During recent decades, remarkable progress has been made in under

During recent decades, remarkable progress has been made in understanding molecular mechanisms underlying SM-induced dermatotoxicity and several intra-and extracellular targets have been identified. This review argues that baicalin, a bioactive flavonoid from the roots of Scutellaria spp., could counteract different molecular and biochemical abnormalities that mediate SM dermatotoxicity and could

therefore be regarded as a promising therapeutic option for the management of SM-induced cutaneous lesions.”
“Balloon test occlusion (BTO) is crucial before sacrificing parent arteries. We proposed a simple paradigm combining clinical tolerance with venous phase technique and stump pressure ratio as a criterion for sufficient click here collateral flow. Internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion was considered safe for asymptomatic patients who exhibited less than 2 seconds of venous phase delay or had a stump pressure ratio greater than 60%. A total 3-MA order of 37 BTO procedures were performed on 31 patients. Twenty-three patients were monitored clinically and 3 were symptomatic. Venous phase comparison was performed on 27 patients, and 5 failed the test. The stump pressure was measured in all patients, and 7 patients failed the test. In summary, 7 patients failed

the BTO, of which 6 received high-flow bypass and 1 of these 6 were symptomatic and exhibited stump pressure ratios less than 60% in the second BTO procedure. Occlusion of the ICA was performed on 29 patients. Only 1 patient developed delayed vasospasm and brain infarction. Adequate collateral flow may be indicated by a stump ratio of 60% or greater with or without see more a high-flow bypass. Combined with clinical assessment and venous phase technique, ICA occlusion may be a safe option that does

not result in delayed ischemic complications.”
“The aim of this study was to develop novel nanoemuslion core loaded nanocapsules (NCs) with high payload of doxorubicin (DOX) and to assess its efficacy against Leishmania donovani. The low energy emulsification method was used to obtained nanoemulsion core as template, followed by stepwise addition of additional layer components protamine sulphate and sodium alginate. Zeta potential studies revealed that there was reversal in charge after each layering. NCs were characterized on the basis of size (340 nm) and entrapment efficiency (>80%). The drug release behaviour was studied by in vitro method. The NCs loaded with DOX (NCs-DOX) is completely internalized into macrophages showing improved efficacy (IC50 of formulation is almost <= 1.9-fold as compared to plain drug, p < 0.05) against intracellular amastigotes.

Family caregiving responsibilities were reported by 12% of partic

Family caregiving responsibilities were reported by 12% of participants. Caregivers reported more quality of life problems than noncaregivers, but these

effects were largely dependent on the perceived level of caregiving strain. High strain caregivers reported more problems with emotional distress, worse physical functioning, and fewer social contacts than noncaregivers. Conversely, caregivers who reported no strain from caregiving reported better quality of life than noncaregivers. Caregiving strain effects were not due to demographic differences or to more objective indicators of caregiving demand.

Psychological and social indices of quality of life indicate prevalent problems among family caregivers who have experienced high strain from their caregiving responsibilities. Public health programs for disabled individuals should include assessments of strain on family caregivers and support JQ1 purchase services for those who report high levels of caregiving strain.”
“Purpose: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic disease characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the esophageal mucosa,

which is associated with clinical and endoscopic manifestations. buy MI-503 The objective of our study was to determine the frequency of EoE and to outline the clinical manifestations of EoE in Polish children.

Material/methods: Ten large regional pediatric gastroenterology centers participated in the study. A database of endoscopy reports from January 2004 till December 2009 was reviewed. A total of 35,631 esophagogastroduodenal endoscopy studies in children, aged from 4 months to 18 years, were performed. Data pertaining to the children’s

see more age, gender, indications for endoscopy, clinical findings and histopathology diagnosis were made.

Results: In 84 children (20 girls and 64 boys), aged between 4 months and 18 years, EoE was diagnosed. This constituted one case per 424 endoscopic studies. In children with changes in the esophageal mucosa the frequency of EoE was higher and reached one case per 73 children. The most frequent symptoms of EoE differed between the younger (1-6 years old) and older children (aged 13-18 years old). Feeding aversion, vomiting and/or regurgitation were most frequently observed in the younger children, while in older children: abdominal pain, dysphagia and chest pain. Granular mucosa, longitudinal furrows, and mucosal rings belong to the findings most often observed in endoscopic studies. EoE was more frequently diagnosed in the spring (45.2%) and summer (28.5%).

