In contrast, PNU 282987 infusion resulted in reductions in these

In contrast, PNU 282987 infusion resulted in reductions in these measures when administered into the NAc shell, but had no effect after administration into the anterior cingulate cortex. These data identify reduction of alpha 7 nAChR function as a potential mechanism for elevated tobacco use in schizophrenia and also identify activation of alpha 7 nAChRs as a

potential strategy for tobacco cessation therapy. Neuropsychopharmacology (2012) 37, 1134-1143; doi:10.1038/npp.2011.299; published online 14 December 2011″
“How does the brain learn those visual features that are relevant for behavior? SB202190 solubility dmso In this article, we focus on two factors that guide plasticity of visual representations. First, reinforcers cause the global release of diffusive neuromodulatory signals that gate plasticity. Second,

attentional feedback signals highlight the chain of neurons between sensory and motor cortex responsible for the selected action. We here propose that the attentional feedback signals guide learning by suppressing plasticity of irrelevant features while permitting the learning of relevant ones. By hypothesizing that sensory Selleck SP600125 signals that are too weak to be perceived can escape from this inhibitory feedback, we bring attentional learning theories and theories that emphasized the importance of neuromodulatory signals into a single, unified framework.”
“The metabolism of doxorubicin, a widely used anticancer drug, is different in young adult and old cancer patients. In this study, we demonstrate during that micellar electrokinetic chromatography with laser-induced fluorescence detection is highly suited to monitor the metabolism of doxorubicin in subcellular fractions isolated from young adult (11 months, 100% survival rate) and old (26 months, similar to 25% survival rate) Fischer 344 rat livers. The relative amounts of doxorubicin metabolized in both mitochondria-enriched

and postmitochondria fractions of young adult were larger than the respective fractions of old rat liver. 7-Deoxydoxorubicinolone and 7-deoxydoxorubicinone were identified using internal standard addition and structural elucidation by high-performance liquid chromatography with combined laser-induced fluorescence and mass spectrometry detection. Although high-performance liquid chromatography with combined laser-induced fluorescence and mass spectrometry detection is more useful in the identification of compounds, micellar electrokinetic chromatography with laser-induced fluorescence detection has low-sample requirements, simplified sample processing procedures, short analysis times and low limit of detection. Therefore, the combination of these two techniques provides a powerful approach to investigate metabolism of fluorescent drugs in aging studies.

Health-care

Health-care EPZ004777 cost providers and travellers need to be aware of the potential health risks associated with air travel. Environmental and physiological changes that occur during routine commercial flights lead to mild hypoxia and gas expansion, which can exacerbate chronic medical conditions or incite acute in-flight medical events. The association between venous thromboembolism and long-haul flights, cosmic-radiation exposure, jet lag, and cabin-air quality are growing health-care issues associated with air travel. In-flight medical events are increasingly frequent because a growing number of individuals with pre-existing medical conditions travel by air. Resources including basic

and advanced medical kits, automated external defibrillators, and Selleckchem Acalabrutinib telemedical ground support are available onboard to assist flight crew and volunteering physicians in the management of in-flight medical emergencies.”
“Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal disease characterized by progressive

degeneration of motoneurons. We have demonstrated that hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) attenuates loss of both spinal and brainstem motoneurons of ALS model mice expressing mutated human SOD1(G93A) (G93A). This study was designed to assess disease-dependent regulatory mechanisms of c-Met/HGF receptor (c-Met) activation in the facial motoneurons of G93A mice. Using double transgenic mice expressing HGF and mutated SOD1(G93A)(G93A/HGF), we showed that phosphorylation of c-Met tyrosine residues at positions 1230, 1234 and 1235 (phospho-Tyr), and thereby its activation, was slightly evident in G93A and highly obvious in G93A/HGF mice (but absent in WT and HGF-Tg mice). Phosphorylation of the c-Met serine residue at position 985 (phospho-Ser), a residue involved in the negative regulation of its activation, was evident in WT and HGF-Tg this website mice. Protein phosphatase 2A (MA), which is capable of dephosphorylating c-Met phospho-serine,

