Here we provide an overview of Sia diversity in nature, the approaches used to generate sialoglycan microarrays, and the achievements and challenges arising. (C) 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“A simple and rapid method of excised root cultures from six Gypsophila species was performed allowing continuous growth without phytohormones. Established on MH3 medium from solid-grown seedlings these roots were subcultured for 1 year on a solid
medium before being transferred in a liquid medium to obtain substantial biomass for saponin content analysis. Morphologically, the GDC-0941 mouse different root lines presented different growth behaviors and different physical aspects: some have linear growth by the tip of the main axial root from the original seedling; others have additional lateral root initiations producing a hairy root-system more or less dense. A marked increase of biomass was observed in the light by comparison with dark conditions.
Significant growth for Gypsophila glomerata was achieved within 3 weeks on liquid medium; biomass grew up to 50-fold in batch cultures reaching 10 g DW. The fingerprints of the saponin HPLC profiles of the six Gypsophila species were drastically different with at least up to 30 different saponins detected for some of them. The roots of Gypsophila ARN-509 elegans accumulated saponins up to 65 mg/g DW. These amounts were higher than in Gypsophila paniculata roots classically found as PXD101 research buy the best producing ones. On the contrary the root lines of G. glomerata showed a smaller quantitative amount of saponins (between 1.3 and 7.10 mg/g DW) than those of G. elegans but nearly the same HPLC profiles as for root extracts of G. paniculata plants grown directly in the fields. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“P>Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight intact cell mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF ICMS) is coming of age for the identification and characterization of fungi. The procedure has been used extensively with bacteria. UV-absorbing matrices function as energy mediators that transfer the absorbed photoenergy from an irradiation source
to the surrounding sample molecules, resulting in minimum fragmentation. A surprisingly high number of fungal groups have been studied: (i) the terverticillate penicillia, (ii) aflatoxigenic, black and other aspergilli, (iii) Fusarium, (iv) Trichoderma, (iv) wood rotting fungi (e.g. Serpula lacrymans) and (v) dermatophytes. The technique has been suggested for optimizing quality control of fungal Chinese medicines (e.g. Cordyceps). MALDI-TOF ICMS offers advantages over PCR. The method is now used in taxonomic assessments (e.g. Trichoderma) as distinct from only strain characterization. Low and high molecular mass natural products (e.g. peptaibols) can be analysed. The procedure is rapid and requires minimal pretreatment.