The terrestrial green alga Prasiola crispa (Lightf) Kütz is als

The terrestrial green alga Prasiola crispa (Lightf.) Kütz. is also distributed in Antarctica. These two species need to acclimate to the severe Antarctic climate including low ambient temperature and desiccation

under strong light conditions. To clarify this acclimation process, the physiological characteristics of the photosynthetic systems of these two Antarctic terrestrial organisms were assessed. The relative rate of photosynthetic electron flow in N. commune collected in Japan and in Antarctica reached maxima at 900 and 1,100 μmol photons · m−2 · s−1, respectively. The difference seemed to reflect the presence of high amounts of UV-absorbing substances within the Antarctic cyanobacterium. On the other hand, selleck products the optimal temperatures for photosynthesis at the two locations were 30°C–35°C and 20°C–25°C, respectively. This finding suggested a decreased photosynthetic thermotolerance in the Antarctic strain. P. crispa exhibited desiccation tolerance and dehydration-induced quenching of PSII fluorescence. Re-reduction of the photooxidized PSI reaction center, P700, was also inhibited at fully

dry states. Photosynthetic electron flow in P. crispa reached a maximum at 20°C–25°C and at a light intensity of 700 μmol photons ḃ m−2 ḃ s−1. Interestingly, the osmolarity of P. crispa cells suggested that photosynthesis is performed using water absorbed in a liquid form rather than water absorbed from the air. Overall, these data suggest that these two species have acclimated to optimally photosynthesize under conditions of the highest light intensity and the highest temperature for their habitat in Antarctica. selleck compound
“The systematic position of Amphidoma caudata Halldal within the genus Amphidoma

has remained uncertain as a result of its plate formula and the absence of molecular phylogenetic data. Also, this thecate dinoflagellate taxon has been used to designate two distinct morphotypes. The present study aims to clarify the generic affiliation of Amphidoma caudata and the taxonomic value of two different morphotypes M1 and M2. The new examination of the plate formula using SEM showed that it was the same for both morphotypes and that it corresponded to the tabulation of the recent erected genus Azadinium Elbrächter et Tillmann. Morphometric analysis, using cell size, length of apical projection in conjunction with the cell length, and the ratio of horn and spine showed that M1 and M2 formed two distinct groups. These results were supported by a molecular approach, revealing notable differences in the sequences of LSU rDNA and ITS region between these two morphotypes.

By contrast with small molecule drugs (aspirin, statins, antibiot

By contrast with small molecule drugs (aspirin, statins, antibiotics…) that can typically be described by a single chemical formula and duplicated relatively easily by chemical synthesis (also referred to as non-biological medicine), the development and manufacturing process of biologics are considerably more complex [13-15]. Biologics

are either derived or extracted from a living organism such as plasma-derived coagulation factors and heparins or produced through recombinant DNA methodology, which typically involves cloning and expression of the protein molecule into a carefully chosen host cell BMS-354825 in vivo line (i.e. yeast, mammalian, bacterial). This is followed by a specifically designed expansion, production, recovery, purification and packaging process; all of these conditions must be controlled if the efficacy

and safety of the final product are to be retained. Also integral to the function and safety of biologic drugs are different types of posttranslational modifications (e.g. glycosylation) [16]. Biologicals are used for the treatment of chronic and life-threatening diseases such as cancer, multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Treatment with biologicals is usually expensive and represents ever increasing pharmaceutical expenditures for the third-party payer. Recombinant full-length FVIII was first approved to be marketed in 1992–1993 with the international non-proprietary name ‘octocog alfa’ [10]. Since then other drugs based on recombinant Carfilzomib concentration FVIII have been developed and are currently available. They, however, differ with respect to the producing cell line (BHK, CHO), the genes expressed (full-length FVIII, B-domain deleted FVIII, VWF), the presence of proteins in

the culture medium (human plasma proteins, bovine serum albumin, check details aprotinin, none), the purification method (affinity chromatography using monoclonal antibodies or synthetic ligands), the stabilizing agent in the final formulation (human serum albumin, sucrose, mannitol), the viral inactivation steps (treatment with solvent-detergent, pasteurization, nanofiltration. Because of these many differences in the manufacturing of blood clotting factors, all currently available products are not the same and should be considered as specific and unique entities. These differences will be greater in the future considering the multiple strategies of extending half-life that are currently being applied to FVIII (pegylation, Fc-fusion, single-chain molecule) [17]. The term ‘biosimilar’ (also referred to as ‘follow-on biologic’ (FOB), ‘subsequent entry biologics’ or ‘generic biologic’) refers to a biological product developed to be highly similar as opposed to identical to an existing licensed biological product.

