In the original phase 3 studies, histological improvement was obs

In the original phase 3 studies, histological improvement was observed in the majority of patients (73%) as early as week 48, but only a minority (32%) demonstrated an improvement in fibrosis. The current analyses of the long-term histology cohort summarize the effects of continued entecavir therapy on hepatic necroinflammation and fibrosis in nucleoside-naive, HBeAg-positive and HBeAg-negative CHB patients.

After a median exposure to entecavir therapy of approximately 6 years, histological improvement and improvement of fibrosis increased to 96% and 88% of patients, respectively. Most patients (75%) in the cohort who had a baseline HAI score ≥4 achieved a score ≤3 by the time of long-term biopsy. These histological analyses GSK-3 activity extend previous observations PR-171 manufacturer of the clinical efficacy of entecavir at 48 weeks in patients with advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis.38 All

patients who had evidence of advanced fibrosis or liver cirrhosis at the phase 3 baseline demonstrated improvement in fibrosis at the long-term assessment. Suppression of viral replication below the level of polymerase chain reaction assay detection (serum HBV DNA level <300 copies/mL) occurred in all patients, and most patients (86%) also had a normal serum ALT level at the time of long-term biopsy. Because of the sustained suppression of HBV DNA to a level <300 copies/mL, these patients were at

minimal risk for antiviral drug resistance, and no evidence of virological rebound or genotypic resistance to entecavir was observed in this study. A majority of patients (55%) lost HBeAg, and 33% experienced HBe seroconversion at the time of long-term biopsy. medchemexpress Patients who did not demonstrate HBe seroconversion during long-term treatment also experienced improvements in liver histology and reversal of fibrosis, and this suggests that these outcomes are more closely associated with HBV DNA suppression than the immunological response to therapy. The baseline demographics of the patients in the long-term histology cohort and the phase 3 studies suggest that the two populations are comparable; however, the current data set has some limitations. For all patients who entered the rollover study, the dose of entecavir increased from 0.5 mg in the phase 3 studies to 1.0 mg daily in the rollover study, and 51 of 57 patients (89%) in this cohort received a median of 29 weeks of concurrent lamivudine before they continued on entecavir monotherapy for the remainder of the observation period. Because amendments were made to the long-term rollover study as new data emerged, it is not possible to evaluate any potential contribution of the increased dose of entecavir or the brief period of concurrent lamivudine to the results.

In addition, estrogen enhances susceptibility

to cortical

In addition, estrogen enhances susceptibility

to cortical spreading depression, the neurobiological event buy Doxorubicin underlying migraine aura, which may be independent of the estrous cycle. Further studies in female animals are required to clarify mechanisms underlying sex differences with respect to fluctuating sex hormones, cortical spreading depression, and excitability of the trigeminovascular system. “
“(Headache 2012;52:773-784) Objective.— To understand a possible role for transient potential receptor vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) ion channels in sumatriptan relief of pain mediated by trigeminal nociceptors. Background.— TRPV1 channels are expressed in small nociceptive sensory neurons. In dorsal root ganglia, TRPV1-containing nociceptors mediate certain types of inflammatory pain. Neurogenic inflammation of cerebral dura and blood vessels in the trigeminal nociceptive system is thought to be important in migraine pain, but the ion channels important in transducing migraine pain are not known. Sumatriptan is an agent effective in treatment of migraine and cluster headache. We hypothesized that sumatriptan might

modulate activity of TRPV1 this website channels found in the trigeminal nociceptive system. Methods.— We used immunohistochemistry to detect the presence of TRPV1 channel protein, whole-cell recording in acutely dissociated trigeminal ganglia (TG) to detect functionality of TRPV1 channels, and whole-cell recording in trigeminal nucleus caudalis (TNC) to detect effects on release of neurotransmitters from trigeminal neurons onto second 上海皓元 order sensory neurons. Effects specifically on TG neurons

that project to cerebral dura were assessed by labeling dural nociceptors with DiI. Results.— Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that TRPV1 channels are present in cerebral dura, in trigeminal ganglion, and in the TNC. Capsaicin, a TRPV1 agonist, produced depolarization and repetitive action potential firing in current clamp recordings, and large inward currents in voltage clamp recordings from acutely dissociated TG neurons, demonstrating that TRPV1 channels are functional in trigeminal neurons. Capsaicin increased spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents in neurons of layer II in TNC slices, showing that these channels have a physiological effect on central synaptic transmission. Sumatriptan (10 µM), a selective antimigraine drug, inhibited TRPV1-mediated inward currents in TG and capsaicin-elicited spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents in TNC slices. The same effects of capsaicin and sumatriptan were found in acutely dissociated DiI-labeled TG neurons innervating cerebral dura. Conclusion.— Our results build on previous work indicating that TRPV1 channels in trigeminal nociceptors play a role in craniofacial pain.

