The control system initiates non-interacting endodermal and mesodermal gene regulatory networks in veg2-derived cells and extinguishes the endodermal gene regulatory network in mesodermal precursors. It also generates a cross-regulatory network that specifies MEK162 solubility dmso future anterior
endoderm in veg2 descendants and institutes a distinct network specifying posterior endoderm in veg1-derived cells. The network model provides an explanatory framework that relates endoderm specification to the genomic regulatory code.”
“Ultrasonic surgery is an increasingly popular technique for cutting bone, but little research has investigated how the ultrasonic tip oscillations may affect the cuts they produce in bone. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the oscillation and cutting characteristics
of an ultrasonic surgical device.\n\nA Piezosurgery 3 (Mectron, Carasco, Italy) ultrasonic cutting system was utilised with an OP3 style Anlotinib in vivo tip. The system was operated with the tip in contact with porcine bone samples (loads of 50 to 200 g) mounted at 45A degrees to the vertical insert tip and with a water flow of 57 ml/min. Tip oscillation amplitude was determined using scanning laser vibrometry. Bone surfaces defects were characterised using laser profilometry and scanning electron microscopy.\n\nA positive relationship was observed between the magnitude of tip oscillations and the dimensions of defects cut into the bone surface. Overloading the tip led to a reduction in oscillation and hence in the defect produced. A contact load of 150 g provided the greatest depth of cut. Defects produced in the bone came from two clear phases of cutting.\n\nThe structure of the bone was found to be an important factor in the cut characteristics following piezosurgery.\n\nCutting of bone with ultrasonics is influenced by the load applied and the setting used. Care must be used to prevent the tip from sliding over the bone at low loadings.”
“Cicatricial pemphigoid is an extremely rare condition in children,
since only 17 cases have been reported in the English literature, so far. We describe a new case in a 20-month-old boy, who is to our knowledge the youngest patient reported DAPT order yet. The disorder had begun 10 months before he was referred to our department by mucosal crusted erosions of the oral and nasal cavities and conjunctivae. Cutaneous examination showed buccal erosions with limited mouth opening, entropion of the lower eyelids, trichiasis, cicatricial cornea, synechia of the nasal cavities and hypopigmented lesions of the abdomen. There were no anal or genital lesions. Cicatricial pemphigoid was confirmed by positive direct and indirect immunofluorescence on mucous biopsy. Systemic corticosteroids (2 mg/kg/day), maintained for 12 months, had led to complete healing of lesions.
method entailed the extraction of nonmovement periods in the data, for which the measured vector magnitude should ideally be the gravitational acceleration (1 g); this property was used to derive calibration correction factors using an iterative closest-point fitting process. The reduction in calibration error was evaluated in data from four cohorts: UK (n = 921), Kuwait (n = 120), Cameroon (n = 311), and Brazil (n = 200). Our method significantly reduced calibration error in all cohorts (P smaller than 0.01), ranging from 16.6 to 3.0 mg in the Kuwaiti cohort to 76.7 to 8.0 mg error in the Brazil cohort. Utilizing temperature sensor data resulted in a small nonsignificant additional improvement (P bigger than 0.05). PI3K inhibitor Temperature correction coefficients were highest for the z-axis, e.g., 19.6-mg offset per 5 degrees C. Further, application of the autocalibration method had a significant impact on typical metrics used for describing human physical activity, e.g., in Brazil average wrist acceleration was 0.2 to 51% lower than uncalibrated values depending on metric selection (P smaller than 0.01). The autocalibration method as presented helps reduce the calibration error in wearable acceleration
sensor data and improves comparability MLN4924 datasheet of physical Selleck Nutlin3 activity measures across study locations. Temperature ultization seems essential when temperature deviates substantially from the average temperature in the record but not for multiday summary measures.”