Thus, it seems reasonable to propose that the microenvironment (c

Thus, it seems reasonable to propose that the microenvironment (cirrhotic versus noncirrhotic) may be an important determinant of ICC histogenesis in these models. Of further interest, in both the Fan et al. and Sekiya and Suzuki studies, ICCs were observed to originate from transdifferentiated hepatocytes in the central areas of the liver lobule and not in the periportal areas, where the hepatic stem/progenitor cell niche is localized. However, the mechanisms underlying the centrilobular origin of transdifferented hepatocytes

and subsequent ICC development in these mouse models still need to be addressed. Although these findings are intriguing, it remains to be determined whether the development of ICCs from transdifferentiated hepatocytes has human clinical RXDX-106 mouse relevance. Phenotypic biomarker studies performed as far back as the early 1980s have provided evidence of hepatocyte transdifferentiation into biliary epithelium in human livers under conditions of chronic hepatic injury and cholestasis,15 including established risk

conditions for ICC, such as primary sclerosing cholangitis, as well as plausible ICC risk conditions associated with chronic hepatic injury and inflammation BAY 80-6946 order (e.g., chronic hepatitis C infection, alchoholic hepatitis, and cirrhosis). However, it remains uncertain whether hepatocyte transdifferentiation to cholangiocytes plays a major role in ICC development

in patients with chronic hepatitis C (hepatitis C virus; HCV) or alcoholic liver disease. In this regard, it should be noted that BilIN, a recognized premalignant biliary lesion for human selleck screening library ICC in established risk conditions for ICC, has also been described in intrahepatic bile ducts of patients with chronic HCV and/or alcoholic-related cirrhosis.12, 13 Moreover, it is somewhat surprising that no HCC-CCA tumors were observed in livers of thioacetamide-treated mice genetically engineered to overexpress activated Notch in their hepatocytes, particularly because, in humans, this rare subtype is increasingly being reported in patients with chronic liver injury and cirrhosis.6, 18 Last, though it is currently appreciated that Notch signaling plays a critical role in biliary differentiation and morphogenesis, and is aberrantly overexpressed in human ICCs, Notch signaling has recently been reported to occur at a frequency of 30%-35% in analyzed cases of human HCCs, as well as to promote HCC development in genetically engineered mice.19 Interestingly, the HCCs that formed in these mice were mixed cell-type tumors containing both biliary and hepatocytic phenotypic features.

pylori-positive than -negative subjects21 In various human and i

pylori-positive than -negative subjects.21 In various human and in animal model systems, RAS components are expressed by different gastric mucosal cell types, such as endocrine, glandular epithelial, Y-27632 price mesenchymal, lamina propria and vascular endothelial.21,24 Inflammatory cell migration and activation

enhances mucosal inflammation in response to the locally produced proinflammatory cytokines.25 In a gerbil model, levels of gastric mucosal AT1R show a particular correlation with those of gastric mucosal interleukin (IL)-17 mRNA, but not with levels of IL-1β, IL-11, IL-18 or tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. It is this association with IL-17 mRNA which ultimately influences the outcome of H. pylori-associated disease (Fig. 3b).23 In humans, the infection initially presents as an antral-predominant gastritis, followed by the extension of inflammation into the corpus gastritis and eventually leading to atrophic gastritis with metaplasia, gastric ulcers and, rarely, even gastric cancer.6 It is therefore important to clarify the molecule profile of RAS components in the acute and chronic phases of H. pylori infection. Differential expression pattern may play different roles in gastric mucosal pathogenesis

and in the development of atrophic gastritis, peptic ulcers and gastric cancer. In a Mongolian gerbil model, AT1R and AT2R mRNA levels gradually increase with time after H. pylori infection (Figs 2,4),23 and antral AT1R mRNA Cabozantinib datasheet level dominated over that in the body mucosa in the acute phase (Fig. 4)23 but were significantly higher

