The authors alone are responsible for the content and writing of

The authors alone are responsible for the content and writing of the paper and declare no conflicts of interest. “
“Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) causes hemorrhagic colitis, and in more severe cases, a serious clinical complication

called hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Shiga toxin (Stx)is one of the factors that cause HUS. Serotypes of Stx produced by EHEC include Stx1 and Stx2. Although some genetically mutated toxoids of Stx have been developed, large-scale preparation of Stx that is practical this website for vaccine development has not been reported. Therefore, overexpression methods for Stx2 and mutant Stx2 (mStx2) in E. coli were developed. The expression plasmid pBSK-Stx2(His) was constructed by inserting the full-length Stx2 gene, in which a six-histidine tag gene was fused at the end of the B subunit into the lacZα fragment gene of the pBluescript II SK(+) vector. An E. coli MV1184 strain transformed with pBSK-Stx2(His) overexpressed histidine-tagged Stx2 (Stx2-His) in cells cultured in CAYE broth in the presence of lincomycin. Stx2-His was purified using TALON metal affinity resin followed by hydroxyapatite chromatography. From 1 L of culture, 68.8 mg of Stx2-His and 61.1 mg of mStx2-His, which was generated by site-directed

mutagenesis, were obtained. Stx2-His had a cytotoxic effect on HeLa cells and was lethal to mice. However, the toxicity of mStx2-His was approximately 1000-fold lower than that of Stx2-His. Mice immunized with selleck screening library mStx2-His produced specific antibodies that neutralized the toxicity of Pregnenolone Stx2 in HeLa cells. Moreover, these mice survived challenge with high doses of Stx2-His. Therefore, the lincomycin-inducible overexpression method is suitable for large-scale preparation of Stx2 vaccine antigens. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli strains cause hemorrhagic colitis and a serious clinical complication called hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) that is characterized by hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute

renal failure [1, 2]. Major causative factors of EHEC include two types of Stx, Stx-1 and Stx-2 (also referred to as Vero toxin-1 and Vero toxin-2, respectively), both of which consist of one A subunit (Stx1A and Stx2A) and five B subunits (Stx1B and Stx2B). At the amino acid sequence level, Stx1 is almost identical to Stx produced by Shigella dysenteriae 1, whereas Stx2 shares only 55% and 61% amino acid sequence identity with Stx1 in the A and B subunits, respectively. The B subunits bind to Gb3 on the eukaryotic cell membrane [3-5], whereas the A subunit functions as an RNA N-glycosidase that cleaves off a single adenine in the 28S rRNA component of the 60S ribosomal subunit, leading to cell death by inhibition of protein synthesis [6, 7]. Stx2 toxicity is reportedly greater than that of Stx1, because in mice the LD50 of Stx2 is lower than that of Stx1 [8], and in humans Stx2-producing strains generate more severe symptoms than do other strains [9-11].

It was clear that antibody to P gingivalis differed significantl

It was clear that antibody to P. gingivalis differed significantly with increasing disease, manifest in the response differences to the pathogens. No significant differences were noted with any of the commensal bacteria. A fundamental question that was to be addressed was whether this smoking population with varying levels of oral disease responded differently to putative periodontal pathogens compared to members of the commensal oral microbiota. As such, we compared the average antibody response of

each patient subset to the pathogens and commensals (Fig. 6). The results show a trend of greater responses to the pathogenic bacteria in each patient subset based on race and gender, with statistically significant Erlotinib clinical trial elevations to the pathogens in black males reflective of the more severe disease in this group. Figure 7 displays the correlation characteristics INCB018424 purchase between the sum of antibody to the pathogens and the sum of antibody to the commensals in each patient and demonstrates a significant positive correlation across the population. Thus, the data were analysed to identify relationships among these IgG responses and clinical parameters, focusing upon pocket depth as a measure of tissue destructive processes and BOP as an indicator of the magnitude of gingival inflammation in the individual patient. Figure 8 describes the

relationship of antibody to the pathogenic and commensal bacteria stratified into subsets based upon the extent of inflammation, i.e. frequency of bleeding sites. The results show no significant differences in antibody levels to the pathogens or commensals based upon the gingival inflammation measure. Figure 9 summarizes the correlations of antibody to the pathogens and commensals in patient groups according to the mean mouth pocket depth. The results demonstrated selleck chemical positive correlations within the different disease