Conclusions: EoE was diagnosed in every age, with frequency of 1/424 gastrointestinal endoscopies, more frequently in boys than in girls.”
“Type D personality has been associated with impaired health status in chronic heart failure (CHF), but other psychological factors may also be important.

6017, 95% CI: 1 17 to 5 75) The median time to developing a comp

6017, 95% CI: 1.17 to 5.75). The median time to developing a complication was 4 years, and the most common complication was the need for surgical intervention (54%).

Conclusions: In the present study, a risk factor for developing CD complication was male gender. Further studies are warranted to assess additional risk factors and how such findings should affect therapy. (C) 2011 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Jaagsiekte selleckchem sheep retrovirus (JSRV) causes a fatal lung cancer of sheep known as ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA). OPA is a significant

disease in many sheep-rearing countries and there is no effective method of control. A unique feature of OPA is the overproduction of fluid in the lung of affected animals. This lung fluid contains JSRV and provides a means of transmission through the inhalation of virus. In this study we demonstrated that lung fluid from different OPA cases contained between 10(7) and 10(10) copies of JSRV RNA per ml. Examination of JSRV RNA survival under conditions that mimic natural conditions suggested that intact JSRV virions may persist for several weeks in the environment. These are the first quantitative data on JSRV in lung fluid and provide valuable information for implementing appropriate biosecurity measures

to control the spread of JSRV in the held. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: buy Selonsertib Pregnancy is characterized

by activation of the innate immune response demonstrated by phenotypic and metabolic changes in granulocytes and monocytes. This state of activation has been implicated in the pathophysiology of multiorgan dysfunction of pregnant women with acute viral or bacterial infection. Tumor necrosis factor-related click here apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is one of the mediators responsible for neutrophil apoptosis. Gene deletion of TRAIL results in delayed neutrophil apoptosis and resolution of inflammation after the administration of bacterial endotoxin. The aim of this study was to determine whether maternal plasma concentrations of the soluble form of TRAIL (sTRAIL) differ in women with uncomplicated pregnancy and those with acute pyelonephritis.

Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted to include women in the following groups: (1) non-pregnant (n = 23); (2) uncomplicated pregnancies (n = 93) and (3) pregnancies with acute pyelonephritis (n = 23). Plasma concentrations of sTRAIL were determined by enzyme-linked immunoassay.

Results: (1) Women with uncomplicated pregnancies had a lower mean plasma sTRAIL concentration (pg/mL) than non-pregnant women (31.5 +/- 10.1 versus 53.3 +/- 12.5; p<0.001); (2) plasma sTRAIL concentrations did not change as a function of gestational age (Pearson correlation = -0.1; p = 0.

Statistically prolonged reaction time and coagulation time, and d

Statistically prolonged reaction time and coagulation time, and decreased growth angle

HSP990 Cytoskeletal Signaling inhibitor were seen immediately after HES infusion. Maximum amplitude decreased significantly in group VIES and GEL immediately after and 4 hours after AHFI.

Conclusion: Gelatin reduced Clot quality associated with derangements of fibrin polymerization and HES 130/0.4 delayed initiation of sufficient thrombin generation to convert fibrinogen to fibrin and impaired platelet function.”
“Purpose: To analyse short term and long term X-ray irradiation effects on proliferation, viability, glucose and amino acid uptake of murine melanoma cells in vitro and metastasis in vivo.

Materials and methods: B16-F10 melanoma cells were irradiated with different doses of X-ray irradiation (200 kV) in the range from 1-20 Gy. One, two and three days respectively 7, 14 and 21 days after treatment cells were analysed concerning cell growth, viability, proliferation, cell cycle distribution, glucose and amino acid transport. Moreover the capability of the cells

for in vivo metastasis was examined.

Results: As short term response on irradiation we detected decreased cell growth, viability and arrest in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Long term response involves re-start of proliferation, increased cell growth and glucose uptake but still decreased viability and amino acid transport. In vivo metastasis is lost immediately after irradiation and regained to a low extent beyond two weeks time for recurrence of cells before injection.

