Our results demonstrate the efficacy of systemic administration o

Our results demonstrate the efficacy of systemic administration of clonidine following retrieval to persistently

disrupt fear memory retention through reconsolidation blockade. This study provides important preclinical parameters for future therapeutic strategies involving clonidine to block reconsolidation as a novel treatment for PTSD symptoms. Neuropsychopharmacology (2012) 37, 2789-2796; doi:10.1038/npp.2012.145; published online 8 August 2012″
“Recently, we reported the discovery of three novel coronaviruses, bulbul coronavirus HKU11, thrush coronavirus HKU12, and munia coronavirus HKU13, which were identified as representatives of a novel genus, Deltacoronavirus, in the subfamily Coronavirinae. In this territory-wide molecular epidemiology study involving 3,137 mammals and 3,298 birds, we discovered seven additional novel https://www.selleckchem.com/products/AZD0530.html deltacoronaviruses in pigs and birds, which we

named porcine coronavirus HKU15, white-eye coronavirus HKU16, sparrow coronavirus HKU17, magpie robin coronavirus HKU18, night heron coronavirus HKU19, wigeon coronavirus HKU20, and common moorhen coronavirus HKU21. Complete genome sequencing and comparative genome analysis showed that the avian and mammalian deltacoronaviruses have similar genome characteristics and structures. They all have relatively small genomes (25.421 to 26.674 kb), the smallest among all coronaviruses. They all have a single papain-like protease domain in the nsp3 gene; an accessory gene, NS6 open reading frame (ORF), located between

Adriamycin ic50 the M and N genes; and a variable number of accessory genes (up to during four) downstream of the N gene. Moreover, they all have the same putative transcription regulatory sequence of ACACCA. Molecular clock analysis showed that the most recent common ancestor of all coronaviruses was estimated at approximately 8100 BC, and those of Alphacoronavirus, Betacoronavirus, Gammacoronavirus, and Deltacoronavirus were at approximately 2400 BC, 3300 BC, 2800 BC, and 3000 BC, respectively. From our studies, it appears that bats and birds, the warm blooded flying vertebrates, are ideal hosts for the coronavirus gene source, bats for Alphacoronavirus and Betacoronavirus and birds for Gammacoronavirus and Deltacoronavirus, to fuel coronavirus evolution and dissemination.”
“Background. Epidemiological surveys based on complex diagnostic interviews, such as the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), report very low rates of anxiety and depressive disorders in older age groups. Mental health checklists show much less change over the lifespan. This paper explores the possibility that complex interviews present a special challenge to older respondents and thereby exaggerate the decline in mental disorder with age.

Method.

Further study must determine whether CSE, and mood and anxiety di

Further study must determine whether CSE, and mood and anxiety disorders, share a same, solvent induced, neurobiological pathway, supporting the use of a more inclusive diagnostic approach. Additionally, randomised controlled trials are needed for the urgent issue of how to treat mood and anxiety PSI-7977 mouse disorders in CSE patients effectively. (C) 2011 Elsevier

Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Objectives: Decisions regarding deep venous thrombosis (DVT) prophylaxis are complicated in neurosurgical patients because of the potential for catastrophic bleeding complications. Screening with venous duplex ultrasound (VDUS) may improve outcomes, but can strain hospital resources. Since there is little data to guide VDUS surveillance, we investigated the utility of a comprehensive VDUS screening program in

neurosurgical patients.

Methods: Medical records of patients admitted to the neurosurgical service at a university-affiliated hospital from October 2007 through January 2010 who underwent weekly VDUS of the lower extremities until ambulatory or discharged were retrospectively reviewed. Demographics, comorbidities, interventions, and use of DVT prophylaxis were recorded. All patients in this study were asymptomatic for ISRIB clinical evidence of DVT. When DVT was identified, VDUS reported its location and progression.

Results: One hundred seventy-four consecutive patients were screened according to the established protocol. They had 312 VDUS studies, 68 (21.8%) of which were positive in 40 (23%) unique patients; 10 were bilateral and two catheter-related.

There were no documented pulmonary emboli in this series. Seventeen patients (37.7%) had isolated calf DVT, four of which were bilateral (totaling 21 thrombi), and 9 (20%) had coexistent thrombi in calf and proximal veins. Of the 21 isolated calf DVTs, 15 had follow-up studies and two progressed to the popliteal or ileofemoral vein on follow-up (13.3%). Mechanical prophylaxis was uniformly utilized, but chemical prophylaxis Ispinesib cost varied based on surgeons’ assessment of bleeding risk. DVT developed in 19.3% (28/145) of patients receiving prophylactic medication (unfractionated heparin or low-molecular weight heparin) and 41.4% (12/29) receiving no chemoprophylaxis (P < .001). The only patient characteristic that correlated with DVT risk was a body mass index <30 (9.1% vs 29.4%, P = .01).