groups although, as shown in Table 1, in the most diseased individuals the relationship of antibody to these groups of bacteria was less related than those observed in more periodontally normal patients. Additionally, the table demonstrates that stratifying the patients based upon the level of antibody to the pathogens showed a significant positive correlation in patients with low levels of antibody to the pathogens. As the patients respond with higher antibody levels to the pathogens, e.g. generally associated with more periodontal disease, the significance of the correlation of antibody between the pathogens and commensals is lost. Finally, due to the antibody response to P. gingivalis providing a significant contribution to the anti-pathogen antibody profile in this population of adults, we evaluated the relationship between this specific antibody and the race and gender subsets in the population. The results in Table 2 demonstrate significant correlations between this antibody and the extent of periodontal disease described as the frequency of sites with pocket depths >5 mm.

[40] This may reflect model-dependent differences in inflammatory

[40] This may reflect model-dependent differences in inflammatory pathophysiology. An alternative explanation is that although cysts are macroscopically small at week 3, other pathophysiological processes (such as cell proliferation) may already be established at this stage, and stimulate macrophage infiltration. The phenotypes of macrophages in PKD may also provide a clue to the role of inflammation. Karihaloo et al. investigated macrophages in two murine models of ADPKD, the Pkd1fl/fl;Pkhd1-Cre and Pkd2WS25/− mouse.[19] In both mouse strains there were increased numbers of F4/80-positive

macrophages compared with disease controls. In Pkd1fl/fl;Pkhd1-Cre mice, Ly6Clow cells comprised the predominant population of macrophages,[19] a phenotype characteristic of alternatively activated macrophages.[12] Clodronate-induced depletion of macrophages EGFR inhibitor in Pkd1fl/fl;Pkhd1-Cre mice resulted in a decrease in circulating monocyte numbers, Ki67-positive cell proliferation, cystic selleck chemical index and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) compared with vehicle-treated controls.[19] These findings suggest that macrophage depletion delays disease progression, which seems inconsistent with the authors’ previous observation of a predominantly Ly6Clow macrophage population which should theoretically

have restorative roles in disease. The proportions of Ly6Clow and Ly6Chigh macrophages were not significantly changed following clodronate treatment, indicating that the improved disease outcomes were not due to selective depletion of one

macrophage subtype.[19] Cyclooxygenase (COX) This implies that in PKD, alternatively activated macrophages may have detrimental rather than restorative roles. Indeed, alternatively activated macrophages can induce cell proliferation.[41] Although cell proliferation facilitates the repair of damaged renal parenchyma in other types of renal injury such as IRI,[41] proliferation, particularly of the CEC, promotes cyst expansion in PKD.[7] Since Karihaloo et al. observed a concomitant decrease in cell proliferation with macrophage depletion,[19] it is plausible that inflammatory cells such as macrophages exacerbate cyst growth in this disease. Although macrophages are the most well-studied infiltrating cell type in PKD, other cells have also been observed (see Table 3). CD45-positive lymphocytes[11] and CD4-positive lymphocytes[10] have been identified in the renal interstitium of ADPKD patients. Lymphocytes were also reported in kidneys of kat2J/kat2J mice,[30] DBA/2FG-pcy mice,[26] and Han:SPRD rats,[36] although lymphocyte-specific markers were not employed in any of these studies. In other inflammatory renal states such as IRI, lymphocytes produce chemokines (e.g. TNF-α and interferon-γ),[71] and may therefore instigate similar inflammatory effects in PKD. McPherson et al. identified interstitial mast cells surrounded by chymase in ADPKD kidney tissue.

51 The current study reveals one more link between the immune and

51 The current study reveals one more link between the immune and neuroendocrine systems in which the neuroendocrine AMP catestatin activates human mast cells, and may exert immunomodulatory effects on the cutaneous immune system. Further studies are needed for investigation of the pathophysiological roles of catestatin peptides in tissues where mast cells are abundantly SB203580 present. Our sincere thanks go to Dr Arnold Kirshenbaum (National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD) for kindly providing the LAD2 cell line. We thank the members of the Atopy (Allergy) Research Center and the Department of Immunology of Juntendo

