A morphology study using Auger electron spectroscopy


A morphology study using Auger electron spectroscopy

and Raman spectroscopic study revealed a correlation among the density of trap states in an SOI layer, roughness, and local mechanical stress near the SOI/BOX interface. This correlation is understood to imply that local mechanical stress near the SOI/BOX interface, which is induced by roughness at the interface peculiar to the SIMOX process, enhances the generation of structural defects and resultant electron trap states in the SOI layer of a SIMOX wafer. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3520660]“
“Endothelial and vascular damage are main leading disability in systemic SB202190 sclerosis (SSc). Raynaud’s phenomenon is the early symptom that presents vascular damage. Nailfold capillaroscopy (NFC) is an easily accessible diagnostic tool in secondary Raynaud’s phenomenon. Considering the endothelial damage, clinical manifestations,

and plasma cytokines was compared with traditionally used NFC parameter for, which to observe the number selleck products of capillaries, deletions in 3 mm, apical limb width and the capillary width itself. We hypothesize that a computer-based NFC system can generate a new powerful parameter which predicts the capillary dimension. We investigated the relationship among the plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1), clinical manifestations and quantitative analysis of computerized NFC, and to assess the optimal method in SSc. The level of ET-1 in 60 SSc patients, 30 healthy, and 23 disease controls were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. We present a significant difference in all parameters of NFC between SSc patients and control groups. ET-1 level was increased in patients with SSc. In SSc group, capillary dimension and loss of capillaries were strongly associated with digital ulceration (p < 0.01) and pulmonary hypertension (p < 0.05). Capillary dimension AZD7762 and ET-1 level was in correlation with skin-hardening grade, and was higher in

SSc patients with pulmonary hypertension or digital ulcer. Capillary dimension showed strong correlation with the endothelin-1 in SSc, healthy and disease control groups. (Rs = 0.31/p < 0.05, Rs = 0.82/p < 0.001, Rs = 0.83/p < 0.001). The results suggest that computer-based microscopic analysis of NFC is a useful method that potentially provides information on organ involvement and plasma ET-1. Capillary dimension maybe a powerful parameter possibly applicable in outpatient clinic for assessing SSc patients.”
“A large size botulinum toxin complex (L-TC) is composed of a single neurotoxin (BoNT), a single nontoxic nonhaemagglutinin (NTNHA) and a haemagglutinin (HA) complex. The HA complex is comprised of three HA-70 molecules and three arm structures of HA-33/HA-17 that consist of two HA-33 and a single HA-17.

11, 95% CI: 0 87-1 42, P = 0 38), CV death or CV hospitalization

11, 95% CI: 0.87-1.42, P = 0.38), CV death or CV hospitalization (HR: 1.16, 95% CI: 1.01-1.33, P = 0.035), and CV death and HF hospitalization (HR: 1.27, 95% CI: 1.06-1.51, P = 0.008).

ConclusionsAnemia modestly is associated with increased rates of death, hospitalization, and HF exacerbation in patients with chronic HFREF. After adjusting for other important covariates, anemia is independently associated

with an excess hazard for all-cause mortality and all-cause hospitalization. Anemia is also associated with combinations of CV death and CV/HF hospitalizations as composite endpoints.”
“Systems selleckchem to assess the toxicity of materials used in human assisted reproduction Currently lack efficiency and/or Rabusertib inhibitor sufficient discriminatory power. The development of 1-cell CBA/B6 F1 hybrid mouse embryos to blastocysts expressed as blastocyst rate (BR). is used to measure toxicity. The embryos were divided into control and test groups, and were exposed to either control medium or to a potentially toxic test medium. Inferences on toxicity were based on differences in BR between the two groups. The mouse embryo assay followed a stratified (Mouse), randomized (embryo),

and balanced (equal number of embryos per group and per mouse) design. The number of embryos needed was calculated using power analysis. The basal BR of the hybrid strain was determined in a historical population. Sixty-nine mouse embryos per group were required to detect toxic materials with sufficient sensitivity and to account for the considerable inter-mouse variation in blastocyst development. Fifty-two samples, divided over batches of seven NVP-HSP990 Cytoskeletal Signaling inhibitor different products were tested before use in the study IVF centre and five of these were found to be toxic. This test system, presented as the Nijmegen Mouse embryo assay (NMEA). can be used to detect embryo-toxic materials in daily IVF practice, and this report may provide a starting point for standardization.”