Conclusions: Despite the uniform application of mechanical DVT prophylaxis and the use of chemoprophylaxis in a majority of patients, we found a 23% incidence of DVT in these hospitalized, nonambulatory, neurosurgical patients. No patients with isolated calf DVT had an embolic complication but 13.3% progressed proximally in short-term follow-up. While chemical prophylaxis significantly reduced DVT risk, no factor was sufficiently predictive to exclude patients from screening.

Elevated COR concentrations after M are unlikely to be deleteriou

Elevated COR concentrations after M are unlikely to be deleterious to neuroplasticity as COR concentrations remain within the physiological learn more range. The present study suggests that exercise might be beneficial to enhance neuroprotection and neuroplasticity, thereby improving recovery

after spinal cord injury. (C) 2008 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“There is broad and compelling evidence for risk factor reduction to limit cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with peripheral arterial disease. Indeed, vascular surgeons have placed a call to arms to ensure this takes place. Despite this fact, some wariness exists on the part of many vascular surgeons to initiate these strategies, functionally abnegating their responsibilities in this regard. The click here purpose of this article

is to provide a simple reference to guide effective therapies for overall cardiovascular risk reduction in patients with peripheral arterial disease. Specific recommendations are made for tobacco cessation, lipid-lowering therapy, antiplatelet therapy, blood pressure control, and maintenance of normoglycemia.”
“The beneficial effects of caffeine on cognition are controversial in humans, whereas its benefit in rodents had been well characterized. However, most studies were performed with acute administration of caffeine and the tasks used to evaluate cognition had aversive components. Here, we evaluated adulthood administration of caffeine up to old age on recognition memory in mice using the object recognition Epacadostat mw task (ORT) and on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BNDF) and tirosine kinase receptor (TrkB) immunocontent in the hippocampus. Adult mice (6 months old) received either drinking water or caffeine (1 mg/mL) during 12 months. At 18 months of age both groups were tested for ORT. Our results showed that aged mice exhibited lower performance in the recognition

memory compared with adults (6 months old). Furthermore, caffeine-treated mice showed similar performance to adult mice in the ORT and an improvement compared with their age-matched control mice. Caffeine also counteracted the age-related increase in BDNF and TrkB immunocontent. Our results corroborate with other studies and reinforce that caffeine consumed in adulthood may prevent recognition memory decline with aging. This preventive effect may involve a decrease in the hippocampal BDNF and TrkB immunocontent. (C) 2008 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“in a dynamic postural task, visual information plays a fundamental role in the selection of the balancing strategy. While standing on a platform oscillating in the antero-posterior direction, subjects almost fix their head in space when vision is allowed and oscillate with the platform with eyes closed. We investigated two competing hypotheses regarding the relationship between visual acuity and balance control strategy.

This particular neurophysiological signature is common to all kno

This particular neurophysiological signature is common to all known classes of anxiolytic drugs (i.e. benzodiazepines, 5-HT1A agonists, antidepressants) and provides strong converging evidence for the anxiolytic-like effects of ketamine. Further studies are needed to understand the underlying pharmacological mechanisms of ketamine’s effects in these experiments, since it is not clear they were mimicked by the selective NMDA antagonist MK-801. (c) 2009 IBRO. Published CFTRinh-172 mw by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Our

previous studies showed that the assembly of the GluR6-PSD95-mixed lineage kinase 3 (MLK3) signaling module played an important role in rat ischemic brain injury. In this study, we aimed to elucidate whether ischemic preconditioning could downregulate the assembly of the GluR6-PSD95-MLK3 signaling module and suppress the activation of MLK3, MKK4/7, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). As a result,

ischemic preconditioning could not only inhibit the assembly of the GluR6-PSD95-MLK3 signaling module, diminish the phosphorylation of the transcription factor c-Jun, downregulate Fas ligand expression, attenuate the phosphorylation of 14-3-3 and Bcl-2 and the translocation of Bax to mitochondria, but also increase the release of cytochrome c and the activation of caspase-3. In contrast, both GluR6 antisense ODNs (oligodeoxynucleotides) and 6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-5-nitro-1 H-benz[g]indole-2,3-dione-3-oxime (NS102), an antagonist of GluR6 receptor, Barasertib cost prevented the above effects of preconditioning, which shows that suppressing the expression of GluR6 or inhibiting GluR6 activity contributes negatively to preconditioning-induced ischemia tolerance. Taken together, our results indicate that preconditioning can inhibit the over-assembly of the GluR6-PSD95-MLK3 signaling module and the JNK3 activation. GluR6 subunit-containing kainite receptors play an important role in the preconditioning-induced neuronal survival and provide new insight