University School of Medicine for their encouragement and critical comments, and Ms Michiyo Matsumoto for secretarial Akt tumor assistance. We are also deeply indebted to Dr Mukesh Pasupuleti (University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada)

for his contribution in designing the catestatin scrambled peptide. This work was supported in part by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan; Atopy (Allergy) Research Center, Juntendo University, Tokyo, Japan; and Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare. “
“Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated that patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) have a higher incidence of urinary tract infections (UTI) and there is significant homology of the immunodominant mitochondrial autoantigen, the E2 component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC-E2), between mammals and bacteria. Previous work

has demonstrated that non-obese diabetic (NOD).B6 Idd10/Idd18 infected with Novosphingobium aromaticivorans developed liver lesions similar to human PBC. It was postulated Endonuclease that the biliary disease was dependent upon the presence of the unique N. aro glycosphingolipids in activating natural killer T (NK T) cells. To address this issue, we infected NOD.B6 Idd10/Idd18 mice with either Escherichia coli, N. aro or use of a phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) vehicle control and serially followed animals for the appearance of liver pathology and anti-mitochondrial autoantibodies (AMA). Of striking importance, the biliary disease of E. coli-infected mice was more severe than N. Aro-infected mice and the titre of AMA was higher in E. coli-infected mice. Furthermore, the immunopathology did not correlate with the ability of bacterial extracts to produce antigen-dependent activation of NK T cells. Our data suggest that the unique glycosphingolipids of N. aro are not required for the development of autoimmune cholangitis. Importantly, the data highlight the clinical significance of E.

These findings suggest there are different pathways associated wi

These findings suggest there are different pathways associated with NK cell activation that overlap and exhibit varying degrees of multiplicity. Our inhibition studies indicate that successful LLT1 signalling requires Src-PTK, p38 and ERK pathways with the latter two possibly working in tandem. Inhibition of PKC, PI3K and calcineurin exhibited no affect upon LLT1-stimulated IFN-γ production. While our phosphorylation assay confirmed the importance of the ERK pathway to LLT1 signalling, the lack of positive phosphorlyation data associated with p38 does not completely rule out its importance

to LLT1 function. One possibility is our current phosphorylation assay may not be sufficiently sensitive to detect an increase in p38 phosphorylation upon LLT1 stimulation. Previously, we have shown that 2B4-dependent IFN-γ production is exclusively dependent upon the see more p38 pathway and inhibition of this pathway completely eliminates IFN-γ production [9]. The probable signalling pathway of LLT1-mediated IFN-γ production is schematically shown in Fig. 7. The complete elimination of LLT1-associated IFN-γ production was not observed upon inhibition of either the ERK or p38 pathways, suggesting that neither pathway is the exclusive downstream mechanism of LLT1 signalling. IFN-γ plays an important MEK inhibitor role in the early response to intracellular infection and consequently IFN-γ is the major cytokine produced by NK

cells upon their detection of infected or cancerous cells [28]. As NK cells do not store presynthesized IFN-γ protein for rapid secretion, NK cells must constitutively express

a quantity of IFN-γ mRNA to facilitate rapid translation of IFN-γ upon stimulation [29–31]. NK cells Rolziracetam are capable of secreting detectable levels of IFN-γ within 5 h of detecting the presence of infection [32]. Our time point analysis of LLT1-stimulated IFN-γ production indicates detectable IFN-γ is present in as little as 6 h after LLT1 ligation. This suggests that LLT1 has a role in the rapid synthesis of de novo IFN-γ protein during the earliest stages of infection. Our analysis of IFN-γ mRNA over various time points after LLT1 ligation indicates that LLT1 ligation does not alter IFN-γ transcription. As LLT1 has been clearly demonstrated to stimulate IFN-γ secretion, and IFN-γ is not stored by cells but secreted immediately after synthesis [33], all evidence suggests LLT1 must stimulate IFN-γ production via some process of post-transcriptional or translational modification. There is precedence for such a model of immune cell cytokine production. CD28 is a stimulator of IL-2 production in T cells. CD28 mediates IL-2 production by activating the NF90 AU-binding protein, which binds an AU-rich element (ARE) in the 3′ UTR (un-translated region) of IL-2 mRNA, thereby stabilizing the mRNA allowing the rate of translation to increase [34]. Human IFN-γ is also known to be subject to post-transcriptional control.