than those in the antrum in the chronic phase. The fact that AT1R levels in the body are significantly higher in the chronic phase of H. pylori infection may mean that AT1R expression plays a role in gastric mucosal inflammatory cell infiltration and the development of atrophy, with greater potential for the development of gastric cancer. However, only one report has described these time course findings selleckchem after H. pylori infection,23 and further research using animal models is required. The presence and differential activities of H. pylori virulence factors correlate with the severity of gastric mucosal injury and inflammation, and thus with the risk of developing different gastroduodenal diseases.26–28 Among putative H. pylori virulence genes, the outer inflammatory protein (OipA) functions as an adhesion which is involved in inducing the pro-inflammatory response27 and is associated with high H. pylori cell density and severe inflammatory cell infiltrations.29 In Mongolian gerbils, oipA-negative H. pylori strains exhibit diminished ability to induce gastric inflammation and disease relative to decreased H. pylori density.30 The status of oipA needs to be functional for it to enhance gastric ATR levels.

Plasma renin activity (PRA; >4 ng/mL/hour) was used as a surrogat

Plasma renin activity (PRA; >4 ng/mL/hour) was used as a surrogate of effective arterial blood volume. Patients were followed up for 12 months. Thirty-seven patients had LVDD (19 with grade 1 and

18 with grade 2). Left ventricular hypertrophy, left atrial volume, AEVS, and natriuretic peptide levels were significantly greater in patients with LVDD than without LVDD. Patients with grade 2 LVDD, compared to grade 1 LVDD and without LVDD, had significantly lower mean arterial pressure and higher Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score, E-wave transmitral/early diastolic mitral annular velocity (E/e’ ratio), cardiopulmonary pressures, PRA, and AP24534 supplier natriuretic peptide levels. Systolic and cardiac chronotropic function were significantly lower in patients with grade 2 LVDD than without LVDD. LVDD was more frequent in patients with ascites and increased PRA than patients without ascites or with ascites Talazoparib molecular weight but normal PRA. Fourteen patients with LVDD developed hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) type 1 on follow-up. Survival was different according to degree of LVDD (without LVDD: 95%; grade 1 LVDD: 79%; grade 2 LVDD: 39%; P < 0.001). Independent predictive factors of mortality were MELD score and E/e' ratio. Conclusion:

LVDD occurs simultaneously with other changes in cardiac structure and function and is associated with an impairment of effective arterial blood volume. LVDD is a sensitive marker of advanced cirrhosis, type 1 HRS development, and mortality. (Hepatology 2013;58:1732–1741) Cirrhosis is associated with a specific subclinical cardiomyopathy[1-4] characterized by diminished systolic responsiveness to stress stimuli,[5, 6] impaired diastolic relaxation,[7, 8] electrophysiological abnormalities,[9]

and enlargement and hypertrophy of cardiac chambers,[10, 11] all in the absence of known cardiac disease. However, evidence suggests that patients with cirrhosis display primarily left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) with normal systolic function at rest.[7] Doppler examination of mitral inflow has been the most common technique used in the evaluation of left ventricular (LV) diastolic selleck compound function in cirrhosis.[7, 8, 10, 11] However, conventional Doppler echocardiographic indices (E/A ratio) have clear limitations (age and load conditions) and rarely allow the accurate differentiation between normal from pseudonormal pattern. Currently, the most sensitive and reproducible echocardiographic technique for the assessment of LV filling dynamics is tissue Doppler imaging (TDI), because TDI can overcome some of these factors. TDI is an ultrasound modality that applies the Doppler principle to record velocities within the myocardium. TDI velocities have demonstrated a significant correlation with invasive indices of LV relaxation and minimal effect of preload in the setting of impaired relaxation.

