3%,3 respectively The negative impacts of these oral conditions

3%,3 respectively. The negative impacts of these oral conditions on the Erlotinib nmr life of children include oral pain, difficulty with chewing, anxiety or distress about their mouth and missed school days due to their cumulative dental caries experience as well as changes in emotional (being

upset and worrying about being different) and social behaviours (being teased and avoiding smiling/laughing) due to malocclusions.4 Assessment of the impact of oral diseases on the everyday life of children is important because oral diseases may not only limit their current functioning and psychosocial well-being, but may also compromise their future development selleck chemicals llc and achievements. A previous study in adults suggested that dental status may affect food preference, dietary intake and nutrition.5 Difficulty with chewing, resulting from the severity of malocclusion6, 7 and 8 and dental caries9 in children, as well as the area of occlusal contact

and near contact area in adolescents7 and 8 is the most likely mechanism by which poor oral health status affects dietary intake.10 and 11 In this regard, de Morais Tureli et al.12 found better masticatory performance (MP) among normal-weight children when compared with overweight/obese children and suggested that poor MP might be a factor for weight gain. Thus, it

only is reasonable to suggest that chewing could affect nutrition and the digestion and absorption of nutrients and directly affects an individual’s QoL. Previous investigations performed in adults have noted a link between masticatory function and OHRQoL.13, 14 and 15 OHRQoL appears to be enhanced when masticatory function is improved through dental treatment, as observed by Nicolas et al.16 Locker et al.13 evaluated the performance of two self-assessed measures in detecting oral impacts on QoL due to functional alterations (with and without one or more dentures, a chewing problem and dry mouth). They reported that both the short-form of the Oral Health-Impact Profile (OHIP-14) and the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI) discriminated between subjects with and without a self-perceived chewing problem as opposed to an objectively measured chewing problem. Using objective MP, Ikebe et al.14 found higher OHIP-14 and GOHAI scores among elderly subjects with lower MP, suggesting that MP is an important factor influencing the OHRQoL in this population. Fueki et al.15 reported that perceived chewing ability is a critical factor for OHRQoL and that MP rather than food mixing ability is important for perceived chewing ability and OHRQoL in patients with removable partial dentures.

, 2005) However, the combined venoms were more efficient to be r

, 2005). However, the combined venoms were more efficient to be recognized by serum with high neutralizing potency. We assumed that the complexity of the antigen used in the ELISA is not favorable for establishing a correlation between the antigenic reactivity and the neutralizing properties, probably due to the existence of a limited spectrum of neutralizing antibodies. Therefore, we evaluated simpler antigens, in the form of peptides, which could mimic epitopes including the neutralizing ones. The epitope-mapping Spot technique was used (Maria et al., 2005, Alvarenga et al., 2010b and Machado de Ávila et al., 2004), thereby allowing a systematic search for continuous epitopes. These regions,

besides being antigenic, may also correspond to neutralizing epitopes because they are related either to the catalytic site or to the mechanism of action of the toxins (Murakami find more et al., 2005, Alvarenga et al., 2010a and Alvarenga et al., 2010b; Felicori et al., 2009; de Moura et al., 2011). Taking into consideration the recognition of the beta-catenin inhibitor three different dermonecrotic proteins by horse antivenoms with high neutralizing potency,

nine reactive peptides were selected (i.e., three from each protein). Some reactive peptide regions of LiD1 had been previously identified (Felicori et al., 2006 and Felicori et al., 2009), confirming the immunogenicity of some regions. However, for the first time such mapping was produced with toxins from three different Loxosceles species. Among the mapped antigenic

regions, an analysis of the recognition frequency by the different sera was done. When the serum was tested at low dilution, the recognition frequency of some epitopes was the same in sera with high or low neutralizing potency. When the serum dilution was increased, the low neutralizing potency sera were not able to recognize Rebamipide the peptides, whereas the high neutralizing potency sera were able to recognize the peptides, suggesting that the test conditions may influence the discrimination between the different sera. Some sequences appeared to be best candidates for such differentiation (e.g., peptides 2 and 3). Peptide 3 (164DFSGPYLPSLPTLDA178) from SMase-D I was not recognized by any low neutralizing potency serum. This region has been reported to be a highly conserved region in SMase-D from L. laeta ( Murakami et al., 2005). Peptide 3 corresponds to a variable loop, which is five residues shorter than sequences from other species. As reported by de Giuseppe et al. (2011), this loop exposes the active site. Therefore, peptide 3 seems to be an important region for the identification of high neutralizing potency sera. Peptide 2 (22EFVNLGANSIETDVS36), which is present in SMase-D from L. intermedia and L. gaucho venoms, corresponds to a conserved region suggesting a structural and functional homology between the toxins.