is upregulated in the facial motoneurons of G93A and G93A/HGF mice compared with WT and HGF-Tg mice. Thus, c-Met activation is reciprocally regulated by phosphorylation between c-Met serine and tyrosine residues through PP2A induction in the presence or absence of mutant SOD1 expression, and HGF functions more efficiently in ALS and ALS-related diseases. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.”
“Prey preference of a predator is commonly used in models to analyze the timely issue of the relation among food web structure, diversity and stability. Given the variety of these terms in ecological literature, this work shows that domains of stability and species coexistence in food webs can be significantly altered by the chosen structure of predator’s prey preference and environmental heterogeneity. Such results may bear upon issues in applied ecology, e.g., species conservation, biological control.

(J Vasc Surg 2009;50:1255-64 )”
“Calcitonin gene-related pep

(J Vasc Surg 2009;50:1255-64.)”
“Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is expressed throughout the central and peripheral nervous systems, consistent with control of vasodilatation, nociception, motor function, secretion, and olfaction. alpha CGRP is prominently localized in primary spinal afferent C and A Delta fibers of sensory ganglia, and beta CGRP is the main isoform in the enteric nervous system. In the CNS there is a wide distribution of CGRP-containing neurons, with the highest levels occurring in striatum, amygdala, colliculi, and cerebellum. The peripheral projections are involved in

neurogenic LDK378 concentration vasodilatation and inflammation, and central release DAPT clinical trial induces hyperalgesia. CGRP is released from trigeminal nerves in migraine. Trigeminal nerve activation results in antidromic release of CGRP to cause non-endothelium-mediated vasodilatation. At the central synapses

in the trigeminal nucleus caudalis, CGRP acts postjunctionally on second-order neurons to transmit pain signals centrally via the brainstem and midbrain to the thalamus and higher cortical pain regions. Recently developed CGRP receptor antagonists are effective at aborting acute migraine attacks. They may act both centrally and peripherally to attenuate signaling within the trigeminovascular pathway.”
“Background: Successful repair of the ruptured (non-traumatic) descending thoracic aorta (rTA) remains a formidable clinical challenge. Although effective for rTA, traditional open repair (DTAR) has significant associated morbidity. With expanding indications for thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR), we describe our experience with TEVAR and DTAR in this high-risk setting to elucidate their evolving roles.

Methods: Since the inception of our thoracic aortic endovascular program in 1993, 69 patients underwent DTAR (34)

or TEVAR (35) for rTA. Patients underwent TEVAR if they were considered nonoperative for candidates because of extensive comorbidities (n = 31; 88.6%) or had extremely favorable anatomy for endovascular repair (eg, mid-descending saccular aneurysm, n = 4). Aortic pathology causing rupture was fusiform aneurysm (18), saccular aneurysm/ulcer (22), and dissection (29). Associated aortobronchial fistulae (12) and aortoesophageal (1) fistulae were also present in 18.8%. Arch repair was needed in 46; total descending repair was needed in 33. Follow-up was 100% complete (mean 37.4 months).

Results: Mean age was 65.9 years (DTAR 60.3 year vs TEVAR 71.3 years, P = .005). In-hospital or 30-day mortality was seen in 13 patients (TEVAR n = 4; 11.4% vs DTAR it = 9; 26.5%, P = .13). Median length of stay was shorter after TEVAR (8 days vs DTAR 15 days, P = .02). Mean Kaplan-Meier survival was similar between groups (TEVAR 67.4 months vs DTAR 65.0 months, P = .7).

Hypoxia inducible factor (HIF-1 alpha) is known to

Hypoxia inducible factor (HIF-1 alpha) is known to ��-Nicotinamide participate in atherosclerosis and to stimulate apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK-1), one of the mitogen-activated protein kinases, which is activated by various extracellular stimuli and involved in a variety of cellular function.

Methods: We tested carotid artery specimens from 50 subjects who underwent angioplasty and five age-matched controls for either Western blot or histologic analysis. The hypoxic status was investigated by means of HIF-1 alpha expression in carotid specimens.

Results: HIF-1 alpha was significantly upregulated in carotid specimens with respect to controls (P < .05), ASK-1 was detected in plaques

of any composition from lipidic to

calcific, and this expression increased with the stage of the plaque and with the expression of inflammatory (p-ERK, RANK-L, OPG) and apoptotic molecules (caspase 9, p-p-38, and p-JNK).