As the number of elderly patients diagnosed with non-small cell lung carcinoma

(NSCLC) increases, the number of these patients receiving chemotherapy also increases. However, limited data exists regarding the use of chemotherapy in advanced NSCLC patients who are 75 years of age or older.

Materials and Methods

Between May 2002 and October 2008, data for 48 advanced NSCLC patients who were 75 years of age or older who had been treated with chemotherapy were retrospectively analyzed.


The median age of study participants at the time of first line chemotherapy was 76 years (range, 75 to 87 years) and their median Charlson comorbidity index was 2 (range, 1 to 4). Of the total 48 patients, 43 patients (90%) were treated by platinum-based doublet as a first line chemotherapy regimen. Median progression free survival for first line chemotherapy was 5.7 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.93 to 6.47 months) with an overall response rate of 33.3%.

Results: Our findings indicate that the administration of MTZ can

Results: Our findings indicate that the administration of MTZ can prolong swimming capacity time and improve exercise tolerance as

well as increase the content of liver glycogen, reduce the level of lactic acid in muscles, when compared with anoxic control group. MTZ also delayed the accumulation of BUN, compared with anoxic control.

Conclusion: The results show that MTZ has anti-fatigue effects in mice, and further suggest that it is a potential novel remedy for fatigue due to high-altitude hypoxia.”
“Background and objective: The relationship between endotoxin exposure and asthma Vactosertib ic50 severity (wheeze and airways obstruction) is not well described. The effects of endotoxin and tobacco smoke exposure on self-reported wheeze and diurnal PEF variability (DV-PEF) were examined in children aged 6-18 years with asthma or wheeze.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed in a rural area. From this study, children who reported wheeze in the previous 12 months or a physician diagnosis of asthma (n = 98) were selected for a case-control study. These subjects, who were the basis for the present analysis, completed: (i) a home environmental assessment, including dust collection BLZ945 supplier to measure endotoxin levels: (ii)

a clinic visit, including saliva collection to measure cotinine levels; and (iii) 2 week monitoring of twice daily symptom records, including wheeze, and PEF to calculate DV-PEF.

Results: Among these children, 22.4% reported wheeze during the monitoring period. Greater DV-PEF was associated with higher endotoxin loads in play areas (P < 0.05). The association between salivary cotinine levels and high DV-PEF was modified by gender. In females, higher cotinine levels were associated with an increased risk of high DV-PEF compared with lower cotinine levels (P < 0.05), but this was not observed among males.

Conclusions: Higher endotoxin exposure was associated with greater DV-PEF among children with

asthma or wheeze. While previous studies have suggested that endotoxin exposure protects against the development of asthma, individuals with the disease should avoid high exposure levels to limit exacerbations. The effect of tobacco selleck chemicals llc smoke exposure on lung health may differ between male and female children.”
“Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections from 32 canine pairs of testes were immunohistochemically examined for Inhibin-alpha (INH alpha). Samples were subdivided into two groups (group 1, neonates; group 2, puppies and adults) and results statistically compared. Inhibin-alpha was significantly expressed only in Sertoli cells of neonatal testes, while in Leydig cells it was expressed without significant difference between groups.

In this context, tau represents a potential therapeutic target, b

In this context, tau represents a potential therapeutic target, by the action of drugs that diminish its aggregation, or acting by altering its phosphorylation Belinostat nmr or filaments

formation. There is also anti-tau miscellaneous strategies such as normal microtubule-stabilizing agents. Thus, it might be possible that in a near future the neurodegenerative process could be stopped.”
“Phase compositions and crystal structures of Gd6X2Si3 (X = Ni, Co,) and Ln(6)Co(2)Si(3) (Ln = Pr, La) have been studied. The magnetic properties of Gd6X2Si3 (X = Ni, Co) and Ln(6)Co(2)Si(3) (Ln = Pr, La) have been evaluated from magnetization measurements performed by a superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer in a temperature interval of 5-400 K, and at magnetic fields up to 5 T. The crystal structures of Gd6X2Si3 (X = Co, Ni) and Ln(6)Co(2)Si(3) (Ln Pr, La) were found to be hexagonal at 300 K. The Curie temperature (T-C), effective and magnetic moment of the compounds (at 5 K) have been determined for Gd6X2Si3 (X = Ni, Co), and Ln(6)Co(2)Si(3) (Ln = Pr, La). T-C was found to depend on composition, and reaches maximum value of about 300 K for the Gd6X2Si3 system. The magnetocaloric effect (magnetic entropy changes