“7,8-Dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) is one of the most common oxidative DNA lesions. 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylases (Oggs) detect and excise
8-oxoG through a multiple-step process. To better understand the basis for estranged base recognition, we have solved the crystal structures of MBOgg1, the 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase of Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis, in complex with DNA containing a tetrahydrofuranyl site (THF, a stable abasic site analog) paired with an estranged cytosine (MBOgg1/DNA(THF:C)) or thymine (MBOgg1/DNA(THF:T)). Different states of THF (extrahelical or intrahelical) are observed in the two complexes of the ASU of MBOgg1/DNA(THF:C) structure. Analyses of their different interaction modes reveal that variable contacts on the 5′ region flanking the THF abasic site are correlated with the states of the THF. Comparison of MBOgg1/DNA(THF:T) with MBOgg1/DNA(THF:C) indicates that the non-preferred estranged T may affect MBOgg1′s contacts with the 5′ flank of the lesion strand. Furthermore, we identified a region in MBOgg1 that is rich in positive charges and interacts with the 5′ region flanking the lesion.
The aim of this study was to determine the level of disability and the health-related quality of life Fludarabine research buy in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain.\n\nMethods: We performed a cross-sectional study in 187 patients (45.5 % of men, mean age 50.1 years) with chronic non-specific
low back pain attending physical therapy program. We used Visual Analog Pain Scale (VAS), Euroqol questionnaire (EQq), and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI).\n\nResults: Mean ODI score +/- SD was 14.6 +/- 9.0. Mean score of EQ-5D was 3.6 +/- 1.6 points and of EQ-VAS 55.4 +/- 18.3 points. Mean score on VAS was 6.0 +/- 2.1 points. An independent factor associated with lower quality of life on EQ-VAS was higher level of chronic pain. Independent factors associated with a lower quality of life on EQ-5D were the presence of anxiety and depression, higher level of chronic pain, and the presence of chronic disease. Independent factors associated with greater disability measured on ODI were the presence of signs of anxiety and depression, higher level of chronic pain, and the presence of any chronic disease.\n\nConclusions: Chronic low back pain can be the cause of greater disability and lower quality of SHP099 smiles life, especially in patients
with somatic and mental co-morbidities, in female patients and in patients with higher levels of chronic pain. Doctors should focus on active search for signs of depression and anxiety and better pain management in patients with chronic low back pain, especially if somatic co-morbidities exist.”
“Micro-tensile properties of Au thin films were measured using a membrane deflection testing system. During the membrane deflection test, the deflection of the film was measured by an out-of-plane electronic speckle pattern interferometric (ESPI)
system. From the measurement, the tensile loads and strains exerted on the membrane film during the deflection of the film could be determined. Quantitative analysis of the phase maps of the ESPI speckle patterns corresponding to the respective different deflection levels provided the deflection distribution along the testing section of the film. Test pieces were Torin 1 chemical structure fabricated by electromachining process using 0.5 and 1. 0 mu m thick Au films which were deposited on the silicon wafer by sputtering technique. Tensile properties, including elastic modulus, yield and tensile strength, were evaluated in the tensile stress-strain curve determined from the load-deflection relation. These properties were compared to those obtained from the micro-tensile tests. It was found that the yield and tensile strengths obtained from the deflection tests were lesser than those from the micro-tensile tests. Furthermore, the thickness effect, showing the increasing tendency of yield strength with decreasing thickness, was experimentally examined.