98 It has good construct validity, with a good correlation with

98. It has good construct validity, with a good correlation with other self-rated assessment tools, including the HAL. The FISH had a good correlation with the clinical score (r = –0.61) and the radiological score (r = –0.38) [17]. The FISH was originally designed to compare a patient’s basic functional ability with that of normal healthy individuals, and was not designed to assess challenging activities in individuals. Therefore, like the PedHAL, it may have a ceiling effect when applied to those with minimal

musculoskeletal changes [19]. It has, however, been used effectively in studies from varied cultural backgrounds [20–23]. While the assessment of Activities involves the ability to execute tasks or actions, Participation is defined as involvement in a life situation, such as sport, leisure, ABT737 work or social events [4]. The ICF provides a single list of activities and participation in nine domains. According

to their needs and purposes, investigators designate some domains as activities and others as participation [4]. Although there are several generic instruments used to assess Carfilzomib molecular weight participation, only a few have been used in haemophilia [2]. While the items in FISH are primarily in the domain of ‘activities’, the HAL has several questions that involve the subject’s interaction with others and with the environment. Assessing ‘participation’ across cultures is challenging, as several items/questions may not be equally relevant. In a study from India several items related to participation in the HAL had poor cross-cultural validation [17]. The Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) is an open-ended questionnaire that allows patients to prioritize

their main concerns – both in the domains of functional activities and in participation. It has been shown to be useful in making individualized management plans for patients with haemophilia [24]. Its ability to assess different intervention programmes is, however, limited. The feasibility of developing a tool to assess participation, which is contextually relevant and universally applicable, needs to be explored. It has been a long felt need to develop a core set of disease-specific tools to assess the different domains of musculoskeletal outcome as defined by the ICF. The WFH has taken the first step by identifying a core set of tools, selleck compound and making them available on the World Wide Web ( These tools need to be used more widely in centres not involved in their development, to judge their acceptability across different countries. Long-term studies are necessary to determine their efficacy in assessing the severity of joint arthropathy. Radiological assessment has been one of the oldest clinimetric tools used to measure progression of joint arthropathy. With newer imaging modalities, it has been possible to detect changes in joints before they are clinically apparent.

5% (95% CI: 30-172%, I2=958); North America: 65% (95% CI: 26

5% (95% CI: 3.0-17.2%, I2=95.8); North America: 6.5% (95% CI: 2.6-15.2%, I2=95.1); Europe: 16.5% (95% selleck kinase inhibitor CI: 9.5-27.0%, I2=92.0); Asia: 11.2% (95% CI: 3.6-29.7%, I2=96.8). While few studies were representative of the overall NIDU population, almost all provided detailed accounts of participant selection, data collection and possible confounders such as other transmission risks. Conclusions: Studies identified in this review found wide variability in the global prevalence of HCV infection among

NIDU. Even after subgroup analysis, heterogeneity within regional estimates was high due to the limited representativeness of study populations within each region. The estimates presented suggest that the burden of HCV infection is high among NIDU and efforts should be made to improve risk-based screening and prevent further transmission. Disclosures: The following people have nothing to disclose: Rebecca L. Morgan, Natalie Blackburn, Anthony K. Yartel, Don C. Des Jarlais Cholesterol metabolism can influence the natural history of HCV infection and antiviral response. ABCA1 is a key gatekeeper influencing intracellular cholesterol transport. Aims: to study the influence of ABCA1 SNPs rs2230806 and rs2230808 in patients with chronic hepatitis

C and potencial clinical impact. Methods: 295 Chronic HCV patients, 187 male (43.66±10.51 years), 108 female (49.49±13.39 years). HCV-RNA and genotype were determined by PCR. Liver steatosis, grading and staging were assessed by liver biopsy (Peter Scheuer score); ALT, γGT, lipid profile (LDL, HDL, total (t) cholesterol and tri-glycerides) quantified by standard

techniques. Exclusion criteria: other chronic liver diseases, alcohol ingestion Metabolism inhibitor >40g/ day, HIV infection, metabolic, cardiovascular and autoimmune diseases. ABCA1 SNPs rs2230806, rs2230808 were analyzed by melting-curves analysis in LightCycler480II. SNPs, clinical and histological parameters were compared in male and female. Statistical analysis by SPSS 21 (p<0.05). check details Results: The significant different parameters between gender/SNPs were tcholesterol, ALT, γGT, HCV-RNA and grading (see table). These parameters were related with liver histology (ste-atosis, grading and staging) and response to antiviral therapy. In male a significant correlation was found between: higher γGT / higher fibrosis (p=0.008) and non response to antiviral treatment (p=0.020); lower tcholesterol / higher steatosis (p<0.001) and grading (p=0.023). In female a significant correlation was found between: higher ALT / higher fibrosis (p=0.011), grading (p=0.006) and steatosis (p=0.050). Conclusion: ABCA1 genetic polymorphisms rs2230806 and rs2230808 are gender specific in chronic HCV patients, modulating cholesterol metabolism and histological severity. *OR (GG+GA)= 9.125 [1,646-50,595]; **OR (GG+GA)= 5.639 [1,344-23,652]; ***OR (GG)= 6.111 [1,414-26,408] Disclosures: The following people have nothing to disclose: Joana Ferreira, Cilénia B. Costa, Ricardo Andrade, Manuel Bicho, Fatima S.