Conclusion: Our data suggest that hypoxia is the key regulating factor that triggers inflammation as well as apoptosis in the human atherosclerotic plaque. (J Vasc Surg 2010;52:1015-21.)”
“The sigma receptor 1 (sigma R1) has been shown to modulate the activity of several voltage- and ligand-gated channels. Using patch-clamp techniques in rat retinal slice preparations, we demonstrated that activation of sigma R1 by SHP099 concentration SKF10047 (SKF) or PRE-084 suppressed N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated current responses from both ON and OFF type ganglion cells (GCs), dose-dependently, and the effect could be blocked by the sigma R1 antagonist BD1047 or the sigma R antagonist haloperidol. The suppression by SKF of NMDA currents was abolished with pre-incubation of the G protein inhibitor GDP-beta-S or the G(i/o) activator mastoparan. We further explored the intracellular signaling pathway responsible for the SKF-induced suppression of NMDA responses. Application of either Ganetespib molecular weight cAMP/the PKA inhibitor Rp-cAMP or cGMP/the PKG inhibitor KT5823 did not change the SKF-induced

effect, suggesting the involvement of neither cAMP/PKA nor cGMP/PKG pathway. In contrast, suppression of NMDA responses by SKF was abolished by internal infusion of the phosphatidylinostiol-specific phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor U73122, but not by the phosphatidylcholine-PLC inhibitor D609. SKF-induced suppression of NMDA responses was dependent on intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)), as evidenced by the fact that the effect was abolished when [Ca(2+)](i) was buffered with 10 mM BAPTA. The SKF effect was blocked by xestospongin-C/heparin, IP(3) receptor antagonists, but unchanged by ryanodine/caffeine, ryanodine receptor modulators. Furthermore, application of protein kinase C inhibitors Bis IV and Go6976 eliminated the SKF effect.

Differences between the data pattern observed in the present stud

Differences between the data pattern observed in the present study with lateralized retrieval and that in a prior study with lateralized encoding [Evans, K. M., & Federmeier, K. D. (2007). The memory that's right and the memory that's left: Event-related potentials reveal Fludarabine hemispheric asymmetries in the encoding and retention of verbal information. Neuropsychologia 45(8), 1777-1790.] support the notion

that hemispheric processing is highly integrated in the intact brain, and highlight the need to treat lateralization at different stages as distinct. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: Urodynamic studies have been proposed as a means of identifying patients at risk for voiding dysfunction after surgery for stress urinary incontinence. We determined if preoperative urodynamic findings predict postoperative voiding dysfunction after pubovaginal sling or Burch GW4869 molecular weight colposuspension.

Materials and Methods: Data were analyzed from preoperative, standardized urodynamic studies performed on participants in the Stress Incontinence Treatment Efficacy Trial, in which women with stress urinary incontinence were randomized to undergo pubovaginal sling surgery or Burch colposuspension. Voiding dysfunction was defined as use of any bladder catheter after 6 weeks, or reoperation for takedown of a pubovaginal sling or Burch colposuspension.

Urodynamic study parameters examined were post-void residual urine, maximum flow during noninvasive flowmetry, maximum flow during pressure flow study, change in vesical pressure at maximum flow during pressure flow study, change in abdominal pressure at maximum flow during pressure flow study and change in detrusor pressure at maximum flow during pressure flow study. The study selleck chemicals excluded women with a preoperative post-void residual urine volume of more than 150 ml or a maximum flow during noninvasive flowmetry of less than 12 ml per second unless advanced pelvic prolapse was also present.

Results: Of the 655 women in whom data were analyzed

voiding dysfunction developed in 57 including 8 in the Burch colposuspension and 49 in the pubovaginal sling groups. There were 9 patients who could not be categorized and, thus, were excluded from the remainder of the analysis (646). A total of 38 women used a catheter beyond week 6, 3 had a surgical takedown and 16 had both. All 19 women who had surgical takedown were in the pubovaginal sling group. The statistical analysis of urodynamic predictors is based on subsets of the entire cohort, including 579 women with preoperative uroflowmetry, 378 with change in vesical pressure, and 377 with change in abdominal and detrusor pressure values. No preoperative urodynamic study findings were associated with an increased risk of voiding dysfunction in any group.