e 16–18 January 1955, 17–19 October 1967 and 13–14 January 1993

e. 16–18 January 1955, 17–19 October 1967 and 13–14 January 1993 (Figure 1, Figure 2, Figure 3, Figure 4, Figure 5, Figure 6 and Figure 7). The interactions between wind and baric waves during storm surges allow one to observe that: • the relative contributions of wind and baric wave to the resultant changes in sea level depend on mesoscale baric lows, their passage velocity and intensity. Deep (< 980 hPa), rapidly moving

Olaparib cell line baric lows cause sea surface deformation mainly as a result of baric wave action. When a baric low system moves at high speed, the wind action in a given direction is limited in duration. The wind energy produces waves and mixes the water, but cannot induce pronounced drifting surges. On the other hand, when baric systems are shallow (> 980 hPa) and slow-moving, the resultant change in the sea level is brought Talazoparib manufacturer about predominantly by the wind field; “
“Global anthropogenic reactive nitrogen Nr emissions increased from 23 Tg(N) yr−1 in 1860 to 93 Tg (N) yr−1 in the early 1990s, and it is estimated that they will grow further to 189 Tg N yr−1 in 2050 (Galloway et al. 2004). The increase

of Nr in the environment has given rise to concern in recent years as a result of increasing emissions in developing countries. In Asia, reactive nitrogen Nr emissions grew from 14.4 Tg (N) yr−1 in 1961 to 67.7 Tg (N) yr−1 in 2000 (Zheng et al. 2002). The globalized reactive nitrogen problem has an influence on the carbon cycle and on biological production in marine and terrestrial areas. Our understanding of the rate of nitrogen accumulation in environmental reservoirs is still poor (Galloway & Cowling 2002, Matson et al. 2002, Wenig et al. 2003, Galloway et al. 2008, Gruber & Galloway 2008). The deposition of atmospheric inorganic nitrogen to the oceans increased from the pre-industrial value of 22 Tg (N) yr−1 to 39 Tg (N) yr−1 in

the 1990s, and is predicted by IPCC (2007) to grow to 69 Tg (N) yr−1 by 2100 (Krishnamurthy et al. 2007). find more The 1979 UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP) has been implemented through eight emission reduction Protocols, two of which deal with reactive nitrogen. The Task Force on Reactive Nitrogen was established under the Working Group on Strategies and Review in December 2007. The task force on the Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution, created in December 2004, has provided annual assessment reports of the hemispheric transport of air pollutants and their precursors (UNECE 2010). The Baltic Sea (BS) is the world’s largest brackish water area. Its average depth is 52 m and, over most areas, the water column has temperature and salinity stratification the whole year round (BACC 2008).

These peptides can be isolated from various organisms such as pla

These peptides can be isolated from various organisms such as plants [48], insects [45], amphibians [57], fishes [1] and mammals [18]. Despite their different origins, AMPs may show some common properties including cationic surfaces and amphipathic structures [49]. Furthermore,

some peptides also show promiscuity as they attach to different targets such as membranes, cell walls, cytosolic APO866 mw proteins and nucleic acids [7], [27] and [49]. This property could lead to multifunctionality derived from a single protein molecule. This process could also occur due to a specific stimulus, such as pH or protein concentrations. This property is commonly found in plant and animal defense peptides, in which a wide number of different functions must be generated by several structural homologs with identical structures [16]. Moreover, cationic AMPs conformation seems to interact

with anionic microorganism membranes by electrostatic interactions in a first step. AMPs inset into membrane bilayers and aggregate, forming pores and leading to an efflux of intracellular ions [40] and [64]. Additionally, some studies have shown the relation between resistance to certain infectious diseases and AMPs secretion. Cipriano et al. [8] showed that AMPs secreted in fish external mucus may confer resistance to Aeromonas salmonicida in salmonids. Likewise, in Teleostei marine polar fish, some peptides are commonly secreted into the blood and tissues depending on sub-zero temperature [13] and [31]. These