and relative cooling power (RCP) was found to depend on X and Ln, and the maximum RCP values were found to be larger than 500 J/kg near room temperature for the Gd6Ni2Si3 and Gd6Co2Si3 compounds. This value of RCP is comparable to the prototype magnetic refrigeration material, Gd. (C) 2011 American Institute www.selleckchem.com/products/CAL-101.html of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3544509]“
“Generalized spike and wave discharges (GSW) are often accompanied by transitory cognitive impairment (TCI). As a possible neurophysiological correlate

of TCI, activation in the thalamus and deactivation in the frontoparietal brain regions associated with GSW were discussed in previous studies which used simultaneous recordings of EEG and functional MRI (EEG-fMRI) in patients with absence epilepsy. We report on a girl having GSW up to 10 seconds without any clinical concomitants. The girl underwent an EEG-fMRI investigation with simultaneous behavioral testing (continuous performance task). Although GSW repeatedly occurred during the task, no TCI was observed. EEG-fMRI revealed bilateral deactivation in frontoparietal brain areas and activation find more in the thalamus in association with GSWs. This study challenges the relation between cognitive impairment during absences and the characteristic pattern of thalamic activation and deactivation in frontoparietal areas associated with GSW. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Background: At 3 years after diagnosis, the risk of Alzheimer disease (AD) for patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is estimated to be 18% to 30%. To improve treatment of patients at high dementia risk there is a need for a better prediction of the risk for transition from MCI to AD. Olfactory deficits are a hypothetical predictor of conversion form MCI to AD.

01), and reduced morbidity (P < 0 01) Surgical staging signif

01), and reduced morbidity (P < 0.01). Surgical staging significantly reduced

postoperative red blood cell (P = 0.03), and after-hours red blood cell (P < 0.01) and component requirements (P = 0.04). Mean total inpatient costs were $89,132 lower for patients undergoing the staged procedure (95% confidence interval of mean cost difference = -$178,899 to -$4661).

Conclusion. Separating the anterior exposure and posterior resection phases of complex sacral tumor resection into two separate surgical episodes of care is associated with improved clinical outcomes and reduced inpatient cost.”
“A 10-year, retrospective review of the risk factors and clinical outcome of childhood ischemic stroke treated in a single tertiary care center was conducted. Sixty-two children were identified (33 boys ACY-738 purchase and 29 girls), ages 1 month to 17 years. Risk factors included vasculopathy (35.5%), cardiac disease (17.4%), metabolic disorder (14.5%), infection (14.5%),

and coagulopathy (1.6%). Nine patients (14.5%) had no identifiable cause of stroke and 1 patient had 2 risk factors. Hemiplegia (69.3%) and seizures (32.3%) were the most https://www.selleckchem.com/products/Nutlin-3.html common presenting features, and seizures were significantly more frequent in children <12 months of age than in older children (71.4% vs 20.8%, P = .001). Recurrence of stroke occurred in 55.6% of patients with metabolic disorder, 33.3% of those with cardiac disease, and 19.0% of those with vasculopathy. Vasculopathy including moyamoya disease was the most important risk factor for ischemic

stroke in Korea, and their prognosis were varied with the etiology of stroke.”
“Spinal cord stimulation has been shown to be an effective and well-established treatment for failed back surgery syndrome, complex regional pain syndrome, and other neuropathic pain states. Recent advances in this therapy have led to its use in enhancing blood flow and reducing ischemic pain patterns. The application of spinal cord stimulation to treat angina and improve outcomes in patients suffering from peripheral vascular disease is now becoming a part of the algorithmic buy MX69 standard of care. This article examines the selection of patients, application of the therapy, outcomes, and future uses of stimulation for patients afflicted with these diseases. This article also examines possible study protocols to further examine the overall outcome of these therapies.”
“Optimizing the possibilities for kidney-paired donation (KPD) requires the participation of donor-recipient pairs from wide geographic regions. Initially it was envisaged that donors would travel to the recipient center; however, to minimize barriers to participation and simplify logistics, recent trends have involved transporting the kidneys rather than the donors. The goal of this study was to review outcomes of this practice. KPD programs throughout the United States were directly queried about all transplants involving live donor kidney transport.