Right ventricular systolic function was evaluated using tricuspid annular plane check details systolic excursion (TAPSE) by M-mode echocardiography and tricuspid lateral annular
systolic velocity (Sal by tissue Doppler echocardiography whereas diastolic function was evaluated using tricuspid early (E) and late (A) diastolic flow velocities by conventional and tricuspid lateral annular early (Ea) and late (Aa) diastolic velocities by tissue Doppler echocardiography. Myocardial performance index was taken as an indicator of global functions. Paired t test or Wilcoxon test were used for statistical analysis where appropriate.\n\nResults: E decreased significantly (68 +/- 13 cm/s and 56 +/- 12 cm/s before and after HD, respectively; p<0.0001) but A did not
(p=0.797).TAPSE was 1.84 +/- 0.34 cm before HD and showed a significant increase to 2.03 +/- 0.20 cm after HD (p=0.006). Right ventricular MPI, Sa and Aa did not change significantly by dialysis (p=0.504; p=0.118 and p=0.150 respectively) whereas Ea decreased to 8.8 +/- 2.5 cm/s from 11.3 +/- 3.4 cm/s (p<0.001). Ea/Aa ratio also decreased significantly to 0.69 +/- 0.35 from 0.84 +/- 0.44 with HD (p=0.007).\n\nConclusion: The results of this study indicates that parameters of right ventricular systolic function such as Sa and MPI are independent of preload whereas the conventional and tissue Doppler parameters of right ventricular diastolic function are preload dependent in patients with end-stage renal failure who undergo regular hemodialysis. 5-Fluoracil DNA Damage inhibitor (Anadolu Kardiyol Derg 2012; 12: 5-10)”
“Maintenance of a patent and prevention of aspiration are essential for the management of the trauma patient, that requires experienced physicians in airway control techniques. Difficulties of the airway control in the trauma setting are increased by the vital failures, the risk of aspiration, the potential cervical spine
injury, the combative patient, and the obvious risk of difficult tracheal intubation related to specific injury related to the trauma. Endotracheal intubation remains the gold standard in trauma patient airway management and should be performed via the Adriamycin oral route with a rapid sequence induction and a manual in-line stabilization maneuver, to decrease the risks previously mentioned. Different techniques to control the airway in trauma patients are presented: improvement of the laryngoscopic vision, lighted stylet tracheal intubation, retrograde technique for orotracheal intubation, the laryngeal mask and the intubating laryngeal mask airways, the combitube and cricothyroidotomy. Management of the airway in trauma patients requires regular training in these techniques and the knowledge of complementary techniques allowing tracheal intubation or oxygenation to overcome difficult intubation and to prevent major complications as hypoxemia and aspiration.”
“Objective and aim Severe cases of bone atrophy in the maxilla or mandible are often reconstructed using bone from extraoral donor sides.
HCA induces epithelial reversion at nanomolar concentrations by suppressing Snail via the nuclear translocalization of GSK-3 beta, which results in the transcriptional upregulation
NCT-501 cell line of E-cadherin. HCA also activates the transcription factor KLF17, which suppresses Id-1, indicating that HCA inhibits EMT by multiple transcriptional programs. Further, HCA treatment significantly inhibits lung metastasis in a mouse orthotopic breast cancer model. This study demonstrates the anti-metastatic effect of the non-toxic natural compound HCA through attenuation of EMT in a breast cancer model.”
“The alternative sigma factor ComX is a key regulator of natural transformation in members of the genus Streptococcus. ComX controls expression of the late competence genes, which are essential for DNA binding, uptake and recombination. In Streptococcus pneumoniae, it has been demonstrated that ComX is degraded by ClpEP at the end of the competence period. In the present study we show that a different FaraA Clp protease complex, CIpCP, contributes to ComX degradation in Streptococcus thermophilus. Mutant strains lacking the CIpC chaperone displayed significantly increased transformability compared with the wild-type strain under conditions where ComX was expressed at relatively low levels. At higher expression levels,
CIpCP appears to become saturated and unable to prevent the accumulation of ComX. Together, our results suggest that the role of CIpC is to mediate degradation of ComX when the sigma factor is produced in low amounts, i.e. when the environmental stimulus promoting competence development is weak. This would prevent S. thermophilus from developing the competent
state at an inappropriate time and/or place.”
“Juxtanodin (JN) is a cytoskeleton-related oligodendrocyte-specific gene, and its underlying mechanism still needs detailed exploration. In this study, we tested whether a 1.9 kb fragment from the 5′-flanking region of JN is sufficient to specifically deliver the gene expression in oligodendrocytes. By reporter assay, we found that the 1.9 kb fragment specifically activated in C6 cells, which is further upregulated by ATRA-induced oligodendrocyte lineage differentiation. Bioinformatics ASK inhibitor study revealed that Nkx2.2 might be a transcription factor involved in the process. qPCR results showed that ATRA upregulated endogenous expression of Nkx2.2 in C6 cells. Further study revealed that Nkx2.2 could bind JN promoter and its overexpression increase the promoter activity of JN. In summary, our study here suggests that Nkx2.2 is one of the essential transcription factors delivering the specificity of JN promoter in oligodendrocytes.”
“Since its discovery as the first human tumor virus, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been implicated in the development of a wide range of B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders, the first being Burkitt lymphoma.