The mica was silane treated in a solution of 3-methacryloxypropyl

The mica was silane treated in a solution of 3-methacryloxypropyl trimethoxysilane, ethanol, and water, and then dried. The specimens were fabricated using the denture Torin 1 clinical trial base resin manufacturer’s instructions with a powder : liquid ratio of 21 g/10 ml and a mixing time of 30 seconds. Five treatment groups were produced with differing amounts of mica added to the PMMA denture base resin: (A) control group with 0 vol% mica, (B) 10 vol% W200 mica, (C) 20 vol% W200 mica, (D) 10 vol% P66 mica, (E) 20 vol% P66 mica. The mica replaced

equal volumes of the PMMA powder component to minimize changes in viscosity. The three-point bending flexural strength specimens were 70 × 11 × 3 mm3. Seven specimens were prepared for each treatment group. The hardness specimens were prepared buy SCH772984 from the ends of the three-point bend specimens after they were broken (N = 7). After deflasking, the specimens were polished with 600 grit silicon carbide paper to achieve smooth surfaces. A standard three-point bending jig with a span length of 50 mm was attached to an Instron universal testing machine. The specimens were placed on the jig, and loading was carried out using a 1 mm/min crosshead speed until failure. Microhardness was measured using a Clark microhardness tester with a Knoop

indenter. The load was set to 200 g and the dwell time to 15 seconds. ANOVA and Tukey tests were used for statistical analyses

(Alpha = 0.05). Results: The flexural strength of the control group was 上海皓元医药股份有限公司 between 77% and 94% higher than all the mica-containing groups (p≤ 0.05). No significant differences were found within the four mica groups. Microhardnesses of the 20% mica groups (both fine and coarse) were 33% and 26% higher than the control (p≤ 0.05). The 10% mica groups had higher hardness than the control group, but the increase was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Mica additions to denture PMMA reduced flexural strength; however, with the specimens containing highest mica concentrations (20%), microhardness significantly increased. “
“Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the Knoop microhardness and microshear bond strength (MSBS) of dual-cured luting systems and flowable resin bonded to leucite-reinforced ceramics and enamel. Materials and Methods: Eighty bovine incisors were randomly divided into four groups per test (microhardness and microshear; n = 10) according to the bonding procedure: Excite DSC/Variolink, Clearfil SE Bond/Panavia F, Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus/RelyX ARC, and Adper Single Bond 2/Filtek Z350 Flow. For the KHN measurement, the cement was applied on the enamel surface and light-cured through a ceramic disk (5 mm diameter × 1.2 mm thick). Five indentations were performed in each specimen and measured at HMV-2.

While the role of such cues often originates in the physical rela

While the role of such cues often originates in the physical relationship that ties them to the dimension they express, selection pressures have often led to senders being able to alter their values to some extent (Ohala, 1984; Maynard Smith & Harper, 2003), an aspect that is discussed in more detail below. Understanding the origin, nature and function of such acoustic indexical cues is therefore one of the most active areas of current vocal communication research. Initially, studies of animal vocal signals tended to focus on understanding the control and variability of F0 (Cohen & Fox,

1976; Tembrock, 1976; Morton, 1977; August & Anderson, 1987; Masataka, 1994). This focus is likely to have been a reflection of the salience of ‘pitch’ to human speakers and listeners (Ohala, 1984). F0 is perceptually identifiable by non-specialists and it is easy to measure on spectrograms APO866 supplier or oscillograms (see Boersma, 1993). Moreover, F0 is highly variable within and between calls both across individuals and across species