Conclusions: In vitro data suggest that Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Library order surviving melanoma cells compensate the initial irradiation-dependent damage of proliferation within three weeks possibly by increase in glucose uptake. For metastasis in vivo the role of additional mechanisms is strongly suggested.”
“Objective: selleck inhibitor We aim to determine if urine cytology was still necessary as a routine part of the evaluation for the presence of urological

malignancy and to evaluate its cost effectiveness. Methods: Urine cytology reports over a 6-year period (2000-2005) were retrieved from our institution’s pathology department database. Patients with urine cytology positive for malignant cells were identified. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of these patients for age, sex, flexible cystoscopy and radiological imaging results. The cost of urine cytology was retrieved from the pathology department. Results: There were a total of 2,568 urine cytological examinations. Of these, 25 were positive for malignant cells. There were 19 male (76%) and 6 female (24%) patients with a mean age of 72 years (range: 49-97). In 21 patients with positive cytology, a bladder tumor was identified at flexible cystoscopy and/or imaging studies. For a positive cytology yield of 1%, EUR 210,000 was spent. Conclusions: Routine urine cytology was not cost effective and did not add to the diagnostic yield beyond cystoscopy and diagnostic imaging. It may be omitted in the initial evaluation of urological malignancy.

In addition,

the mRNA expressions of mineralization-relat

In addition,

the mRNA expressions of mineralization-related proteins were evaluated by performing a real-time polymerase chain reaction.

Results. On SEM evaluation, healthy HDPCs were found adhering to the surfaces of PC and RPC. The ALP activity increased in the PC and RPC groups compared with the control group selleckchem at 1 day. Alizarin Red stain increased in the PC and RPC groups compared with the control group at 2 and 3 weeks. The mRNA expression of dentin sialophosphoprotein increased at 14 days in the PC and RPC groups.

Conclusions. These results show that PC and RPC have similar effects in terms of mineralization and suggest that RPC also has the potential to be used as a clinically suitable pulp-capping material. (Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2009; 108: e82-e86)”
“The incidence of prosthetic valve thrombosis (PVT), which is a life-threatening complication, increased during pregnancy because of the hypercoagulable state. Despite adequate anticoagulation, the incidence of PVT has been estimated as

Fedratinib 4% to 14% during pregnancy. Prosthetic valve thrombosis occurring during pregnancy requires urgent therapy including fibrinolytic therapy, valve replacement, and surgical thrombectomy due to high mortality. Although surgery has traditionally been the standard procedure for treatment of PVT, fibrinolytic therapy may be used as first-line therapy according to data from the recent reports. Data about the fibrinolytic therapy is scarce and controversial in the setting of pregnancies complicated with PVT. Herein, we share the outcomes of 3 pregnant women complicated with PVT and treated with recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator.”
“Objectives. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of carotid artery calcifications (CAC) detected on panoramic radiographs in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS).

Study design. Eighty-five Thai subjects (29 men, 56 women) who had MetS according to the International Diabetes

Federation definition were evaluated for CAC detected on panoramic radiographs. selleck chemicals The confirmation of findings was done by ultrasonography.

Results. Carotid artery calcifications were detected in 19 subjects (22.4%) with a mean age of 64 years, range 48-74 years. These subjects included 12 men and 7 women. The CAC were significantly more common in men than in women (P = .002). There were 8 subjects (9.4%) with bilateral calcifications and 11 subjects (12.9%) with unilateral calcification. No significant difference between the right and left sides was found (P = .44).

Conclusion. Thai people with MetS have high prevalence of radiographically detectable carotid artery calcifications.