Its DFT calculations reveal GKT137831 solubility dmso that compound 2 possesses a non-planar structure and its theoretical IR spectral data are found to be in accordance with experimental values. In addition, its UV visible and fluorescence spectral measurements prove that the compound exhibits good absorption and fluorescence properties. Also, it shows positive solvatochromic effect when the solvent polarity was varied from non-polar to polar. (c) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Exposure of Bacillus licheniformis M20 to aerobic heat stress at 65 and 75 degrees C for 4 h resulted in an increase of the manganese-containing
superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Elevation of the activity levels was greater than 2-fold and 2.5-fold, respectively. Maximal effect was observed at 75 degrees C, and the elevated levels of Mn-containing SOD activity remained constant during 3 h of recovery at 55 degrees C. Treatment of the cells with H(2)O(2) or menadione (Vitamin K(3)) decreased cell density, but induced the biosynthesis of SOD. The results showed that treatment with H(2)O(2) had negligible effect on the induction of the activity of SOD. Treatment with 0.07 mM menadione increased the SOD activity more than 2.5-fold. Ethanol
treatment (3% v/v) of cell culture of B. licheniformis M20 resulted in a greater than 1.5-fold increase in the SOD activity. Higher concentration of ethanol prevented cell growth and the induction of SOD
activity was not observed.”
“In this study, nickel-zinc ferrite nanoparticles, Duvelisib with the chemical formula of Ni0.3Zn0.7-xCuxFe2O4 (where x = 0.1-0.6 by step 0.1), were fabricated by the sol-gel method. The effect of copper substitution on the phase formation and crystal structure of the sample was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermo-gravimetry (TG), differential thermal analysis (DTA), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The XRD result shows that due to the reduction of Zn content,the crystallite size of the sample increased. The results of the vibration sample magnetometer (VSM) exhibit an increase in saturation magnetization value (Ms) for samples with x <= 0.3 and a linear decrease for samples with x > 0.3. click here The variation of saturation magnetization and coercivity of the samples were then studied.”
“Purpose This phase III trial was performed to assess the potential benefit of adding maintenance erlotinib to bevacizumab after a first-line chemotherapy regimen with bevacizumab for advanced non-small- cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients and Methods One thousand one hundred forty-five patients with histologically or cytologically confirmed NSCLC (stage IIIB with malignant pleural effusion, stage IV, or recurrent) received four cycles of chemotherapy plus bevacizumab.
Expression of the virus envelope glycoprotein was measured PR-171 supplier by IFA and western blotting assays. The relative expression of env gene was determined using quantitative PCR. Our results show that the mi-env 231 and mi-env 1384 could effectively suppress the replication of ALV-J with an efficiency of 68.7-75.2 %. These data suggest that the miRNAs targeting the env can inhibit replication of ALV-J efficiently. This finding provides evidence that miRNAs could be used as a potential tool against ALV infection.”
“Antitumor effect of endo-biopolymer (EBP) obtained from
submerged mycelial culture of Pleurotus eryngii was investigated by using Sarcoma-180 bearing mice. The administration of EBP, intraperitoneally (10 to 80 mg/kg BW) at all dose ranges, inhibited the growth of the solid tumor and simultaneously increased the activity HSP990 cell line of natural killer (NK) cells significantly. While, 40 mg/kg BW treated group reduced the tumor formation
(53.1%), and increased the NK cell activity of splenocytes (25.0%) to a great extent. The complement activity of the EBP was 43.1% (1,000 mu g/mL). Phosphatase activity of macrophage was found to be increased up to 35.3% (100 mu g/mL) when compared with control. The chemical composition of EBP was found to contain carbohydrate (77.5%) and protein (21.6%). The major component sugars of EBP were glucose and mannose, while glycine, glutamic acid, and aspartic acid mainly constituted the protein moiety. These results revealed that EBP obtained from submerged culture of P. eryngii stimulate not only immune system but also antitumor activity.”