Two patient groups were discriminated according to whether intrat

Two patient groups were discriminated according to whether intrathecal papaverine was (n=250) or was not (n=80) administered. Postoperative outcomes were analyzed from a prospectively maintained clinical database.

Results: Preoperative patient characteristics and comorbidities were similar between selleck chemicals llc groups. Extent of aortic disease was also similar: descending thoracic aneurysm (34% with papaverine vs 28%) and Crawford types I (25% vs 34%), II (27% vs 24%), III (13% vs 13%), and IV (2% vs 2.5%). Groups had similar inhospital mortality (6.4% vs 11%; P=.11) and permanent stroke (4.4% vs 7.5%; P=.3).

Permanent paraplegia (3.6% vs 7.5%; P=.01) and paraparesis (1.6% vs 6.3%; P=.01) were significantly lower in the intrathecal papaverine group.

Conclusions: Adding intrathecal papaverine to the neuroprotective protocol for descending thoracic aneurysm and thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repairs may enhance spinal cord perfusion CHIR-99021 ic50 and provide additional spinal cord protection. (J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2012;143:945-52)”
“Objective: To examine associations between loneliness and risk of incident coronary heart disease (CHD) over a 19-year follow-up period in a Community sample of men and women Loneliness, the perceived discrepancy between actual and desired social relationships, has been linked to several adverse

health outcomes. However, no previous research has prospectively examined the association between loneliness and incident CHD in a community sample of men and women. Methods: Hypotheses were examined using data from the First National Health and Nutrition Survey and its follow-up studies (n = 3003). Loneliness, assessed by one item from the Center for Epidemiologic MEK162 order Studies of Depression scale, and covariates were derived from baseline interviews. Incident CHD was derived from hospital records/death certificates over 19 years of follow-up Hypotheses were evaluated, using Cox proportional hazards models. Results: Among women,

high loneliness was associated with increased risk of incident CHID (high: hazard ratio = 1 76, 95% Confidence Interval = 1.17-2.63, medium. hazard ratio = 0 98, 95% Confidence Interval = 0.64-1.49; reference. low), controlling for age, race, education, income, marital status, hypertension, diabetes, cholesterol, physical activity, smoking, alcohol use., systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and body mass index. Findings persisted additionally controlling for depressive symptoms. No significant associations were observed among men. Conclusions: Loneliness was prospectively associated with increased risk of incident CHID, controlling for Multiple confounding factors Loneliness among women may merit clinical attention, not only due to its impact on quality of life but also its potential implications for cardiovascular health”
“Children born preterm are at risk for deficits in language and reading.

(c) 2008 Elsevier B V All rights reserved “
“OBJECTIVE: Hyp

(c) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“OBJECTIVE: Hypomania accounts for approximately 4% to 13% of psychotropic adverse events during subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) for Parkinson’s disease. Diffusion of current into the inferior and medial “”limbic”" STN is often reported to be the cause. We suggest a different explanation, in which the coactivation of the medial forebrain bundle

(MFB), outside the STN, leads to hypomania during STN DBS.

METHODS: Six patients with advanced Parkinson’s disease (age, 54 +/- 11 years) underwent bilateral STN DBS surgery. Preoperative diffusion tensor imaging scans for fiber tracking PF-562271 ic50 of the MFB were conducted on a 3T magnetic resonance imaging scanner. After implantation, the electrode positions were determined SB431542 nmr with computed tomography and integrated in a diffusion tensor imaging software environment.

RESULTS:The medial STN was shown to send tributaries to the MFB using it as a pathway to connect to the reward circuitry. One patient, who had a transient, stimulation-induced acute hypomanic episode, showed a direct contact between 1 active electrode contact and these putative limbic STN tributaries to the MFB unilaterally on the left. In 5 asymptomatic patients, the active contacts were between 2.9 and 7.5 mm distant from the MFB or its limbic STN tributaries.