(Morton, 1977; August & Anderson, 1987; Hauser, 1993; Yin, 2002; Reby & McComb, 2003a,b; Rendall et al., 2005). In an influential paper based on a comparative study of vocalizations used in agonistic displays in a range of mammalian and avian species, Morton (1977) suggested that audible frequency differences in vocalizations reflect ritualized signalling: animals with aggressive motivation produce low-pitched, broadband vocalizations (such as growls and hisses), while animals with a friendly or submissive motivation produce high-pitched vocalizations (such as whimpers and whines). This theory, known Selleck INK128 as Morton’s motivation-structural code, is based on the observation across several species that aggressive and dominant animals seek to project (both visually and acoustically) a larger impression of body size whereas friendly or submissive animals seek to project a smaller impression of body size (Morton, 1977; Ohala, 1984; Owings & Morton, 1998). It is well documented that larger sized individuals are at an advantage over smaller individuals during agonistic encounters, and individuals benefit from avoiding

escalation of unmatched encounters, due to the great risk of injury or even death MCE caused by fighting (Schmidt-Nielsen, 1975; Clutton-Brock & Albon, 1979; Peters, 1986). We have seen that the F0 of vocal signals is determined by the physical properties and adjustments of the vocal folds. However, due to their soft tissue anatomy, the growth of the vocal folds is not stringently constrained by the body size of an individual (Fitch, 1997, 2000c). A good illustration of this can be seen in the comparison of subspecies of cervidae. While adult Scottish red deer stags (weighing 160–250 kg) produce calls with a mean F0 of 112 Hz (Reby & McComb, 2003a), the smallest red deer subspecies (the Corsican deer, weighing c. 80 kg) produces calls with a mean F0 of 34 Hz and the largest red deer subspecies (the wapiti, weighing c.

The correlation between EGFR and mig-6 was analyzed by comparing

The correlation between EGFR and mig-6 was analyzed by comparing the expression values of both proteins in each tumor directly and calculated using the Spearman’s rank test. P values were calculated using the two-sided Fisher’s exact test or the paired Student t test, and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The statistical analysis

was performed with the SPSS 12.0 software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL). We have reported that mig-6 knockout mice display multiple phenotypes in various organs.14 this website Interestingly, mig-6 deficiency led to a distinct increase in EGFR protein levels in the livers of 2- and 5-week-old knockout mice, suggesting a liver-specific role for mig-6 in the regulation of EGFR protein stability and possibly function (Fig. 1A ). In order to investigate a possible function of mig-6 in the liver, we isolated Proteases inhibitor primary hepatocytes from adult mig-6 knockout and wild-type animals. Mig-6–deficient hepatocytes retained somewhat higher levels of basal EGFR, AKT, and extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation compared with wild-type controls, even in the absence of EGF stimulation, suggesting

that loss of mig-6 is sufficient to generate some constitutive EGFR activation (Fig. 1B). Upon EGF stimulation, mig-6–deficient hepatocytes showed an increase in EGFR phosphorylation and sustained activation of AKT (Fig. 1B). In contrast, ERK1/2 activation remained comparable between wild-type and knockout cells, suggesting that loss of mig-6 leads to an up-regulation of the EGFR/phosphoinositol medchemexpress 3-kinase/AKT pathway. Based on our observations in isolated primary hepatocytes, we wanted to study the effect of mig-6 deficiency on hepatocyte proliferation in vivo. Therefore, we subjected mig-6 knockout and wild-type control mice to a 70% PH and monitored liver regeneration. In agreement with published data,16, 17 mig-6 expression levels were found

to be up-regulated in wild-type mice after PH (Fig. 2A ). Interestingly, mig-6 knockout mice displayed an increase in hepatocytes re-entering the cell cycle between 24 and 36 hours after PH (Fig. 2B,C). In contrast, only a few wild-type hepatocytes were able to enter S-phase at these time points. Similar to wild-type mice, the percentage of proliferating hepatocytes in mig-6 knockout livers reached a maximum at 48 hours and declined thereafter (Fig. 2B,C), suggesting that mig-6 exerts its function in the initial phases of liver regeneration. In order to dissect the signaling mechanisms underlying the early hepatocyte proliferation in regenerating mig-6 knockout livers, we analyzed components of the EGFR signaling pathway.