Methods and results: The number of circulating OPCs was quantifie

Methods and results: The number of circulating OPCs was quantified SB273005 nmr by FACS analysis in 120 postmenopausal women with or without osteoporosis. OPCs were defined as CD34+/alkaline phosphatase(AP)+ or CD34+/osteocalcin(OCN)+ cells. Participants underwent cardiovascular risk factor assessment, measurement of bone mineral density (BMD), and aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV) as a measure of arterial stiffness.

Osteoporotic women had higher aPWV (9.8 +/- 2.8 vs 8.5 +/- 1.9 m/s, p = 0.005) and

levels of CD34+/AP+ and CD34+/OCN+ cells than nonosteoporotic controls [1045 n/mL (487-2300) vs 510 n/mL (202-940), p < 0.001; 2415 n/mL (1225-8090) vs 1395 n/mL (207-2220), p < 0.001]. aPWV was associated with log-CD34+/AP+ (r

= 0.27, p = 0.003), log-CD34+/OCN+ cells (r = 0.38, p < 0.001). In stepwise regression analysis CD34+/OCN+ cells, age, systolic blood pressure and heart rate were significant predictors of aPWV (Model R = 0.62, p < 0.001), independent of cardiovascular risk factors, parathyroid hormone levels and osteoporotic status.

Conclusion: In women with postmenopausal osteoporosis an increased availability of circulating osteoprogenitor cells has a detrimental influence on arterial compliance, which may in part explain the association between osteoporosis and arterial stiffening. (C) 2010 Elsevier see more B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Carbon films were deposited in a filtered Topoisomerase inhibitor cathodic vacuum arc with a bias potential applied to a conducting mesh mounted

in the plasma stream between the source and the substrate. We determined the stress and microstructural properties of the resulting carbon films and compared the results with those obtained using direct substrate bias with no mesh. Since the relationship between deposition energy and the stress, sp(2) fraction and density of carbon are well known, measuring these film properties enabled us to investigate the effect of the mesh on the energy and composition of the depositing flux. When a mesh was used, the film stress showed a monotonic decrease for negative mesh bias voltages greater than 400V, even though the floating potential of the substrate did not vary. We explain this result by the neutralization of some ions when they are near to or passing through the negatively biased mesh. The microstructure of the films showed a change from amorphous to glassy carbonlike with increasing bias. Potential applications for this method include the deposition of carbon films with controlled stress on low conductivity substrates to form rectifying or ohmic contacts. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3562165]“
“Regenerative medicine for complex tissues like limbs will require the provision or activation of precursors for different cell types, in the correct number, and with the appropriate instructions.

The curves

The curves BTSA1 cost for the buildup and decay of birefringence fit well to biexponential functions. The dependence of the fitting parameters on the temperature is also discussed. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 117: 2069-2074, 2010″
“Background: The spread of pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae s.s. is a critical issue for malaria vector control based on the use of insecticide-treated nets. Carbamates and organophosphates insecticides are regarded as alternatives or supplements to pyrethroids used in nets treatment. It is, therefore, essential to investigate

on the susceptibility of pyrethroid resistant populations of An. gambiae s.s. to these alternative products.

Methods: In September 2004, a cross sectional survey was conducted in six localities in Cote d’Ivoire: Toumbokro, Yamoussoukro, Toumodi in the Southern Guinea savannah, Tiassale in semi-deciduous forest, then Nieky and Abidjan in evergreen forest area. An. gambiae populations from these localities were previously reported to be highly resistant to pyrethroids insecticides. Anopheline larvae were collected from the field and reared to adults. Resistance/susceptibility to carbamates (0.4% carbosulfan, 0.1% propoxur) and organophosphates (0.4% chlorpyrifos-methyl, 1% fenitrothion) was assessed using WHO bioassay test kits for adult mosquitoes. Then, PCR assays were run to determine the

molecular forms (M) and (S), as well JQEZ5 manufacturer as phenotypes for insensitive acetylcholinesterase (AChE1) due to G119S mutation.