peptides are known as antifreeze peptides (AFP), and the type I AFP family is commonly found in winter flounder (Pleuronectes americanus), Epigenetic inhibitor named HPLC-6 and HPLC-8 [18]. Comparing AMPs and AFPs, similar structural and physical–chemical properties have been found, such as the hydrophobic ratio, hydrophobic moment and specific amino acid composition [61]. Migliolo et al. [34] studied a synthetic peptide named Pa-MAP, a derivate of the HPLC-8 peptide [25]. Additionally, Pa-MAP Y-27632 2HCl primary sequence was selected from the AFP HPLC-8 produced by the polar fish P. americanus with length (decreased from 37 residues to 26) and residue modifications, such as lysine 7 and 18 substituted by alanine, valine 2 and 13 by treonine, and glutamic acid 11 by alanine. The first amino acid residue in HPLC-8 is aspartic acid, also substituted by histidine [34]. Surprisingly, Pa-MAP is devoid of arginine and lysine cationic residues, which seems to be important for antimicrobial activity [19] and [41]. Indeed, the peptide has mostly hydrophobic amino acid residues suggesting that that Pa-MAP antimicrobial activity could be attributed mostly to hydrophobic interaction. Furthermore, it shows the ability of inhibiting the HSV virus, the development of mycellar fungi T. mentagrophytes and T. rubrum, and deleterious activity against E. coli, besides cytotoxic effects in tumor cells.

The deafferented ipsilateral CN and adjacent brainstem, in the vi

The deafferented ipsilateral CN and adjacent brainstem, in the vicinity of the obex, were physiologically mapped between 1 and 12 weeks and at 26 weeks and 30 click here weeks post-amputation. In these forelimb amputee rats, 631 electrode penetrations were made and receptive fields were examined at 4675 sites. An additional 5 juvenile Sprague-Dawley rats that did not undergo forelimb amputation served as controls and were similarly mapped by making 58 penetrations and examining receptive fields at 829 sites. The total number of electrode penetrations and total number of recording sites examined for intact and forelimb amputees are shown in Table 1. A relationship exists between the physiological

and morphological organization of the glabrous forepaw representation in CN. In the

present study, we focused on the region approximately +300 μm anterior to the obex that contained CO-labeled clusters, called barrelettes, that were associated with the representation of the glabrous digits and digit and palmar pads (Li et al., 2012). While these CO-stained clusters are found throughout an 800-to900-μm rostrocaudal segment of CN, cross sections taken around +300 μm generally contained a complete complement of forepaw barrelettes AZD9291 nmr that could be directly compared to barrel-like structures in the forepaw barrel subfield (FBS) in SI cortex (Waters et al., 1995). Examples of 4 intact animals with well-defined barrelettes in CN lying approximately +300 μm anterior to the obex are illustrated in photomicrographs and corresponding line drawings in Fig. 1. The locations of the barrelettes within CN, the general shape of CN,

and the location of CN in relationship to the surrounding gracilis nucleus (GN) and spinal trigeminal nucleus (STN) are shown. In each example, the barrelettes are well formed and occupy the central region of CN. On the dorsomedial corner, beginning at the dashed line in the line drawings, CN extends toward and appears to abut or blend into the neighboring GN. The dorsolateral side of CN forms a tail-like most structure that can be seen extending toward the brainstem surface and the neighboring STN. These are common features of coronal sections at this level of CN. For each of the forelimb-intact control rats, a detailed physiological map of the forelimb and surrounding body representation(s) was generated by making rows of closely spaced electrode penetrations and sampling at depths of 50 or 100 μm throughout the penetration down to a depth of 700 μm. Penetrations were then reconstructed in relationship to the underlying morphological map to produce a standardized map for subsequent comparison with forelimb amputees. An example from one intact rat is illustrated in Fig. 2. The photomicrograph in Fig. 2A shows a view of the brainstem surface with the locations of the surface point of entry of 7 electrode penetrations used to generate the physiological map.