With the development of modern mass spectrometers (MS) coupled to

With the development of modern mass spectrometers (MS) coupled to highly efficient liquid chromatography (LC) systems, it is now possible to measure thousands of metabolites, mainly lipids, in as little as

a few minutes per sample. LC/MS is particularly well-suited to identify novel NAFLD biomarkers, where lipid metabolic changes and the Selleck RO4929097 lipotoxicity they generate are thought to play a key function in disease development and progression. Recent awareness that each category of lipid consists of thousands of molecular species emphasizes the need to search for individual lipid molecules in addition to measuring total changes in the concentration of fatty acids, glycerophospholipids, diacylglycerols, TAG, and bile acids. Our group has recently shown the potential of such an approach in describing common serum metabolic alterations observed in a gene knockout animal NAFLD model and a small cohort of morbidly obese patients with NAFLD, who are closely matched in clinical features such as sex, age, and BMI.12 Others have used CB-839 mouse similar techniques to describe a series

of metabolite biomarkers found in the serum and liver tissue of patients with NAFLD who have a variety of clinocopathological characteristics.13 More recently, we studied the serum lipidomics and amino acid profile, as a function of BMI, in about 500 biopsied individuals with normal liver, or who had been diagnosed with steatosis or NASH. This study has identified a BMI-dependent metabolic signature able to reliably distinguish NASH from steatosis, showing an AUROC of 0.85 (Barr J, Lu SC, Mato JM, unpublished data). This list of novel BMI-dependent biomarkers is made 上海皓元 of individual molecular species belonging to different lipid categories (i.e., eicosanoids, nonesterified fatty acids,

glycerophospholipids, sphingomyelins, ceramides, diacylglycerols, and TAG). The goal of this metabolomics-based approach is to develop perfect (99%-100% sensitivity and specificity) noninvasive diagnostic tests for liver steatosis, NASH, and fibrosis by combining the tried and trusted old biomarkers with these new lipid biomarkers. These tests should also be responsive to changes in NAFLD severity due to therapeutic intervention and time. This task is not suited for every laboratory, because extreme care needs to be taken to ensure that the analytical methods used are well validated and the new specific biomarkers correctly identified.

Of these, however, only vascular invasion was considered to be as

Of these, however, only vascular invasion was considered to be associated with survival prognosis throughout the entire postoperative period (LF007772 level 2b). Factors for early recurrence, namely, in less than 2 years after surgery, are non-systematic anatomical resection, find more with pathological vascular invasion and AFP of 32 ng/mL or more (LF114293 level 2b). Tumor diameter is also reported to affect

prognosis in some articles (LF006234 level 2b, LF008535 level 4); there is no consensus on this issue. For tumors of 2 cm or less in diameter, the survival rate for patients with early hepatocellular carcinoma is good (LF003786 level 2a). For patients with hepatocellular carcinoma resection accompanied by a tumor thrombosis in the main trunk of the portal vein or the primary branch, prognosis is good for those without ascites, prothrombin activity of 75% or more, and a tumor size of 5 cm or less in diameter (LF106197 level 2b). Of 1481 English original articles (1980–2007) identified using “hepatocellular carcinoma” and “surgery” as key words, 364 concerned prognostic factors. Of these, we reviewed 37 articles

with high reliability. Vascular invasion was most frequently (68%) considered useful, followed by click here liver function (46%), number of tumors (35%), stage classification (19%) and tumor diameter (19%). For liver function, the Child classification and serum albumin levels were often found to be useful. For tumor diameter, 23% of the articles reported that it did not affect prognosis; there is no consensus on this point. Of the stage classes, MCE the survival rate in patients with early hepatocellular carcinoma graded as stage 0 was good; thus, early hepatocellular carcinoma can be defined as a prognostic factor. In addition, some articles reported that presence/absence of capsule, satellite nodule, systematic anatomical resection and AFP level were also significant prognosis factors. In contrast, many articles

stated that presence of cirrhosis and width of the surgical margin were not significant. CQ21 Does width of the surgical margin contribute to prognosis? A minimum surgical margin is sufficient for hepatectomy. (grade B) There was no significant difference in the postoperative recurrence rate between groups with a liver surgical margins of 1 cm or more versus less than 1 cm (LF001281 level 2a, LF007772 level 2b). Comparisons between liver surgical margins of 5 mm or more and less than 5 mm also showed no significant difference in postoperative recurrence rates (LF006233 level 2b, LF007284 level 2b). In addition, a report comparing wide resection (at least lobectomy) and minor resection also showed no significant difference in survival rates (LF000335 level 2b).