Results: Bioassays showed carbamates (carbosulfan and propoxur) resistance in all tested populations of An. gambiae s.s. In addition, two out of the six tested populations (Toumodi and Tiassale) were also resistant to organophosphates (mortality rates ranged from 29.5% to 93.3%). The M-form was predominant in tested samples (91.8%). learn more M and S molecular forms were sympatric at two localities but no M/S hybrids

were detected. The highest proportion of S-form (7.9% of An. gambiae identified) was in sample from Toumbokro, in the southern Guinea savannah. The G119S mutation was found in both M and S molecular forms with frequency from 30.9 to 35.2%.

Conclusion: This study revealed a wide distribution of insensitive acetylcholinesterase due to the G119S mutation in both M and S molecular forms of the populations of An. gambiae s.s. tested. The low cross-resistance between carbamates and organophosphates highly suggests involvement of other resistance mechanisms such as metabolic detoxification or F290V mutation.”
“The Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit (LT-B) has been used as a model antigen for the production of plant-derived high-valued proteins in maize. LT-B with its native signal peptide (BSP) has been shown to accumulate in starch granules of transgenic maize kernels.

“OBJECTIVE: With the increasing rates of minimally invasiv

“OBJECTIVE: With the increasing rates of minimally invasive hysterectomy procedures serving as impetus, the aim of this study was to analyze the 30-day risk profiles associated with total laparoscopic hysterectomy and laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy (LAVH).

METHODS: The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement XMU-MP-1 cell line Program database was queried for patients who underwent a total laparoscopic hysterectomy or LAVH operation between 2006 and 2010. Patient demographics and 30-day complication rates were calculated. Multivariable regression analyses were used to study the effect of hysterectomy approach on outcomes.


total of 6,190 patients underwent laparoscopic hysterectomy, with 66.3% receiving LAVH and 33.7% receiving a total laparoscopic hysterectomy. The patient cohorts were well-matched. Although total laparoscopic hysterectomy procedures were significantly longer than LAVH operations (2.66 hours compared with 2.20 hours; P<.001), there was no difference in overall morbidity or reoperation rates between the LAVH and total laparoscopic hysterectomy populations (7.05% compared with 6.3% for overall morbidity; 1.3% compared with 1.7% for reoperation). Regression analyses revealed that surgical approach was not a significant predictor

of overall postoperative morbidity or reoperation in minimally invasive hysterectomy patients. Additionally, obesity did not demonstrate 5-Fluoracil cost a significant association with morbidity or reoperation rates; however, operative time was found to be a significant predictor of reoperation (odds ratio 1.23, 95% confidence interval 1.07-1.42).

CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic hysterectomy is well-tolerated with total laparoscopic hysterectomy and LAVH, yielding comparable rates of postoperative morbidity and reoperation. On average, LAVH procedures were 28 minutes faster than total laparoscopic hysterectomy. Additionally, increasing body mass index was not associated with higher rates of morbidity. (Obstet Gynecol 2013;121:781-7) DOI: http://10.1097/AOG.0b013e3182887f4e”
“Background: Psychiatric symptoms during pregnancy induce an increase in morbidity

selleck chemicals llc and also in the mortality levels among women and children. However, the real association between pregnancy and psychiatric disorders and the peculiarities of the phenomenology of symptoms in underprivileged countryside communities remain uncertain.

Objective: To verify the association between psychiatric disorder, symptoms, and pregnancy among women from a low-income countryside community and to determine the specific cutoff points for major depression diagnosis according to Beck Depression Inventory for the different trimesters of pregnancy in this population.

Methods: Ninety-four pregnant women and 38 healthy women from the Conceicao do Mato Dentro health service, a rural low-income community in Brazil, participated in the present study.