This result suggests that the P intermedia lysate may be more im

This result suggests that the P. intermedia lysate may be more immunogenic and then induce stronger immune response and more periodontal destruction or the bacterium may be more efficiently eliminated by the response in CP individuals. P. gingivalis has been considered more virulent than P. intermedia, 21 which is supported by the differential

regulation of CD80 and CD86 by P. intermedia and P. gingivalis. In CP individuals, downregulation of either CD80 or CD86 by S. sanguinis, T. denticola, and P. gingivalis may be part of an immune evasion strategy or, in the case of S. sanguinis, may induce tolerance. Upregulation of co-stimulatory molecule expression on B cells find more has been described in periodontal disease. 22 On average, we found that the ratio of bacterial lysate-induced production of IL-10 to IL-12 was 3-fold greater in the supernatants of m-MDDCs from HP compared to CP subjects. IL-10 exerts

an anti-inflammatory effect by reducing the production of inflammatory cytokines (including IL-12) and controlling periodontal bone loss.23 Thus, the tendency of the periodontal bacteria to downregulate IL-10 and upregulate IL-12p70 levels may contribute to poor control of inflammation and increased periodontal tissue destruction in CP subjects. Although the higher expression of IL-12 but lower maturation of DCs in CP patients might seem somewhat contradictory, we suggest that it is not. We speculate that MDDCs from periodontitis individuals may show a more Natural Product Library in vivo activated basal state, which help to explain why some subjects are more prone to develop periodontitis. IL-12p70 plays a key role in bacterial clearance through the induction of IFN-gamma, which in turn activates

the bactericidal function of macrophages.25 We found that P. intermedia induced more IL-12p70 and IFN-gamma production by m-MDDC of CP subjects Protirelin than did other bacteria, and thus P. intermedia may be more efficiently eliminated from the host. S. sanguinis also stimulated more IFN-gamma production by CP than HP m-MDDC co-cultured with T cells. The higher IFN-gamma response in CP subjects compared to HP may mediate a stronger and more destructive inflammatory response. However, the latter explanation may be unlikely as Jotwani et al. found that IFN-gamma levels are not increased significantly in chronic periodontitis patients. 10 In conclusion, we show here that m-MDDC from periodontitis subjects differed from those of healthy subjects by exhibiting a more immature phenotype and cytokine profile biased towards a pro-inflammatory response, without increasing IL-10 production. These results clearly indicate a dysregulated immune response in these subjects. This pattern was maintained/exacerbated when cells were stimulated by P. intermedia, P gingivalis, T. denticola, and S. sanguinis. P.

Thus, plaque apertures should exceed the largest tumor diameter a

Thus, plaque apertures should exceed the largest tumor diameter as to create a tumor-free margin of safety to prevent geographic miss. That said, centers that use 106Ru plaques must adjust for the 1-mm rim of silver designed to surround the periphery of the source aperture or “window.” For small tumors, particularly those treated with 106Ru plaques, durations may be as short as 3 days. Dinaciclib in vivo However, in the survey of ABS-OOTF centers, brachytherapy for uveal melanoma

treatment durations typically range from 5 to 7 days. Eligible Rbs are typically less than 15 mm in base and no more than 10 mm in thickness [23], [77], [78], [79], [91] and [92]. Some describe Group B (International Classification) as being the most commonly applicable stage. The ABS-OOTF recommends (Level 2 Consensus) that vitreous seeding should be absent or within 2 mm of the tumor surface.

Either low-energy http://www.selleckchem.com/products/MK-2206.html 103Pd, 125I (for thicker tumors), or 106Ru plaques (for thinner tumors) has been used. Using low-energy plaques, a solitary Rb is typically treated with a dose of 40–50 Gy to the tumor apex over 3–5 days. Depending on the ABS-OOTF center, typically higher tumor apex doses have been used for both 106Ru and 90Sr plaques. Murphree (78) noted that a history of or synchronous treatment with chemotherapy potentiates radiation-related intraocular vasculopathy (retinopathy selleck inhibitor and optic neuropathy). In these cases, they advocated reduced apical 125I prescription doses of 20–25 Gy or allowing several months between chemotherapy and brachytherapy (78). Survey of ABS-OOTF centers suggests that brachytherapy using both low-energy photon-emitting sources (103Pd and 125I) and beta-emitting 103Ru have been performed as outpatient procedures. However, centers must comply with local government regulations. The surgeries should be performed under either general or regional anesthesia, by a subspecialty-trained surgeon, thus experienced in plaque insertion. Ocular muscles should be relocated if they interfere with plaque position. This includes both rectus and oblique muscles. Typically localized

by transpupillary or transocular illumination of the globe, the tumor base shadows its subjacent sclera. The edges of the shadow are marked on the sclera with tissue dye. An additional 2–3 mm “free margin” is typically measured and marked around the tumor base. Some centers directly sew the plaque over the marked target, whereas others preplace sutures using “dummy” plaques. The ABS-OOTF defines “normal plaque position” (Level 1 Consensus) that the target volume includes the tumors base and safety margin. The ABS-OOTF survey found that compared with 103Pd and 125I plaques, larger physical safety margins are typically used with 106Ru. Extra care must be taken in transilluminating thicker (e.g., >5-mm thick) uveal melanomas.

