Here we discuss in more detail each of the barriers mentioned above
and describe the different genetic modification approaches that are being pursued to circumvent them and have led to improved hydrogen production (Fig. 1; Table 1). Fig. 1 Representation of the hydrogen photoproduction-related pathways in Chlamydomonas. Hydrogen production occurs in the chloroplast, where the photosynthetic chain and the hydrogenases are located (see text for more details). The respiratory chain is located in the mitochondrion, Selleckchem LY3039478 and there is an extensive communication between the two organelles that can impact the level VX-689 price of hydrogen production (adapted from Kruse et
al. 2005). The circled numbers indicate where current genetic engineering efforts have impacted H2 photoproduction, as described in the text. The barriers overcome by these modifications are: (1) O2 sensitivity, addressed by PSII inactivation and/or increased O2 consumption; (2) proton gradient dissipation, addressed by the pgrl1 knockout mutation (decreased CEF); (3) photosynthetic efficiency, addressed by knockdown of light-harvesting antennae or truncating antenna proteins; (4) this website competition for electron, addressed by Rubisco mutagenesis; (5) low reductant flux and hydrogenase expression, addressed by impacting starch accumulation/degradation, FDX-HYD fusion, and overexpressing hydrogenase, respectively. It must be noted that, for clarity, not all the genetic engineering approaches mentioned in the text are represented in the figure Table 1 Summary of the genetically engineered strains with improved H2 production For more details, refer to the text and references (adapted from Esquível et al. 2011). Note We followed the nomenclature set by the
www.chlamy.org website for eukaryotic genes throughout the text. Genes are listed: uppercase letters, italics (nuclear encoded) or lowercase with the PAK6 last letter uppercase, italics (chloroplast encoded); proteins in uppercase letter, no italics; mutant strains in lowercase, italics. Prokaryotic nomenclature is set as follow: Genes and mutant strains are listed in lowercase with the last letter uppercase, italics; proteins: first and last letter capital, italics Barriers O2 sensitivity of hydrogenases Anaerobiosis is a prerequisite for H2 production by algae. Indeed, Chlamydomonas cultures are capable of photoproducing hydrogen at a very high efficiency (close to the maximal photosynthesis yield ~10 %) for a few minutes upon illumination.