CONCLUSION: We hypothesize that STN

DBS-induced reversible acute hypomania might be elicited by inadvertent and unilateral coactivation of putative limbic STN tributaries to the MFB. These findings may provide insight into the neural pathways of hypomania and may facilitate future investigations of the pathophysiology of mood disorders.”
“Acute Volasertib chemical structure viral respiratory infections are among the most common causes of human disease. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of viral respiratory infections is important for providing timely therapeutic interventions. This study evaluated a new multiplex PCR assay (Seegene Inc., Seoul, Korea) for simultaneous detection and identification of 12 respiratory viruses

using two primer mixes. The viruses included parainfluenza viruses 1, 2, and 3, human meta pneumovirus, human coronavirus 229E/NL63 and OC43, adenovirus, influenza viruses A and B, human respiratory syncytial viruses A and B, and human rhinovirus A. The analytical sensitivity of the assay was 10-100 copies per reaction for each type of virus. There was no cross-reactivity with common bacterial or viral pathogens. A comparison with conventional viral culture and immunofluorescence was carried out using 101 respiratory specimens from 92 patients. Using viral culture, 57 specimens (56.4%) were positive without co-infection. The same viruses were identified in all 57 specimens using the multiplex PCR. Seven of the 57 specimens (12.3%) were found to be co-infected with other respiratory viruses, and 19 of 44 (43.

These findings indicate that assessments of neuronal growth based

These findings indicate that assessments of neuronal growth based on neuronal tracing techniques should be normalized when inflammation or immune activation is an experimental variable. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Rational choice theory predicts that humans always optimize the expected utility of options when making decisions. However, in decision-making games, humans often punish their opponents even when

doing so reduces their own reward. We used the Ultimatum and Dictator games to examine the affective correlates of decision-making. We show that the feedback negativity, an event-related brain potential that originates in the anterior cingulate cortex that has been related to reinforcement learning, predicts the decision to reject unfair offers in the Ultimatum game. Furthermore, the decision to reject is positively related to more negative emotional AZD1208 price reactions

and to increased autonomic nervous system activity. These findings support the idea that subjective emotional markers guide decision-making and that the anterior cingulate cortex integrates instances of reinforcement and punishment to provide such affective markers.”
“Enterovirus 71 (EV71), a member of the Enterovirus genus of the Picornaviridae family, is one of the major causative agents of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD), which is prevalent in the Asia-Pacific region. BGJ398 purchase In this article, a set of capsid

subunit protein-specific antibodies was used to characterize the EV71 structural protein processing Fedratinib order and to determine the composition and assembly of EV71 capsids. SDS-PAGE and Western blot analyses showed that the capsids of a purified EV71 preparation, which lacked viral infectivity, were composed of processed VP0, VP1 and VP3, all of which co-assembled into particles. Analyses of infectious EV71-containing cell lysate revealed the presence of VP2, in addition to VP0, VP1 and VP3, suggesting that the cleavage of VP0 into VP2 and VP4 is important for infectivity. Immunofluorescent staining with the three specific antibodies demonstrated that the capsid subunit proteins co-localized in the cytoplasm of cells infected with EV71. The results add new information on the processing, assembly and localization of EV71 capsid proteins, and demonstrate the usefulness of the capsid protein-specific antibodies for virological investigation and for development of vaccines and diagnostic reagents. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“We investigate whether the loss of one eye leads to enhanced multisensory processing. Previously, we measured discrimination of auditory, visual and audiovisual targets in people with one eye compared to controls viewing binocularly or with one eye patched.