29 Although Th17 cells participate in inducing proinflammatory re

29 Although Th17 cells participate in inducing proinflammatory responses during viral infection, the antiviral activity of Th17 cells to control HCV replication

appears to be limited. Rather, Th17 cells appear to play a role in the progression of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis.22, 25 Indeed, histological studies show extensive infiltration of Th17 cells in the area of severe hepatic damage. Based on the role of TSLP in inducing differentiation of CD4+ Th17 effector T cells, we speculate a potential mechanism(s) for HCV-induced Th17 differentiation through several stepwise processes of crosstalk between virus-infected cells and local DCs. Liver-resident DCs are conditioned by TSLP released from HCV-infected hepatocytes to favor, either at the

site of viral infection and/or in the draining lymph node, the RXDX-106 in vitro differentiation of Th17 cells, which then home to liver damage sites and possibly contribute to disease progression by interacting with other immune cells and nonimmune cells. This points out a critical biological role of TSLP secreted by HCV-infected hepatocytes in activating DCs which result in Th17 differentiation. Future studies are necessary to elucidate whether Th17 cells promote liver damage and are directly involved in enhanced virus survival or if they are simply less capable than Th1 cells in the induction of antiviral responses. Nevertheless, our studies point out that blockade of TSLP might be a new strategy for the treatment of chronic HCV patients with severe liver diseases. As TSLP is known for its role in inducing inflammation, efforts BMS-777607 ic50 to block TSLP is being investigated for its potential as a treatment for asthma. The availability of therapeutic agent(s) targeting TSLP could accelerate the translation of these findings into clinical practices such as treatment of HCV-associated chronic liver diseases. In summary, our findings suggest that TSLP produced by HCV-infected hepatocytes

can enhance the development of potential injury-provoking CD4+ Th17 effector T cells through the ability of cytokines to condition DCs to drive the differentiation of CD4+ T cells towards Th17 effector status. If, as we believe, CD4+ Th17 effector T-cell responses 上海皓元 in the HCV-infected liver are important regulators of liver injury, then TSLP might represent a novel therapeutic target in HCV-infected liver with the potential to limit tissue injury and possibly promote virus clearance. We thank Susan Landes for excellent technical assistance, Dr. Thomas J. Braciale and Dr. Taeg S. Kim for critical discussion of the article prior to submission, and members of the Hahn laboratory for helpful discussions throughout the course of this work. “
“Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide.

22 The position of mucosal breaks in relation to the esophageal l

22 The position of mucosal breaks in relation to the esophageal longitudinal folds was also evaluated in a same fashion as the SSBE. The presence or absence of a hiatus hernia,23 and gastric mucosal atrophy24 was also investigated endoscopically. The GIF-H260, H260Z, and Q260J endoscopes (Olympus Medical Systems Co., Tokyo, Japan) were used and all endoscopic examinations were done by well-trained, experienced

endoscopists. The endoscopic diagnosis was established by consensus of two or three (T.Y., N.I., and Y.A.). The protocols of these studies were prepared according to the Declaration of Helsinki and written informed consent was given by all participants. All X-396 datasheet data are expressed as the mean ± SE unless otherwise indicated. The categorical data were analyzed by χ2-test or Student’s t-test and compared. Statistical analysis of the comparative study for each group of endoscopic identification using a different modality was performed using the Wilcoxon signed rank test only when the Friedman test showed significant differences. P-values less than 0.05 were considered to be significant. All statistical analyses were performed using Statistical Analysis Software (IBM SPSS Statistics 18, SPSS Japan Inc., Tokyo, R788 Japan). The 100 enrolled patients consisted of 54 men and 46 women with a mean age of 70.8 ± 10.7