Current theoretical work on inclusive fitness is discussed, with

Current theoretical work on inclusive fitness is discussed, with emphasis on the author’s ‘formal Darwinism project’. Generally, favourable conclusions are drawn about the validity of assuming fitness DZNeP maximization, but the need for continuing work is emphasized, along with the possibility that substantive exceptions may be uncovered. The formal Darwinism project aims more ambitiously to represent in a formal mathematical framework the central

point of Darwin’s Origin of Species, that the mechanical processes of inheritance and reproduction can give rise to the appearance of design, and it is a fitting ambition in Darwin’s bicentenary year to capture his most profound discovery in the lingua franca of science.”
“LixAg1-x(Nb0.5Ta0.5)O-3 (0 <= x <= 0.25) solid solutions

have been fabricated by the mixed oxide method. Compositions with x <= 0.15 were single phase perovskite by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and could be indexed using the end member, Ag(Nb0.5Ta0.5)O-3 Pbcm cell, root 2a, root 2a, 4a (where a is the pseudocubic lattice parameter). For x >= 0.20, Li(Nb, Ta)O-3 peaks emerged as a second phase. Electron diffraction patterns from the perovskite phase could also be indexed according to the Pbcm cell but there was a systematic decrease in the intensity of 00 1/4(p) as Li concentration PD98059 mouse increased which indicated that the correlation length of cation displacements perpendicular to c decreased from long to short range order. The reduction in correlation length of cation displacements resulted in a convergence of the M-1-M-2-M-3 transitions to give a single broad, frequency dependent maximum at

x=0.15. Further increase in Li concentration did not qualitatively affect the temperature dependent dielectric data, consistent with the https://www.selleckchem.com/products/dinaciclib-sch727965.html solubility limit determined by XRD. P-E loops did not show any significant enhancement in switchable polarization in the system with the majority of samples exhibiting a linear dielectric response. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3485813]“
“The evolution of organismality is a social process. All organisms originated from groups of simpler units that now show high cooperation among the parts and are nearly free of conflicts. We suggest that this near-unanimous cooperation be taken as the defining trait of organisms. Consistency then requires that we accept some unconventional organisms, including some social insect colonies, some microbial groups and viruses, a few sexual partnerships and a number of mutualistic associations. Whether we call these organisms or not, a major task is to explain such cooperative entities, and our survey suggests that many of the traits commonly used to define organisms are not essential.

The proposed TFT Compact Mobility Model is verified theoretically

The proposed TFT Compact Mobility Model is verified theoretically and against experimental data, and the model is applicable even for high temperatures T > T(o), above the characteristic temperature T(o) of the distribution of states in the organic material, a condition at which other models diverge in principle. The improvement is achieved by the identification of a temperature “”shaping”" function, which contains a diverging function Volasertib research buy when derived

theoretically elsewhere at idealized assumptions, and we suggest an approach to remedy the problem, since divergence in characteristic equations of compact models is not allowed. However, an open question remains for the bias enhancement in mobility at high temperatures, for which case no physical model is available at present. Another essential practical feature of the TFT Compact Z-DEVD-FMK Mobility Model is that the model is both upgradable and reducible, allowing for easier implementation, modifications and independence of characterization techniques, enabling a systematic fitting of experimental data with large scattering

in the values, which is the case for OTFT nowadays. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3212539]“
“Background: alpha-Hydroxy acids (alpha HAs) are reported to reduce signs of aging in the skin and are widely used cosmetic ingredients. Several studies

suggest that alpha HA can increase the sensitivity of skin to ultraviolet radiation. More recently, beta-hydroxy acids (beta HAs), or combinations of alpha HA and beta HA have also been incorporated into antiaging skin care products. Concerns have also arisen about increased sensitivity to ultraviolet radiation following use of skin care products containing beta-HA.

Objective: To determine whether www.selleckchem.com/products/emricasan-idn-6556-pf-03491390.html topical treatment with glycolic acid, a representative aHA, or with salicylic acid, a beta HA modifies the short-term effects of solar simulated radiation (SSR) in human skin.

Methods: Fourteen subjects participated in this study. Three of the four test sites on the mid-back of each subject were treated daily Monday-Friday, for a total of 3.5 weeks, with glycolic acid (10%), salicylic acid (2%), or vehicle (control). The fourth site received no treatment. After the last treatment, each site was exposed to SSR, and shave biopsies from all four sites were obtained.