“A PKC412 supplier sample of archaeological iron slag from Northern Zimbabwe was characterised by Raman microscopy (RM) and electron beam analysis (EBA). The phases identified in a slag found at an ironmaking site not only reflect the chemical composition
of the slag but can also provide crucial information regarding the reconstruction and interpretation of the metallurgical operations, such as the prevailing redox conditions in a furnace at the time of cooling. Free iron oxides, such as haematite, magnetite and wustite, are important indicators of these redox conditions. But while classical techniques of phase identification can be used to identify the different iron oxides, they cannot distinguish between dissimilar oxidation states due to their non-stoichiometric nature, and also the effect of substituting elements in iron oxides. RM proved invaluable in both respects. By combining the results provided by RM and EBA, it was possible to identify (1) the free iron oxides, haematite and magnetite in the original ore, and magnetite and wustite in the slag, (2) oxidised magnetite and wustite, characterized by a shift to higher wavenumbers of their intense characteristic Raman bands and (3) Al3+-substituted magnetite and a solid solution between magnetite and hercynite (FeAl2O4).
To our knowledge, no previous reports have examined the long-term recovery, of patients who have
had this condition. We present a case of confirmed CA-MRSA necrotizing pneumonia with post-hospital selleck discharge follow-up, involving radiologic imaging and pulmonary function testing. (CHEST 2009; 136:1407-1412)”
“PURPOSE: Thiopurines are important as maintenance therapy in Crohn’s disease, but there have been concerns whether thiopurines increase the risk for anastomotic complications. The present study was performed to assess whether thiopurines alone, or together with other possible risk factors, are associated with postoperative intra-abdominal septic complications after abdominal surgery for Crohn’s disease.\n\nMETHODS: Prospectively registered data regarding
perioperative factors were collected at a single tertiary referral center from 1989 to 2002. Data from 343 consecutive abdominal operations on patients with Crohn’s disease were entered into a multivariate analysis to evaluate risk factors for intra-abdominal septic complications. All operations involved either anastomoses, strictureplasties, or both; no operations, however, involved proximal diversion.\n\nRESULTS: Intra-abdominal septic complications occurred in 26 of 343 operations (8%). Thiopurine therapy was associated with an increased risk of intra-abdominal septic complications GW4869 supplier (16% with therapy; 6% without SRT2104 ic50 therapy; P = 0.044). Together with established risk factors such as pre-operative intra-abdominal sepsis (18% with sepsis; 6% without sepsis; P = 0.024) and colocolonic anastomosis (16% with such anastomosis; 6% with other types of anastomosis; P = 0.031), thiopurine therapy was associated with intra-abdominal septic complications in 24% if any 2 or all 3 risk factors were present compared with 13% if any 1 factor was present, and only 4% in patients if none of these factors were present (P < 0.0001).\n\nCONCLUSIONS: Thiopurine therapy is associated with postoperative intra-abdominal septic complications. The risk for intra-abdominal septic complications
was related to the number of identified risk factors. This increased risk should be taken into consideration when planning surgery for Crohn’s disease.”
“Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most common and aggressive primary brain tumors, composing 12%-20% of all intracranial tumors in adults. Average life expectancy is merely 12-14 months following initial diagnosis. Patients with this neoplasm have one of the worst 5-year survival rates among all cancers despite aggressive multimodal treatment consisting of maximal tumor resection, radiation therapy, and adjuvant chemotherapy. With recent advancements in management strategies, there has been improvement in the overall trend in patient outcomes: however, recurrence remains nearly inevitable. While most tumors recur locally, metastases to distal locations have become more common.
For instance, among men, the risk ratio indicating the association between sexual orientation
and marijuana use was 24% greater in high- versus low-structural stigma states, and for women it was 28% greater in high- versus low-structural stigma states. Stigma in the form of social policies and attitudes may contribute to sexual orientation disparities in illicit drug use. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Shiga toxin Escherichia coli (STEC), also Liproxstatin-1 datasheet called verotoxin-producing E. coli, is a major cause of food-borne illness, capable of causing hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). This study was carried out to evaluate the presence of (STEC) and E. coli O157:H7 in shellfish and Mediterranean coastal environments of Morocco. The contamination of shellfish and marine environment with Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) and E. coli O157:H7, was investigated during 2007 and 2008. A total of 619 samples were analyzed and 151 BIX 01294 molecular weight strains of E. coli were isolated. The presence of the stx1, stx2, and eae genes was tested in E. coli isolates strains using a triplex polymerase chain
reaction. STEC was detected in three positives samples (1.9%), corresponding to the serotype O157:H7, the others Shiga toxin-producing E. coli non-O157 were also detected.”