Methods: All patients underwent standard clinical assessment and

Methods: All patients underwent standard clinical assessment and pleural investigations in line with recent national guidelines and were followed up for a minimum of 1 year or until histological/microbiological diagnosis. Results: One hundred and fifty patients were recruited, and of these, 141 had a CTPA. PEs were

detected in 9/141 (6.4%) patients, and of these, 8/9 were subsequently diagnosed with pleural malignancy. In only 1 case was PE clinically suspected and in no case was PE the primary cause of effusion; 9.8% (8/82) of patients who were ultimately diagnosed with pleural malignancy had PE at presentation. Conclusions: This study indicates that PE is a frequent concomitant finding in patients with malignant effusions but uncommon as Repotrectinib clinical trial a primary cause of unilateral effusion. In addition, it highlights the known difficulty of clinical diagnosis of PE in the context of malignancy. In view of this, we recommend that CTPA combined CDK inhibitors in clinical trials with pleural-phase thoracic CT should be considered at presentation when investigating patients with suspected malignant pleural effusion. Copyright (C) 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“We present the technique of anterior

thigh flap extended external hemipelvectomy with spinoiliac arthrodesis in treatment of the patient with recurrent low-grade pelvic chondrosarcoma extending to the lower lumbar spine. Extended hemipelvectomy

involves skeletal resection beyond the standard hemipelvectomy that is the SI joint by removal of contiguous musculoskeletal structures, such as elements of the sacral and lumbar spine or contralateral pelvic bone, in addition to the affected innominate bone. Spinoiliac arthrodesis reestablishes spinopelvic stability; the anterior thigh musculocutaneous flap provides reliable well-vascularized soft tissue coverage. This technique may serve an important role in the surgical management of patients with low-grade pelvic malignancies. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The effects of N vacancies on the transition metal (Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu) doped GaN have been studied at the levels of the local spin density approximation (LSDA) selleck compound and LSDA+U (Coulomb interaction). Our calculations show that the N vacancy favorably exists near a transition metal ion and the interaction between transition metal ion and N vacancy is insensitive to the distance when exceeding 3.3 A. Furthermore, we find that the existed N vacancies alter the magnetic moments of the doped GaN, where the magnetic moments increase for Cr or Mn doped GaN, and decrease for Fe, Co, Ni, or Cu doped GaN. This result can be interpreted well by the Hund’s multiplicity rules.

This observation holds much importance as miR* molecules are pres

This observation holds much importance as miR* molecules are presently thought to follow degradation pathway and are not assigned with any function. Moreover, we could predict targets for these miR* sequences that are generally involved in plant metabolism. Overall, these results shed light on new paradigm of intricate host-pathogen interactions via miRNA pathway. (C) 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“The current Spine Focus Issue reflects the collective efforts of members of

the Spine Trauma Study Group, and seeks to summarize as well as critically evaluate many of the key controversies related to the management of spinal trauma and spinal cord injury. Some of the topics discussed in this issue include the optimal timing for surgical intervention in spinal cord injury and central cord syndrome,

Nocodazole mouse the optimal Nutlin-3a manufacturer treatment for both elderly and skeletally mature individuals with odontoid process fractures, management of pediatric spine trauma, rehabilitation strategies for the spinal injured patient, return to play guidelines, and variations in international practice patterns for the management of common spine trauma scenarios. The current Spine issue serves as an update to clinicians on these topics as well as a framework for stimulating new discussion and research in the field as a whole.”
“Background: The primary objective was to describe microbiologically documented infections during induction therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The secondary objectives were to describe risk factors for microbiologically documented infections and for patients with a febrile episode, to identify risk factors for recurrence of fever or reinitiation of antibiotics.

Methods: This study was a retrospective review of children from 1 to 18 years of age who received induction chemotherapy between March 1997 and September 2006. Microbiologically documented inflections were examined through the induction period.

Results: There were 425 children evaluated. The most common preexisting risk factor for infection

was Down syndrome in 11 children. Of the 425 children, 83 (19.5%) experienced at least one microbiologically documented infection. There were 85 infections consisting of 65 bacterial, 15 viral and 5 fungal infections.

Variables significantly associated with a microbiologically selleck documented infection were pre-existing risk factors (odds ratio [OR]: 3.63; P = 0.01) and neutropenia at initial infectious episode (OR: 1.86; P = 0.03). Factors associated with recurrence of fever and reinitiation of antibiotics after an initial infectious episode were receipt of a 4-drug induction, neutropenia at the initial infectious episode, initial fever documented in hospital, and lack of bone marrow recovery at the time of initial antibiotic cessation.