79 The unfolded protein response is initiated by three ER transme

79 The unfolded protein response is initiated by three ER transmembrane

sensors, PKR-like ER kinase, inositol-requiring enzyme 1, and activating transcription factor 6. These transmembrane sensors activate an adaptive response that results in cessation of protein synthesis, increase of protein-folding chaperones, and increase in ER-associated degradation LY294002 genes. The unfolded protein response is also able to induce activation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathway and thereby inhibit insulin signaling through the subsequent phosphorylation and/or degradation of IRS1.80 Recent data from experimental models indicate that ER stress is critical to the initiation and integration of pathways of inflammation and insulin action in obesity, T2DM, and NAFLD. ER stress response can be induced in the liver by saturated FA in rats,81 and this activation can lead to activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase and insulin resistance.80 Activation of ER stress in the liver has also been shown in human subjects with NAFLD, as documented by activation of PKR-like ER kinase

and an increase in the ER chaperone GRP78 messenger RNA.82 Talazoparib clinical trial Data from a study conducted in extremely obese patients revealed that ER stress is associated with NAFLD and improves with weight loss and resolution of steatosis. Bariatric surgery–induced weight loss increased insulin sensitivity in multiple organs and decreased IHTG content and both liver and adipose tissue activation of all three ER stress click here pathways.83 The complexity of the relationship between NAFLD and insulin resistance is underscored by the observation that steatosis is not always associated with insulin resistance. A dissociation between

steatosis and insulin resistance has been reported in selected genetically altered or pharmacologically manipulated animal models and human subjects. Overexpression of hepatic DGAT,69 blockade of hepatic VLDL secretion,66 and pharmacological blockade of β-oxidation84 in mice causes hepatic steatosis, but not hepatic or skeletal muscle insulin resistance, whereas inhibiting hepatocyte TG synthesis in obese mice decreases hepatic steatosis but does not improve insulin sensitivity.85 In addition, hepatic steatosis caused by genetic deficiency of apoB synthesis and decreased VLDL hepatic secretion in patients with familial hypobetalipoproteinemia is not accompanied by hepatic or peripheral insulin resistance (S. Klein, unpublished observations). These data support the notion that hepatic accumulation of TG does not necessarily cause insulin resistance. In fact, it is possible that the esterification of excessive FA to inert TG molecules protects the hepatocyte by preventing the accumulation of potentially toxic intracellular FAs.86 Inhibiting hepatocyte TG synthesis by treatment with DGAT2 antisense oligonucleotide in obese mice decreased hepatic steatosis but increased hepatic FFAs, markers of lipid peroxidation/oxidant stress, lobular necroinflammation, and fibrosis.

The degree of iron overload, however, varies between strains, whi

The degree of iron overload, however, varies between strains, which is consistent with previous observations that iron metabolism is modified by genetic background.29 Our HH mice were generated on an AKR background and have relatively high plasma and liver iron levels, compared with other strains of mice. Colocalization of a more marked fibrotic process in areas of greatest iron deposition in the hepatic periportal regions in our Hfe−/−×Tfr2mut mice provides further evidence of the importance of genetic background and phenotypic expression of iron overload in the pathogenesis of liver injury in HH. Rodents

are generally relatively resistant to iron-induced Selleck Erlotinib liver injury. Dietary carbonyl iron loading of rats for 3 months produced iron loading in hepatocytes, similar to the levels observed in the Hfe−/− ×Tfr2mut mice in the present study, but demonstrated only early signs of liver injury, including Maraviroc concentration increased LPO and collagen gene expression. Long-term iron loading was required for up to 12 months before morphological evidence of fibrosis