“Background Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) is the earliest and most severe inherited retinal degeneration. Isolated forms of LCA frequently result from mutation of the CEP290 gene which is expressed in various ciliated tissues.\n\nMethods Seven LCA patients with CEP290 mutations were investigated to study otorhinolaryngologic phenotype and respiratory cilia. Nasal biopsies and brushing were performed to study cilia ultrastructure using transmission electron microscopy and ciliary beating using high-speed videomicroscopy, respectively. CEP290 expression in normal nasal epithelium was studied using real-time RT-PCR.\n\nResults When electron microscopy was feasible (5/7), high levels of respiratory
cilia defects were detected. The main defects concerned dynein arms, central complex and/or peripheral microtubules. All patients buy Navitoclax had a rarefaction of ciliated cells and a variable proportion of short cilia. Frequent but moderate and heterogeneous clinical and ciliary beating abnormalities were found. CEP290 was highly expressed in the neural retina and nasal epithelial cells compared with other tissues.\n\nDiscussion These data provide the first clear demonstration of respiratory cilia ultrastructural defects in LCA patients with CEP290 mutations. The frequency of these findings in LCA patients along with the high expression of CEP290 in nasal epithelium suggest that CEP290 has an important role in the proper development of both the respiratory ciliary structures and the connecting cilia of photoreceptors.
1% vs 46.1%, P=.008) and a 3.1% decrease in patient-days with glucose concentrations above 299 mg/dL (16.9% vs 13.8%, P=.023). The percentage of patient-days with glucose concentrations less than or equal to 50 mg/dL was not significantly different (0.95% vs 1.27%, P=.15). Compliance with the American Diabetes Association recommendation for hemoglobin A(lc) inpatient testing
frequency increased from 37.3% to 64.5% (P<.001). The length of stay did not differ between the groups.\n\nConclusions: Implementation of a hospital-wide, CPOE-based, hyperglycemia management protocol had a favorable impact on glucose targets, decreasing excessively high glucose levels without increasing clinically meaningful hypoglycemic events. Compliance Selleckchem LY294002 with hemoglobin Air testing recommendations also improved. (Endocr Pract. 2010;16:389-397)”
“We demonstrate the self-assembly of highly dispersed NiO nanoparticles embedded in lignin-derived selleck kinase inhibitor mesoporous carbon (MPC) frameworks. Self-assembly is induced by evaporation of the solvent from a mixture of metal-containing liquid crystalline mesophases of lignin-derived polymers and transition metal nitrate hydrate, which yielded [email protected] nanostructures at 600 degrees C under a
N-2 atmosphere. The microstructure and morphology of the [email protected] are characterized by XRD, TEM and BET. The results show that the NiO nanoparticles are highly dispersed in a mesoporous carbon matrix. The [email protected] composites show metal oxide contents in the range 49-79 wt%, high surface areas Alvespimycin mw (503-802 m(2) g(-1)), uniform
pore sizes (approximate to 3.7 nm), various porous distributions and large pore volumes (0.46-0.68 cm(3) g(-1)). Electrochemical studies were carried out by measurement of cyclic voltammetry (CV) and charge-discharge tests. The results demonstrate that the [email protected] composites have high specific capacitance (880.2 F g(-1) at a current density of 1.0 A g(-1)) and display good retention. 90.9% of the specific capacitance is retained when the current density changes from 1 A g(-1) to 10 A g(-1) in the charge-discharge tests and 93.7% of the specific capacitance is retained after 1000 charge-discharge cycles. Thus, the [email protected] composites are promising supercapacitor electrode materials.”
“Systematic reviews, which were developed to improve policy-making and clinical decision-making, answer an empirical question based on a minimally biased appraisal of all the relevant empirical studies. A model is presented here for writing systematic reviews of argument-based literature: literature that uses arguments to address conceptual questions, such as whether abortion is morally permissible or whether research participants should be legally entitled to compensation for sustaining research-related injury. Such reviews aim to improve ethically relevant decisions in healthcare, research or policy.