Conclusions: About 20% of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia have a microbiologically documented infection during induction.

001), higher prevalence of nonobstructive coronary stenosis (34%

001), higher prevalence of nonobstructive coronary stenosis (34% vs 14%; P<.008), higher homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (3.8 mu U/mL +/- 3.6 vs 2.6 mu U/mL +/- 3.2; P < .005) and higher triglyceride levels (208 mg/dL 6 87 vs 148 mg/dL 6 70; P < .005).

Fatty liver proved to be a strong predictor of coronary atherosclerosis (odds ratio [OR], 2; P < .04), GS-7977 mw independent of indicators for metabolic syndrome (OR, 1.2; P > .2) and C-reactive protein levels (OR, 0.7; P > .4).

Conclusion: Patients with NAFLD, even without metabolic syndrome, are at high risk for atherosclerosis. Assessment of NAFLD may be helpful for cardiovascular risk stratification.”
“Camelina sativa is a re-emerging low-input oilseed crop that may provide economical vegetable oils for industrial applications. It is desirable to increase the monounsaturated oleic acid (cis-9-octadecenoic acid, 18:1), and to decrease polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), linoleic (cis, cis-9,12-octadecadienoic acid, 18:2) and alpha-linolenic (all-cis-9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid, 18:3) acids, in camelina oils to improve oxidative stability. 18:1 desaturation is mainly controlled by the microsomal oleate desaturase (FAD2; EC 1.3.1.35) encoded by the FAD2 gene. Three

FAD2 genes, designated CsFAD2-1 to 3, were identified in camelina. Functional expression of these genes in yeast confirmed that they all encode microsomal oleate desaturases. Although the three CsFAD2 genes share very high sequence similarity, they

showed this website different expression patterns. Expression of CsFAD2-1 was detected in all tissues examined, including developing seed, flower, as well as in vegetable tissues such as leaf, root, and stem. Transcripts of CsFAD2-2 and CsFAD2-3 were mainly detected in developing seeds, suggesting their major roles in storage oil desaturation in seed. The introns of the three CsFAD2 selleck kinase inhibitor genes, which showed greater sequence variations, may provide additional resources for designing molecular markers in breeding. Furthermore, the roles of CsFAD2 in PUFA synthesis were demonstrated by mutant analysis and by antisense gene expression in camelina seed. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.”
“Purpose: To quantify the effect of sublingual isosorbide dinitrate ( ISDN) administration on coronary magnetic resonance (MR) imaging.

Materials and Methods: Written informed consent was obtained from all participants, and the HIPAA-compliant protocol was approved by the Institutional Review Board. Coronary MR imaging was performed at 1.5 T before and after administration of ISDN (2.5 or 5 mg) in 25 healthy adult volunteers (mean age, 23 years +/- 4; nine men, 16 women) with three-dimensional targeted (n = 20, randomized into four groups) or whole-heart ( n = 5) acquisitions with gradient-recalled echo (GRE) or balanced steady-state free precession (SSFP) sequences.

Here, we review recent mass spectrometry-based studies of Alzheim

Here, we review recent mass spectrometry-based studies of Alzheimer’s disease CSF, and additionally discuss issues associated with CSF in proteomics studies.”
“Background: A sedated, mature male miniature swine hemorrhage model has been specifically developed to evaluate resuscitation

products for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Surviving Blood Loss program.

Methods: Animals were placed in a sling, sedated with midazolam, and hemorrhaged 60% of estimated blood volume (similar to 39 mL/kg) exponentially for 1 hour with no resuscitation (control; n = 16). An additional 26 swine were treated similarly, then resuscitated with 1 mL/kg/min of Hextend to a systolic blood pressure of either 65 mm Hg +/- 2 mm Hg (n = 7) or 80 mm Hg +/- 5 mm Hg (n = 7) and with 17 beta-estradiol (E2) at 1 mg/kg (n = 6) or 10 mg/kg (n = 6). Animals were observed for 3 hours with periodic blood sampling. Survival times for the two E2 groups see more were not significantly different (p = 0.59); therefore, the groups were combined for

comparison with control.