Finally—out of alphabetical order because it deals with the whole

Finally—out of alphabetical order because it deals with the whole purpose of this collection—Keith Tipton and the members of the Beilstein STRENDA Commission describe the work of this Commission: why it exists and what has been achieved. We, the guest editors of this Selisistat datasheet collection, would like to thank all authors who contributed to this collection with both their overviews and thoughts about their area of research interests and for making this special issue on topics beyond those discussed by the STRENDA Commission possible. Robert A. (Bob) Alberty, one of the giants of enzymology of the past half century (Cornish-Bowden

et al., 2010), had a long life, but, sadly, not long enough to see the completion of this collection. He died on 18th January 2014 at the age of 92. He was a loyal and enthusiastic supporter of the work of STRENDA, and in particular he campaigned for a rigorous treatment of biochemical thermodynamics, as will be evident in particular in Robert Goldberg׳s

article. None of the authors have any conflict of interest. “
“Thermodynamic measurements selleckchem on biochemical and biological systems are of fundamental scientific importance. Since the aim of these measurements is to obtain reliable values of physical properties, it is important for workers in this area to be aware of documents that provide guidance for the performance of these measurements and for the reporting of results. When documents of this sort carry the imprimatur of a well-known scientific or standards organization, these documents serve as de facto standards for this community of researchers. It is the aim of this chapter to summarize briefly the status of the standards documents that are pertinent to biothermodynamics as well as recommendations that have been made for the reporting of experimental results. In its broadest sense, the field of biothermodynamics encompasses all physical property measurements on biochemical and biological systems. However, since equilibrium and calorimetric measurements have been of primary interest in this field,

properties that fall into these two categories have received Astemizole the most attention in the literature and in the standards documents. The effective communication of scientific information is enhanced by the use of a standard set of nomenclature, symbols, and units. For example, it would be difficult and confusing to read a publication in which the symbol S was used for equilibrium constant and the symbol K was used for entropy or if the symbol Z was used for pH. The problem would be compounded if the aforementioned properties were referred to by names that are not commonly used. Additionally, while several historical units such as British Thermal Units, pounds, and miles have their place, they have generally been replaced in the scientific literature and in most countries by the International System of units (SI) ( Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, 2006).

The samples were mixed with 1 ml of chloroform and methanol (2:1,

The samples were mixed with 1 ml of chloroform and methanol (2:1, volume-ratio), vortexed and centrifuged at 24,462g for 10 min at 4 °C. After centrifugation the system separated into three phases which were 1.33 ml of polar upper phase (25% methanol + 75% Ringer’s solution, pH 7), an interphase (the meat protein aggregate) and 0.67 ml of non-polar lower Z-VAD-FMK purchase phase (chloroform) containing soluble lipids. Each of the three phases was removed for separate hydroperoxide measurements. Upper phase (700 μl) was removed and the following chemicals were added immediately in this order: 5 μl of 4 mM BHT, 4 μl of 2 M

H2SO4, 40 μl of H2SO4 at pH 1.8, 30 μl of 5 mM XO + 5 M sorbitol mixture at pH 1.8 and 40 μl of 1.67 mM FeSO4 at pH 1.8. A blank containing the upper phase reduced with 10 μl of 1 M sodium dithionite and subjected to an identical protocol was used as a negative control. The protein aggregate at the interphase was washed three times with 2:1 chloroform:methanol before 1.7 ml of 6 M GuHCl were added to resolubilise the protein for optimal hydroperoxide exposure. The protein aggregate did not always solubilise to a transparent solution, but it swelled to an open system that allowed for low molecular