Dr Segawa clarified the differences between both diseases14 and e

Dr Segawa clarified the differences between both diseases14 and encouraged me to pursue my study on EPDF. Following the Segawa Symposium, I proceeded with a clinical survey covering 43 cases of EPDF from 22 families.15–17 Sixteen of the 22 families had a positive family history, and 10 of them had parental consanguinity.

There were 10 multiplex families, 11 simplex families and one uniplex family. No patients had a history of parkinsonism in their antecedent or descendant relatives. There was no gender preponderance. We conducted a study to compare patients with diurnal fluctuation (sleep benefit) versus those without, and found the difference in terms of age at onset, initial symptom, progression of the disease, as well as incidence of dystonia, hyperreflexia, Ruxolitinib clinical trial and of dopa-induced dyskinesia (Table 1).15,16 This supports the idea that diurnal fluctuation is cardinal in characterizing EPDF, not merely seen by chance in early-onset PD. The magnitude of diurnal fluctuation click here varied among families and individuals. The phenomenon was marked in earlier stages of the disease, and became less so with increasing age and was masked with the initiation of antiparkinsonian drug therapy. Most patients experienced at least slight improvement after sleep even 30–40 years after the onset. Patients treated with levodopa frequently

developed dyskinesia and motor fluctuation, which were alleviated by lowering the dose of levodopa and/or administering other drugs. Three patients developed delusions during levodopa treatment, which persisted even after

reduction of levodopa with concomitant use of neuroleptics. The clinical oxyclozanide manifestations of EPDF are relatively uniform, without any cognitive disorders or severe autonomic failures. Genetic analysis using the Weinberg’s proband method confirmed that EPDF is of autosomal recessive form.17 Pathology is an essential qualification in building disease entities. Prior to our presentation, there were only a few reports on the neuropathology of autosomal recessive parkinsonism. One patient reported by Ota et al.18 was likely the first based on the age of onset, occurrence of the disease in siblings, and consanguineous marriage. However, the authors did not refer to diurnal fluctuation, nor to presence or absence of Lewy bodies in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNPC). Another case was reported by Mizutani et al.19 with a few Lewy bodies in the SNPC in addition to decreased neuronal melanin. However, this case later proved to be Segawa disease (Yokochi, pers. comm., 2008). In 1992 one of my EPDF patients died. The patient was a 52-year-old woman from a family with parental consanguinity and two other sisters affected from the same disease. Her disease started at the age of 20. From the initial stage, she noticed symptomatic alleviation after sleep (sleep benefit) which allowed her to do housework for 2–3 h after sleep. Subsequently diurnal fluctuation became less remarkable.

They found that in both cases the receptor/ligand interaction res

They found that in both cases the receptor/ligand interaction resulted in enhancement of mast cell activation. Moreover, it was found that Staphylococcus aureus employs CD48, together with TLR-2, to invade CBMC and to activate

the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines 12. By identifying novel receptors on mast cells, Dr. Levi-Schaffer and colleagues hope to find new “self” regulating pathways and novel functions of mast cells in different patho-physiological settings 13. Leukotrienes (LT), histamine and proteases are among the major bioactive products of mast cells. Joshua Boyce (Boston, MA) reviewed data from his laboratory on the cysteinyl (cys) leukotrienes LTC4, LTD4, and LTE4 which are known to regulate mast cell function. Cys-LT are peptide-conjugated Romidepsin chemical structure lipid inflammatory mediators generated by mast cells, macrophages, basophils and eosinophils when these cells are activated in both innate and adaptive immune responses. They facilitate vascular leakage, smooth muscle constriction and cell migration. Nucleotides are released with cell injury, hypoxic stress, and with activation of macrophages and mast cells, GS-1101 purchase reaching high micromolar range concentrations in extracellular fluids. Both cys-LT and nucleotides are prominent and early mediators of inflammatory responses. The G protein-coupled

receptors for cys-LTs (Cys-LT1R and Cys-LT2R) are structural homologs of the G protein-coupled receptors for nucleotides, termed purinergic (P2Y) receptors. Dr. Boyce and colleagues demonstrated that both mouse and human mast cells express Cys-LT1R and Cys-LT2R, as well as multiple P2Y receptors for both adenine (P2Y1, P2Y2, P2Y12, P2Y13) Tyrosine-protein kinase BLK and uracil (P2Y6)-containing nucleotides 14. They have used mast cells as a model system to demonstrate both functional and physical interactions between these receptor classes that regulate cell proliferation, survival and mediator generation 15. Complementarity between