“In this study we tested the hypothesis that dantrolene, a


“In this study we tested the hypothesis that dantrolene, an established inhibitor of the skeletal

muscle isoform of the ryanodine receptor, may interfere with activity of NMDA receptors in neurons. We assessed the effects of dantrolene on [H-3]MK-801 and [H-3]glycine binding to isolated rat cortical membranes. Dantrolene inhibited [H-3]MK-801 binding in the presence of 100 mu M NMDA with an IC50 of 58.4 mu M. The IC50 Value increased to 99.6, 343.0 and 364.6 mu M in the presence of 10, 30 and 50 mu M glycine, respectively, suggesting that dantrolene competes with glycine for binding site at the NMDA receptor complex. A binding assay using Foretinib in vivo [3H]glycine confirmed this supposition: dantrolene inhibited strychnine-insensitive glycine binding in a dose-dependent way. Thus, our results selleck chemicals show that dantrolene at concentrations of 50-100 mu M and higher blocks the glycine binding site of the NMDA receptor complex and in this way inhibits activation of the NMDA ion channel. These data reveal a new mechanism of dantrolene action in neuronal tissue. Our results also suggest that the neuroprotective effect of dantrolene may be at least partly explained by

its activity as a non-competitive antagonist of NMDA receptors. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) can be used for the simple generation of high-titer replication-competent retroviral (RCR) vectors. Retroviruses undergo frequent genomic recombination, however, and vectors with reduced replication kinetics are rapidly overgrown by mutant forms. Vector design is hence critical to vector efficacy. Bcl-w In this study, two different designs of RSV-based RCR vectors were evaluated. Vectors in which transgene expression was facilitated by the v-src splice acceptor were revealed to have greatly reduced replication kinetics and genomic stability in comparison to vectors

in which transgene expression was mediated by an internal ribosome entry site in the 3′ untranslated region.”
“The mouse model of transcranial permanent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (tpMCAO) is widely used in stroke research. Here we quantified infarct size using a conventional histological method at several post-ischaemic times, going beyond the commonly analysed period of up to 2 days, following artery occlusion. Two different mouse strains, which are widely used for pharmacological studies of neuroprotection and for genetic engineering, were used. A drill whole was made into the skull of anaesthetised mice and ischaemia was induced by electrocoagulation of the middle cerebral artery. In both mouse strains tested (C57Black/6 and NMRI), the measured infarct volumes decreased significantly during the first days after tpMCAO.

The enzymatic activity of AtxA and similar sPLA(2)s is thus neces

The enzymatic activity of AtxA and similar sPLA(2)s is thus necessary, but not sufficient, Lonafarnib mw for inducing motoneuronal apoptosis. This suggests that specific binding to the motoneuronal cell surface, followed by internalization and enzymatic activity-dependent induction of apoptosis, possibly as a consequence of extensive extra- and intracellular AA release, is necessary for Atx-induced motoneuronal cell death. (c) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“This study evaluated the effect of time of day and temperature measurement site on core temperature response to exercise.

Six trained cyclists performed a 1 h cycling exercise at a fixed power-output of 160W in a controlled environment (ambient temperature of 21.5 +/- 1.6 degrees C and relative humidity of 31 +/- 6%) at batyphase +2 h (08:00 h) and acrophase +2 h (20:00 h) of their estimated circadian temperature rhythm; corresponding respectively to the heat gain and heat loss mode phases. Throughout the exercise, rectal and gastro-intestinal temperature data were collected. A two-way ANOVA was applied and a common nonlinear logistic-type function dependant

on three parameters (asymptote, xmid and scale) was Selleckchem LDK378 used to fit collected data. ANOVA only indicated a time of day effect without interaction with exercise duration. A nonlinear mixed-effect model allowed further analysis of temperature kinetics. The model indicated a higher theoretical increase in temperature www.selleck.cn/products/PD-0325901.html at the end of morning exercise compared to the evening session. However, the circadian difference observed at rest persists throughout the exercise. Theoretical asymptotic temperature values at the end of the exercise and scale values (inversely proportional to the slope) are higher for the rectal measurement site than for the gastro-intestinal

measurement. The model proposed offers a solution for refining the study of individual core temperature response to prolonged exercise. The main advantage is that it takes into consideration intra- and inter-individual variability in temperature kinetics. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“MS has become a method-of-choice for proteome analysis, generating large data sets, which reflect proteome-scale protein protein interaction and PTM networks. However, while a rapid growth in large-scale proteomics data can be observed, the sound biological interpretation of these results clearly lags behind. Therefore, combined efforts of bioinformaticians and biologists have been made to develop strategies and applications to help experimentalists perform this crucial task. This review presents an overview of currently available analytical strategies and tools to extract biologically relevant information from large protein lists.