developed as

Several approaches involving DC-based vaccines were developed as early-stage attempts to manage/cure HCV infection, some of them being developed at the experimental level while some advanced towards the translational level.37 The DC-based HCV vaccine development is summarized

in Table 2. Moriya et al.115 employed the anthrax toxin fusion protein containing the HCV-core epitope as a vehicle for antigen loading on DC, and reported that immunization with the fusion protein-treated DC induced HCV-core-specific cytotoxic lymphocytes (CTL) in mice. Later, they immunized mice with DC transduced with recombinant adenovirus expressing HCV-core protein effectively induced HCV-core-specific CTL. Hence, adenovirus-transduced DC may be a promising candidate see more for a CTL-based vaccine against HCV infection.116 Racanelli et al.36 present a system to induce cellular immunity and to study the immunological implications of time-delayed DC apoptosis and antigen reprocessing in vivo. They generated a self-replicating cytopathic pestivirus RNA to enhance production and presentation of HCV antigens and to induce apoptosis in DC 24–48 hr after

transfection. Replicon-transfected H-2b DC used to immunize HLA-A2 transgenic mice induced protection upon challenge with a vaccinia virus expressing HCV antigens. Induction of cell death enhanced the immunogenicity of DC-associated antigen. Transfer of cellular selleck material from vaccine DC to endogenous antigen-presenting cells was visualized in lymph nodes and spleen, and cross-primed CD8+T cells were characterized. Dendritic cells pulsed with HCV-LPs stimulated HCV core-specific CD4+ T cells, indicating that uptake of HCV-LPs by DC leads to antigen processing and presentation on MHC class II molecules. The HCV-LP-derived antigens were efficiently cross-presented to HCV core-specific CD8+ T cells. These findings demonstrate that HCV-LPs

represent a novel model system to study HCV-DC interaction allowing FER definition of the molecular mechanisms of HCV uptake, DC activation, and antigen presentation to T cells. Furthermore, HCV-LP may be a potent vaccine candidate for the induction of antiviral cellular immune responses in humans.35 By using recombinant adenoviral vectors,103 DC expressing HCV NS3 or core proteins expressed several inflammatory cytokine mRNAs, had a normal phenotype, and effectively stimulated allogeneic T cells, as well as T cells specific for another foreign antigen (tetanus toxoid). These findings are important for the rational design of cellular-vaccine approaches for the immunotherapy of chronic HCV. Zabaleta et al.117 proved that immunization with DC transfected with an adenovirus encoding NS3 protein, from HCV (AdNS3), induced multi-epitopic CD4 Th1 and CD8+ T-cell responses in different mouse strains.

Lin− cells were first stained with phycoerythrin-indotricarbocyan

Lin− cells were first stained with phycoerythrin-indotricarbocyanine to ensure any residual Lin+ cells could be gated out, then were stained with various combinations of monoclonal

antibodies to CD117 (c-Kit; ACK-2; conjugated to fluorescein isothiocyanate or allophycocyanin), CD43 (S7; conjugated to biotin), CD115 (M-CSF receptor; IWR-1 molecular weight AFS98; conjugated to biotin), and CD16/32 (2.4G2; conjugated to allophycocyanin). Streptavidin-phycoerythrin was then used to stain biotin-binding cells. At the end of the culture period, a fixed number of latex beads was then added to each culture to aid in the quantification of DCs. Cells were stained with anti-CD11c (N418), anti-Sirpα (P84), anti-CD45RA (14.8), and antibody to MHCII (M5/114), with propidium iodide (1 μg/mL) added to the final wash to stain dead cells. DC progeny were then counted by flow cytometry, with gating on viable CD11c+ MHCII+ cells and

CD45RAhiSirpαlo DCs (pDCs), CD45RA−Sirp-αhi DCs (CD8−cDC–equivalent cells) and CD45RA− Sirp-αlo DCs (CD8+ cDC-equivalent cells). Flow Jo software was used to analyze the data. BM-derived DCs were stimulated with 0.5 mg/mL PMA for 10 min, and then incubated with 2 mM redox sensitive probe, 5- (and 6-) chloromethyl-29,79 dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, acetyl ester (CM-H2DCFDA) for 20 min at 37°C. Control cells were treated redox sensitive probe and CM-H2DCFDA Cabozantinib concentration only. The intracellular ROS level of defined populations was measured by the oxidation of the probe (detected by the increase of FITC fluorescence). The true level of intracellular ROS was estimated by subtracting the background mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of the negative control from the MFI values of fluorescent samples as enough measured by flow cytometric analysis. Purified BM-DCs were resuspended at 0.5 × 106/mL in fresh

media in the presence or absence of a single TLR agonist, CpG ODN 1826 (1 μM) (Coley Pharmaceutical, Ottawa, Canada), and cultured for 20 h before supernatants were collected and analyzed for IL-12p70, IL-10, and TNF-α by ELISA according to the manufacturer’s instructions (BD Biosciences). (35S) met/cys labeling of newly synthesized proteins, immunoprecipitations, and autoradiography were conducted as previously described [47]. Normalization of (35S)met/cys incorporation was conducted by pipetting 7 μL of cell lysate on filter paper, washing the paper four times in 1% TCA (Sigma-Aldrich), and counting the amount of radioactivity precipitated on the paper in a scintillation counter (HIDEX 300SL, Finland). The amount of cell lysate used for immunoprecipitation for targeted proteins was then adjusted accordingly to ensure equal amounts of radiolabeled materials from each sample. Mice were injected i.v. with 2 × 10 4 cells L. monocytogenes.