Results: Hemorrhage resulted in a characteristic hypotension and metabolic acidosis. Survival time for the control swine was 64 minutes +/- 11.5 minutes with a 6% survival at 180 minutes. The 180 minutes Hextend survival was 86% for 65 mm Hg and 100% for 80 mm Hg. E2 survival was 125 minutes +/- 15.3 minutes, significantly different from control (p = 0.01), but E2 survival of 25% at 180 minutes was not different from control.

Conclusion: A sedated, sexually mature male miniature swine severe hemorrhage model has been successfully developed, LY2090314 in vivo resuscitated with Hextend and used to evaluate E2 as a small volume resuscitation product.”
“Objective.

Benign and malignant tumor cells can express altered adhesion properties, and these features can be associated with their proliferative and invasive characteristics. This study aimed to evaluate syndecan-1 Nutlin-3 cost and Ki-67 expression in ghost cell-containing odontogenic tumors.

Study Design. Clinical data were retrieved from laboratory records, and hematoxylin-eosin-stained slides and sections, labeled with monoclonal antibodies anti-syndecan-1 and anti-Ki-67 using the immunoperoxidase technique, were evaluated.

Results. Included were 21 central calcifying cystic odontogenic tumors (CCOTs) (4 associated with odontoma), 2 peripheral CCOTs, 1 dentinogenic ghost cell tumor, and 1 ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma (GCOC). Syndecan-1 was mainly expressed in cells resembling stellate reticulum and in stromal cells from the fibrous capsule. The mean Ki-67 labeling index was 4.1% (49.3% for GCOC), but it was not associated with syndecan-1 expression.

Conclusions. Syndecan-1 is variably expressed in cells resembling the stellate reticulum, stromal cells, and basal cells and might be associated with the biology of these tumors.

03) Half of all deaths were considered avoidable and this propor

03). Half of all deaths were considered avoidable and this proportion did not change. The most frequent contributory factor was inadequate management.

CONCLUSION: The ratio and profile

of maternal mortality in France remained unchanged from 1998 to 2007. Half of all maternal deaths are still considered avoidable, which indicates that improvement remains possible.”
“Background: There are no Taiwanese publications and only a few Asian publications on the long-term outcome of peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of PD patients in Taiwan during a 7-year follow-up period.

Patients and Methods: This study enrolled 67 patients (23 males, mean age 46.2 +/- 14.5 years) on maintenance PD. We administered the Short-Form questionnaire on 30 September 1998 and recorded Nirogacestat inhibitor major events and outcomes until 30 September 2005. We compared differences in initial parameters between groups categorized by PD patient survival and PD technique survival. Causes of mortality and transfer to hemodialysis were determined. PD patient and PD technique survival rates were

measured and risk factors for patient mortality and PD technique failure were analyzed.

Results: Those in patient survival or PD technique survival groups had lower mean age (p < 0.001 and 0.018 respectively) and higher serum albumin level (p Selleck GDC-0994 = 0.015 and 0.041 respectively) compared to those that died or failed PD. The 7-year patient survival rate was 77% and the PD technique survival rate was 58%. The independent predictors for PD technique failure included lower Mental Component Summary scores [ hazard ratio (HR) = 0.85, p = 0.031] and diabetes mellitus (HR = 4.63, p < 0.001), whereas lower serum PND-1186 clinical trial albumin level (HR = 0.22, p = 0.031), lower Physical Component Summary scores (HR = 0.67, p = 0.047), and presence of diabetes mellitus (HR = 5.123, p = 0.009) were the independent predictors for patient mortality.

Conclusion: For our PD patients, both patient and technique survival rates are good. Better glycemic control, adequate nutrition, and enhancement

of health-related quality of life are all of potential prognostic benefit.”
“Purpose of review

BK virus is one of the most frequent causes of graft loss after renal transplantation, with BK virus-associated nephropathy occurring in roughly 8% of patients, and graft loss rates reported as high as 50%. This review is meant to highlight the literature on BK viral disease following renal transplantation published in the most recent year.

Recent findings

Prevention of BK virus-associated graft loss requires early diagnosis of BK viral replication, which is best achieved by screening for BK viral DNA in the blood. Screening intervals more frequently than the currently recommended 3 months appear to offer increased efficacy.