The correlation between EGFR and mig-6 was analyzed by comparing

The correlation between EGFR and mig-6 was analyzed by comparing the expression values of both proteins in each tumor directly and calculated using the Spearman’s rank test. P values were calculated using the two-sided Fisher’s exact test or the paired Student t test, and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The statistical analysis

was performed with the SPSS 12.0 software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL). We have reported that mig-6 knockout mice display multiple phenotypes in various organs.14 this website Interestingly, mig-6 deficiency led to a distinct increase in EGFR protein levels in the livers of 2- and 5-week-old knockout mice, suggesting a liver-specific role for mig-6 in the regulation of EGFR protein stability and possibly function (Fig. 1A ). In order to investigate a possible function of mig-6 in the liver, we isolated Proteases inhibitor primary hepatocytes from adult mig-6 knockout and wild-type animals. Mig-6–deficient hepatocytes retained somewhat higher levels of basal EGFR, AKT, and extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation compared with wild-type controls, even in the absence of EGF stimulation, suggesting

that loss of mig-6 is sufficient to generate some constitutive EGFR activation (Fig. 1B). Upon EGF stimulation, mig-6–deficient hepatocytes showed an increase in EGFR phosphorylation and sustained activation of AKT (Fig. 1B). In contrast, ERK1/2 activation remained comparable between wild-type and knockout cells, suggesting that loss of mig-6 leads to an up-regulation of the EGFR/phosphoinositol medchemexpress 3-kinase/AKT pathway. Based on our observations in isolated primary hepatocytes, we wanted to study the effect of mig-6 deficiency on hepatocyte proliferation in vivo. Therefore, we subjected mig-6 knockout and wild-type control mice to a 70% PH and monitored liver regeneration. In agreement with published data,16, 17 mig-6 expression levels were found

to be up-regulated in wild-type mice after PH (Fig. 2A ). Interestingly, mig-6 knockout mice displayed an increase in hepatocytes re-entering the cell cycle between 24 and 36 hours after PH (Fig. 2B,C). In contrast, only a few wild-type hepatocytes were able to enter S-phase at these time points. Similar to wild-type mice, the percentage of proliferating hepatocytes in mig-6 knockout livers reached a maximum at 48 hours and declined thereafter (Fig. 2B,C), suggesting that mig-6 exerts its function in the initial phases of liver regeneration. In order to dissect the signaling mechanisms underlying the early hepatocyte proliferation in regenerating mig-6 knockout livers, we analyzed components of the EGFR signaling pathway.

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