was observed.30, 31 Dietary iron supplementation in combination with hepatotoxins, such as ethanol and carbon tetrachloride, was required to accelerate liver injury.32, 33 In the present study, the degree of liver fibrosis observed in Hfe−/− ×Tfr2mut mice at 3 months of age was similar to that observed after dietary loading of rodents for 12 months.30, 31 In our Hfe−/−×Tfr2mut mice, hepatic inflammation, fibrosis, and LPO occurred in the presence of marked elevation of both plasma NTBI and hepatic iron levels, similar to those observed in human HFE-related HH.34, 35 Furthermore,

the degree of fibrosis observed in the HH mice was dependent on both HIC and NTBI levels. The observation that Hfe−/−×Tfr2mut mice have increased plasma ALT levels is consistent with previous observations in HH patients, where the majority of patients had mildly elevated ALT levels.36 Levels of the antioxidant enzymes, cytosolic copper/zinc and mitochondrial manganese this website SOD, were both decreased in Hfe−/−×Tfr2mut mice consistent with increased oxidative stress. Earlier studies have also reported decreased copper/zinc SOD in dietary iron-overloaded animals, whereas manganese SOD was decreased in Hfe knockout and increased in iron-loaded rodents.11, 20, 37 Furthermore, LPO was increased in HH mice. Unexpectedly, the level of F2-isoprostanes in dietary iron-loaded mice was greater than in HH mice with similar HIC. This may be the result of differences between dietary iron (i.e., high HAMP) and genetic HH (i.e., low HAMP) models of liver iron overload where variation in cellular iron distribution between parenchymal and Kupffer cells occurs, despite similar total HIC.

Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses

Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses

using four restriction enzymes (HhaI, HpaII, HaeIII and RsaI) and sequence analyses of partial 16S rRNA and rp genes demonstrated that apple phytoplasma isolates AZD6738 chemical structure in the centre of Iran are related to ‘Ca. Phytoplasma asteris’ and ‘Ca. Phytoplasma aurantifolia’. This is the first report of apples infected with ‘Ca. Phytoplasma asteris’ in Iran and the first record from association of ‘Ca. Phytoplasma aurantifolia’ with apples worldwide. “
“In 2011, a wilt disease has been detected on carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) cultivar ‘Light Pink Barbara’ in Kunming, Yunnan, China. A Fusarium sp. was consistently recovered from pieces of symptomatic tissues on Petri dishes containing potato dextrose agar (PDA). On the basis of morphological characteristics and molecular identification by DNA sequencing of ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (rDNA ITS) and partial

translation elongation factor-1α (TEF) gene region, following their phylogenetic trees construction, the putative causal agent was identified as Fusarium proliferatum (Matsushima) Nirenberg, and its pathogenicity was finally confirmed by Koch’s postulates. To our knowledge, this is the first Selumetinib molecular weight report of a wilt disease caused by F. proliferatum on carnation in China. “
“In July and August 2013, blossom blight and soft rot of pods were observed on okra in experimental fields in Iksan and Jeju, Korea. Infection started in fading flower petals, spread to entire flowers and young

pods, resulting in blighted blossoms and soft rot of pods. Severe infection caused early falling of blossoms and fruit drop, reducing plant vigour in the summer season. On the basis of the morphological characteristics and phylogenetic analyses of two molecular markers ITS rDNA and D1/D2 region of the LSU, the fungus was identified as Choanephora cucurbitarum. A pathogenicity test was carried out to fulfil Koch’s postulates. To our knowledge, this is the first report of C. cucurbitarum on okra in Korea. “
“Observations made in Mali strongly suggest that Rice yellow mottle selleck chemical virus (RYMV) is spread by weaverbirds (Quelea quelea) below and around baobab trees (Adansonia digitata) in which they nest. Rice leaves in bird nests appeared to be infected. In Spain, an infection of Southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV) in string (climbing) beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) was apparently introduced and spread by sparrows (Passer domesticus) judging from the damage caused on flowers and bean pods. Damaged leaves and pods on SBMV-infected plants were also found in a screenhouse visited by sparrows and bulbuls (Pycnonotus barbatus) in Morocco. These observations showed that both viruses could be spread by birds when either collecting infected leaves for nesting or feeding on infected plants.