weight diffusion (i.e. diffusion of the chemicals added). After 30 min of solubilisation, all chemicals were added immediately in this order: 12 μl of 4 mM BHT, 97 μl of H2SO4 at pH 1.8, 73 μl of 5 mM XO + 5 M sorbitol mixture at pH 1.8 and 73 μl of 1.67 mM FeSO4 at pH 1.8. A blank containing suspended protein phase reduced with 10 μl of 1 M sodium dithionite and subjected to identical protocol was used as a negative control. Lower phase (50 μl Luminespib mouse chloroform) was removed and chemicals were added immediately in this order: 200 μl of chloroform, 460 μl of methanol, 5 μl of 4 mM BHT, 12 μl of 2 M H2SO4, 26 μl of 10 mM XO at pH 1.8 and 54 μl of 1.67 mM FeSO4 at pH 1.8. A blank containing the lower phase reduced with 10 μl of 1 M triphenylphosphine

and subjected to identical protocol was used as a negative control. All the samples were incubated for 60 min in enclosed Eppendorf tubes at room temperature to ensure colour development. The upper phases and the suspended Dimethyl sulfoxide protein interphases were centrifuged at 24,462g for a further 10 min at 4 °C to secure transparency before the measurements by the spectrophotometer, while the lower phases were measured spectrophotometrically at 590 nm immediately after the incubation. The initially obtained hydroperoxide values were calculated by first subtracting the negative control, then the absorbance was divided by the pigments’ molar absorptivities of 14,840 (1 cm pathway) and 87,583 (1 cm pathway) for the upper phase/inter phase and the lower phase, respectively, before correcting for dilution. Our procedure is a modification of Gay and Gebicki (2002a), but adapted to meat instead of serum and with reduced volumes to adapt the technique to Eppendorf tubes.

The reactions were stopped by freezing the flasks at −80 °C and t

The reactions were stopped by freezing the flasks at −80 °C and the

hydrolyzed samples were lyophilised. Isoflavones were extracted from the lyophilised samples (1 g) with 5 mL of 80% methanol by stirring for 2 h at room temperature. The mixtures were centrifuged at 16,100g for 10 min and the supernatants were filtered through a 0.45 μm filter for analysis of the isoflavones via HPLC. The contents and compositions of isoflavones were determined Crizotinib solubility dmso quantitatively by HPLC. The HPLC system used was a Shimadzu HPLC (Kyoto, Japan), consisting of an LC-10AD pump, a UV detector (SPD-10AV) and a Shim-pack CLC-ODS (M) column (4.6 × 250 mm) (Shimadzu Co., Kyoto, Japan). The mobile phase consisted of solvent (A) composed of 0.1% (v/v) acetic acid in filtered MilliQ water, and (B) solvent consisting of 0.1% (v/v) acetic acid in acetonitrile. The following gradient for solvent B was applied: 15–25% from 0 to 35 min, 25–26.5% over the next 12 min and 26.5–50% over 30 s followed by isocratic elution for 14.5 min. The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min, column temperature was 40 °C and the absorbance was PS-341 mouse measured at 254 nm. Isoflavone content of the samples was calculated by interpolation of the calibration curves prepared using

varying concentrations of the 12 isoflavone standards. D. Hansenii UFV-1 grown in YP medium containing cellobiose as carbon source presented expressive biomass production and intracellular β-glucosidase activity (data not shown). The yeast exhibited intracellular β-glucosidase activity and biomass production of 0.016 U/mL and 4.36 mg/mL, respectively, when cultivated during 12 h in the YP medium with cellobiose. Cellobiose was the most effective sugar tested for induction of growth and intracellular β-glucosidase

activity in D. hansenii UFV-1. Extracellular β-glucosidase production induced by cellobiose was reported for Debaryomyces vanrijiae and Debaryomyces pseudopolymorphus ( Belancic et al., 2003 and Villena et al., 2006). Different from the others, D. hansenii UFV-1 did not secrete β-glucosidase when grown on cellobiose. The presence of this intracellular Ponatinib price enzyme could suggest that D. hansenii presents a cellobiose transporter. Several yeast species including Clavispora lusitaniae, Candida wickerhamii, Debaryomyces polymorphus and Pichia guillermondii have the ability to transport cellobiose across the plasma membrane ( Freer, 1991 and Freer and Greene, 1990). Kluyveromyces lactis produces an intracellular β-glucosidase, implying that this yeast also has the ability to transport cellobiose into the cell ( Tingle & Halvorson, 1972). Results of D. hansenii UFV-1 β-glucosidase purification are summarised in Table 1. After dialysis, the enzymatic extract was subjected to ion exchange chromatography, resulting in the separation of one protein fraction with β-glucosidase activity, which was eluted with 0.1 M NaCl. This step promoted considerable specific activity enrichment ( Table 1).