(mean ± SD) years. All BE were SSBE. It was possible to detect squamous islands in 48% (48/100), 71% (71/100), and 75% (75/100) of patients by WL, NBI, and iodine chromoendoscopy, respectively. The rate of detecting squamous islands with WL was significantly lower than with NBI or iodine chromoendoscopy (Fig. 3a). The mean number of identified squamous islands in an individual case was 0.55 ± 0.06, 1.02 ± 0.09, and 1.76 ± 0.18 by WL, NBI, and iodine chromoendoscopy, respectively (Fig. 3b). There were statistically significant differences among the three endoscopic procedures for the number of identified squamous islands (P < 0.001). The 100 enrolled patients consisted of 54 men and 46 women with a mean age of 72.4 ± 6.91 (mean ± SD) years. Their clinical characteristics are shown

in Table 1. The mean circumferential (C) and maximum (M) lengths of the SSBE were 0.20 ± 0.381, and 1.14 ± 0.409 cm, respectively. Tongue-like SSBE was predominantly found on the ridge of 上海皓元 mucosal folds (71%), and half of the cases were found on the right anterior wall of the esophagus (Fig. 4). There were no statistically significant differences in the presence or absence of RE, hiatus hernia, type of gastric mucosal atrophy, and the length of SSBE between tongue-like SSBEs on the ridge of mucosal folds and those in the valleys (Table 1). The 100 enrolled patients consisted of 68 men and 32 women with a mean age of 69.0 ± 11.8 (mean ± SD) years. Their clinical characteristics are shown in Table 2. The RE group comprised 62 patients with grade A and 38 with grade B.

p38α phosphorylation was increased in WT BDL mice upon chronic ch

p38α phosphorylation was increased in WT BDL mice upon chronic cholestasis (Fig. 2). This activation of p38α led to a significant increase in MAPK-activated kinase 2 (MK2) phosphorylation on threonine 334. Indeed, only in WT BDL mice there was a significant increase in phosphorylation of MK2 and, therefore, activation of MK2, when compared with WT sham mice and KO mice. It has been reported that

MK2 can phosphorylate Akt on serine 473.14 We also tested two other regulators of Akt, phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK1) and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), but no differences were found in their phosphorylation and protein levels among groups. Similar results were obtained 12 days after BDL (data not shown). Quantification of the western blots is shown in Supporting Fig. S3. The p38α downstream pathway was MK0683 in vivo assessed starting with one of its major targets, MK2. As shown in Fig. 2B, phosphorylation of MK2 on threonine 334 was strongly regulated by this pathway. However, neither PDK-1 nor PTEN levels and phosphorylation were modified upon p38α deficiency. Akt may be phosphorylated on serine

473 by p-MK2 and this phosphorylation was markedly reduced upon p38 deficiency, whereas phosphorylation on threonine 308 remained unaffected (Fig. 3A). Other downstream targets such as mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and glycogen synthase kinase (GSK) 3β were phosphorylated after BDL in a p38α-dependent manner (Fig. 3B). GSK3β phosphorylation only increased markedly in WT BDL mice, which would inactivate the enzyme. One of the major targets of GSK3β is β-catenin, which exhibited Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor an increase only in BDL WT mice. The same western blots

were performed with mice after 12 days of BDL (results not shown). The inflammatory and profibrogenic profiles were assessed in WT and p38α KO mice (Fig. 4). p38α KO mice had higher messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of some proinflammatory cytokines, such as RANTES under basal conditions (Fig. 4B), and the BDL group had higher mRNA levels of adhesion factor Icam-1 (Fig. 4C). Although TNF-α expression was not affected by the absence of p38α, the mRNA levels of receptor 1 for TNF-α increased in p38α KO mice, making these animals MCE公司 likely more sensitive to this cytokine (Fig. 4A). On the other hand, the antiinflammatory cytokine IL-10 mRNA level markedly increased in p38α KO BDL mice after 12 days of BDL (Fig. 4B), probably to restrain the inflammatory response. STAT3 phosphorylation was increased after BDL similarly in both WT and KO mice (Supporting Fig. S4). However, no significant changes in phosphorylation of p65 were found upon BDL (Supporting Fig. S4). Liver-specific p38α-deficient mice did not show a higher degree of apoptosis upon chronic cholestasis compared with WT mice (Fig. S5). Indeed, the cleavage of caspase 3 (Fig. S5) showed no further increase in apoptosis upon p38α deficiency.