cys-LT receptors and P2Y receptors may be part of the innate danger-sensing repertoire of mast cells. Mast cells produce histamine, which is now recognized as also being made by a variety of other types of cells. The functions of histamine production from these cells remain unknown. However, only mast cells and basophils make and store significant amounts of histamine which is recognized by four different receptors (H1R-H4R) with tissue-specific expression patterns on immune and nonimmune cells and unique signaling pathways 16. As discussed by Paul Bryce (Chicago, IL), H4R is the most recently identified member of the histamine receptor family. Three potential isoforms of H4R have been described so far, including one activating receptor and two smaller putative dominant negative receptors. The importance of mast cell-produced histamine for DC function is only just beginning to be understood.

[15, 16] In IRI and unilateral ureteric obstruction

(UUO)

[15, 16] In IRI and unilateral ureteric obstruction

(UUO), Ly6Chigh monocytes represent the major infiltrating cell subtype responsible for inducing CH5424802 datasheet injury.[13, 17] Macrophages can be further defined by their ‘activation’ pathway. Ly6Chigh macrophages express interleukin (IL)-1β and Cxcl2, which are associated with the classical (or M1) pathway of activation.[17] In contrast, Ly6Clow macrophages share gene expression characteristics with the alternative activation (M2) pathway, which is associated with lower production of pro-inflammatory cytokines.[12] In 1992, Zeier et al. reported that CD68-positive macrophages were present in the renal interstitium of ADPKD patients with both

early and advanced kidney failure.[10] Scarce interstitial infiltrates (mean score 1.4, on a scale from 0 to 3) were found in ADPKD patients, however no interstitial infiltrate values were published for the control groups.[10] More recently, Ibrahim observed BVD-523 clinical trial dense aggregates of interstitial CD68-positive macrophages in human ADPKD tissue, but did not report inflammatory cell staining for controls.[11] Although there do not appear to be any studies demonstrating the presence of macrophages in human ARPKD, mononuclear infiltrates exist in other ciliopathies such as nephronophthisis,[18] and in animal models resembling human ARPKD (discussed below). Several animal models of PKD display an accumulation of inflammatory cells in the renal interstitium (summarized in Table 2). These inflammatory cells occur in animals with ADPKD mutations (Pkd1 and Pkd2)

as well as non-orthologous ADPKD and ARPKD models, suggesting that they are a common manifestation of all types of cystic renal disease. In addition, Mrug et al. profiled renal gene expression in the cpk mouse, and found that several of the most over-expressed genes were associated with macrophages (e.g. Ccr2 and CD68) and the alternatively activated macrophage pathway (e.g. Ccl17).[37, 38] Likewise, a quarter of overexpressed genes in the Cy rat were related to macrophages.[37, 39] C57BL/6J-cpk (cpk/cpk) mouse Orthologous to human nephronophthisis 9;[31] resembles human MycoClean Mycoplasma Removal Kit ARPKD.[32] It is unclear whether inflammatory mononuclear cells instigate and promote cystic disease in PKD, or buffer the extent of renal injury. In addressing this, it is helpful to consider the time-course of macrophage accumulation. In the Lewis Polycystic Kidney (LPK) rat, cyst formation precedes the appearance of interstitial macrophages.[32] Similarly in the DBA/2FG-pcy mouse, infiltrating cells do not appear until 18 weeks post-partum, although numerous cysts are established by week 8.[26] Thus, infiltrating cells appear to be a response to, rather than a cause of cyst development in these models.

Our results regarding CD25+ B cells having a different ability to

Our results regarding CD25+ B cells having a different ability to present alloantigens to CD4+ T cells clearly show that CD25+ B cells see more are more efficient when compared with CD25− B cells. Interestingly, we have previously shown that a higher frequency of CD25+ B cells also express higher levels of the costimulatory molecules CD80 and

