The most frequent resistance profile observed among C. jejuni isolates was to ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, and tetracycline. This profile was also reported as the most common multidrug resistance pattern for human Campylobacter isolates received through NARMS from 1997-2001 . In this study, the most common multiple resistance pattern among C. coli isolated from turkey was resistance to ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, kanamycin, and tetracycline. These findings differ from reports by Lee et al.  and Luangtongkum
et al. , where resistance profiles of ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, erythromycin, streptomycin, kanamycin, and tetracycline resistance predominated in C. coli from turkeys. In addition to expanded antimicrobial resistance testing, fla typing and PFGE were used to further characterize antimicrobial-resistant C. jejuni and C. coli www.selleckchem.com/products/ABT-263.html from processed turkey. It was observed that most of the Campylobacter isolates with identical fla-PFGE types had the same antimicrobial resistance profiles, a finding also noted by Ge et al. using PFGE ; however, analysis of additional antimicrobial-sensitive
strains would be indicated. For subtyping C. jejuni and C. coli in this study, the greatest discrimination index was obtained using fla-PFGE together. Similarly, Nayak et al.  found a combination of subtyping methods for Campylobacter isolated from turkey farms had a greater discriminatory value than a single method. In the current study, fla typing failed to distinguish completely between the two Campylobacter species, a finding also noted LCL161 solubility dmso by others [37–39]. In contrast, Dipeptidyl peptidase PFGE showed greater discrimination in separating the two species, which can be attributed to its ability to detect whole genome restriction site
polymorphisms . In addition to discriminatory value, other characteristics of these molecular typing methods should be acknowledged, which have been reviewed elsewhere [28, 29, 37, 40, 41]. Fla typing is a useful tool for subtyping campylobacters [39, 42], and has the advantages of being simple, quick, and low cost [28, 29, 42]. Nayak et al. reported that fla typing was more suitable than PFGE for typing C. coli isolated from turkey farms . However, the potential for recombination within the fla genes is a drawback of using fla typing alone or for long-term studies [29, 43]. For this reason, and because fla typing is generally less discriminatory than PFGE, it is recommended to use fla typing in conjunction with other typing methods [29, 41]. PFGE is highly discriminatory and well-accepted for typing campylobacters, although it is laborious and can be expensive [29, 37]. PFGE profiles may also be affected by genetic instability in Campylobacter [28, 29]. In this study, the genetic diversity of antimicrobial-resistant strains varied between C. coli and C. jejuni. One fla-PFGE type (I3) contained 29% of the C.