[31] At the same time, however, although secondary prevention

[31] At the same time, however, although secondary prevention

with ACE inhibitors and ARB appears to be having an impact on the incidence of DM-ESKD, steady growth in diabetes prevalence and improved survival outcomes over time will necessarily yield an increasingly large number with DKD, who are at significantly elevated risk of myocardial infarction and all-cause mortality. Reducing the burden of kidney disease-related morbidity and mortality in the diabetes population will therefore not only require consolidation of gains with respect to the prevention of DM-ESKD, but also upstream prevention: prevention of diabetes onset, early detection of diabetes, effective glycaemic Selleckchem Rapamycin and blood pressure control (Fig. 5). The health care burden associated with DKD and DM-ESKD in Australia is significant learn more and expanding, driven

primarily by the steady growth in T2DM prevalence over the past three decades. The contribution of pre-ESKD DKD to this health care burden has been under-appreciated; total per annum costs to the health system are likely to exceed those associated with KRT provision by approximately three-fold. Although the incidence of DM-ESKD may be slowing, the predicted doubling in the prevalence of T2DM in Australia between 2000 and 2025 indicates that, in absolute terms, the number of Australian adults living with DKD will continue to grow substantially. Minimizing the health care burden associated with this population, and maximizing health outcomes, will depend on the success of primary and secondary prevention strategies (Box 1). Multiple opportunities

exist for prevention along the entire disease continuum – from the population at risk of diabetes onset to the population with established diabetic nephropathy. Over the past two decades, medical advances in the management of diabetes and diabetic nephropathy have produced significant improvements in the rate of progression selleck of diabetic nephropathy, such that a patients diagnosed with diabetes today are significantly less likely to develop ESKD across the life-course than a patient diagnosed 20 years ago. Thus, although we estimate that the number of Australians with DKD will likely double by 2025, the outcomes that this population will experience are highly modifiable. Preventing the progression of diabetes to DKD and then to DM-ESKD through glycaemic control, blood pressure control, and renin–angiotensin blockade will be critical in addressing the health burden attributable to DKD in Australia.

The absorbance values for the enzymatic reactions at 490 nm were

The absorbance values for the enzymatic reactions at 490 nm were registered in an ELISA Microplate Reader 550 (Bio-Rad). Data were charted (absorbance

versus concentration) and analysed to construct lineal regression equations for determining the concentrations of each cytokine. To quantify the secreted cytokines in our infection model, HT-29 cells (1 × 106) disposed on 35 × 10 mm culture dishes were used for bacterial interaction. Supernatants (200 μl for each condition) were collected, mixed 1:1 with 2× coating buffer (final concentration 1×) and adsorbed overnight at 4 °C. ELISA determination was developed as described for the standard curves, and absorbance values were used to calculate IL-1β, IL-8 or TNF-α concentrations in the supernatants. Statistical analysis.  All numerical data are presented as the mean and standard deviation (SD) for at least three independent experiments. Data comparisons were made using the Student’s t-test. A P value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. We wanted to define if TLR5 is expressed in HT-29 intestinal epithelial cells and analyse if its expression is modified by EPEC infection. Analysis by RT-PCR indicated that

HT-29 cells expressed tlr5 mRNA (RT-PCR product normalized intensity Selleck ZVADFMK of 0.721 ± 0.202). The expression of tlr5 was not altered by cell interaction with non-pathogenic E. coli HB101 or by infection with EPEC strains E2348/69 or E22 (Figure S1). We also analysed the possible influence of EPEC intimin, T3SS and flagellin over tlr5 expression. As with E22 wild-type, infection with any E22 isogenic mutants did not change tlr5 mRNA expression (Figure S1). These data suggest that tlr5 expression in HT-29 cells is not modified during EPEC infection.

We also explored TLR5 protein expression by WB assays. We found that HT-29 cells expressed TLR5, which was easily detected, and the quantity of TLR5 was not altered Thiamine-diphosphate kinase by interaction with the E. coli strains HB101, E2348/69, E22 WT, E22Δeae, E22ΔescN, E22ΔespA or E22ΔfliC (Figure S1). These data indicate that HT-29 intestinal epithelial cells express TLR5 protein constitutively, and its expression is neither altered during interaction with non-pathogenic E. coli nor during infection with EPEC wild-type strains or E22 mutants in intimin, T3SS components or flagellin-encoding genes. Toll-like receptors are not restricted to the cell membrane and can be retrieved from intracellular vesicles [38]. To analyse the subcellular localization of TLR5 in EPEC-infected HT-29 intestinal epithelial cells, we performed flow cytometry assays to detect and compare total TLR5 (FACS of permeabilized cells) and TLR5 on the cell surface (FACS of non-permeabilized cells).