CD86 compared with CD25− B cells [2], combining these factors indicates that CD25+ B cells may be very potent antigen presenters. Together with their cytokine secretion ability, CD25+ B cells have the signals needed to affect T cells and may play an important role during an immunological recognition and in memory formation. However, as the splenic CD25+ B-cell compartment only

consists of about 1% of the total B-cell compartment, this small subset of B cells may have local immunomodulatory functions rather than a systemic function. The immunoglobulin production by CD25+ B cells was also assessed. We found that a higher number of CD25+ B cells spontaneously secrete IgA, IgG and IgM compared with CD25− B cells. Also after OVA immunization an increased number of CD25+ B cells secreted antigen-specific IgM and IgG compared with CD25− B cells, even though the latter levels were barely significant. The production of antigen-specific antibodies especially of IgG type requires that the B cell has gone through an immunoglobulin class switch and somatic selleck screening library hypermutation [31–34], and may therefore belong

to the memory B-cell population. Thus, our data may suggest that CD25 may function as a memory B-cell marker in mice. To reach the site of action a cell needs to locate the tissue of interest using specific homing receptors and migrate from the blood stream into the tissue. We therefore analysed the surface expression of selected homing receptors as well as the migratory capacity of CD25+ B cells. The number of CD25+ B cells expressing homing receptor CXCR4 is increased. This chemokine receptor – when expressed by B cells – regulates the germinal centre (GC) organization [35] Oxymatrine and is involved in the migration of plasma blasts to the bone marrow and inflamed tissues [36]. In addition, an increased number of CD25+ B cells expressed CXCR5 compared with CD25− B cells. CXCR5 is important for B cell entry in to Peyer’s patches [37] and mice deficient in CXCR5 or its ligand CXCL13 have been shown to reduce size and atypical distribution of their GC [38–40]. It has also been shown that memory B cells express the gut homing receptor α4β7 [41], which also was true for the CD25+ B cells. As CD25+ B cells also migrated more extensively against CXCL13 this leads to the conclusion that CD25+ B cells may be highly motile travelling around the system with the ability to migrate back and forth from different tissues and if necessary modulate the immune response.

Aggregation of the microtubule-associated protein tau, associated

Aggregation of the microtubule-associated protein tau, associated with several neurodegenerative disorders, including AD and frontotemporal dementia is thought to occur via prion-like network propagation, whereby protein

aggregates released into the extracellular space enter specific neighbouring cells and trigger further fibrillogenesis [330]. A recent study elucidated the mechanism by which this occurs, in which tau fibrils enter cells by HSPG-dependent macropinocytosis to seed further aggregation, which in vivo could be blocked by use of a heparin mimetic. In addition, this mechanism was also reported to mediate aggregation of α-synuclein, found both in AD and in neurodegenerative disorders associated with Lewy body aggregates such as Lewy body dementia and Parkinson’s disease [331]. Targeting Small molecule library concentration of HSPGs therefore represents a promising therapeutic strategy in neurodegenerative diseases in which pathological aggregates propagate. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, inflammatory, demyelinating and neurodegenerative disease. In most sclerotic lesions, OPCs are present but do not differentiate into mature myelinating oligodendrocytes, where increasing failure to remyelinate progresses with disease chronicity [332]. In MS there is altered expression of ECM proteins and these are implicated in ongoing pathology. Both diffuse ECM and basement membrane are affected. For example,

in acute, active periods of demyelination there is a decrease in parenchymal tenascin and CSPG lectican levels. In inactive lesions tenascin levels return to baseline and the lecticans versican, aggrecan and neurocan Sirolimus molecular weight are chronically upregulated.

PTK6 This is thought to result from macrophage phagocytosis in the active lesion and persistent reactive gliosis in the chronic lesion respectively [333–335]. The ECM is also known to be involved in the regulation of OPC migration, proliferation and differentiation into myelinating oligodendrocytes [336]. Furthermore, accumulation of high-molecular-weight hyaluronan has been shown to inhibit OPC maturation and remyelination of chronic lesions in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of MS pathology [337]. Basement membrane components are also known to regulate multiple processes in myelination as well as immune cell infiltration to lesions. For example, laminin-2 is implicated in OPC survival and differentiation via integrin, contactin and dystroglycan receptor interactions [338–341], downstream potentiation of growth signalling [342] and also specific regulation of actin-cytoskeleton mediated OPC extension of myelinating processes [343] and its expression is upregulated in MS lesions [344]. In contrast, increased expression of fibronectin in MS, which is both localized to basement membrane and also expressed parenchymally in the active lesion [345], impairs remyelination [346].