into stroke therapy. (c) 2009 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights CH5183284 order reserved.”
“In the present study, we asked whether multiple intrathecal injections of deltorphin II, a selective delta opioid receptor (DOPR) agonist, induced DOPR tolerance in three behavioral assays. Unilateral inflammation caused by complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) injection into the rat or mouse hind paw (CFA model) induced thermal hyperalgesic response that was transiently and dose-dependently reduced by intrathecal administration of deltorphin II or morphine. In both rodent species, the effect of deltorphin II was not modified by a single prior administration of deltorphin II, suggesting an absence of acute tolerance in this paradigm. Repeated administration of intrathecal deltorphin II or s.c.

These results suggest that noradrenergic transmission in the Acb

These results suggest that noradrenergic transmission in the Acb is important for Citarinostat in vivo cannabinoid-induced aversion and that beta-adrenergic antagonists may be effective in counteracting negative

side effects of cannabinoid-based agents. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Evolutionary game dynamics in finite populations is typically subject to noise, inducing effects which are not present in deterministic systems, including fixation and extinction. In the first part of this paper we investigate the phenomenon of drift reversal in finite populations, taking into account that drift is a local quantity in strategy space. Secondly, we study a simple imitation dynamics, and show that it can lead to fixation at internal mixed-strategy fixed points even in finite populations. Imitation in infinite populations is adequately described by AR-13324 solubility dmso conventional replicator dynamics, and these

equations are known to have internal fixed points. Internal absorption in finite populations on the other hand is a novel dynamic phenomenon. Due to an outward drift in finite populations this type of dynamic arrest is not found in other commonly studied microscopic dynamics, not even in those with the same deterministic replicator limit as imitation. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Recent data suggest that transitions between the relaxed (R) and tense (T) state of hemoglobin control the reduction of

nitrite to nitric oxide (NO) by deoxyhemoglobin. This reaction may play a role in physiologic NO homeostasis and be a novel consideration for the development of the next generation of hemoglobin-based blood oxygen carriers (HBOCs, i.e. artificial blood substitutes). Herein we tested the effects of chemical stabilization of bovine hemoglobin in either the T- (THb) or R-state (RHb) on nitrite-reduction kinetics, NO-gas formation and ability to stimulate NO-dependent signaling. These studies were selleck screening library performed over a range of fractional saturations that is expected to mimic biological conditions. The initial rate for nitrite-reduction decreased in the following order RHb > bHb > THb, consistent with the hypothesis that the rate constant for nitrite reduction is faster with R-state Hb and slower with T-state Hb. Moreover, RHb produced more NO-gas and inhibited mitochondrial respiration more potently than both bHb and THb. Interestingly, at low oxygen fractional saturations, THb produced more NO and stimulated nitrite-dependent vasodilation more potently than bHb despite both derivatives having similar initial rates for nitrite reduction and a more negative reduction potential in THb versus bHb. These data suggest that cross-linking of bovine hemoglobin in the T-state conformation leads to a more effective coupling of nitrite reduction to NO-formation.

Thus, by regulating lipid metabolism, p53 fights the two major ca

Thus, by regulating lipid metabolism, p53 fights the two major causes of death worldwide atherosclerosis and cancer.”
“We previously reported finding the RNA of a type K human endogenous retrovirus, HERV-K (HML-2), at high titers in the plasma of HIV-1-infected and

cancer patients (R. Contreras-Galindo et al., J. Virol. 82: 9329-9236, 2008.). The extent to which the HERV-K (HML-2) proviruses become activated and the nature of their activated viral RNAs remain important questions. Therefore, we amplified and sequenced the full-length RNA of the env gene of the type 1 and 2 HERV-K (HML-2) viruses collected from the plasma of seven HIV-1-infected patients over a period of 1 to 3 years and from five Selleckchem QNZ breast cancer patients in order to reconstruct the genetic evolution of these viruses. HERV-K (HML-2) RNA was found in plasma fractions of HIV-1 patients at a density of similar to 1.16 g/ml that contained both immature and correctly processed HERV-K (HML-2) proteins and virus-like particles that were recognized by anti-HERV-K (HML-2) antibodies. RNA sequences from novel HERV-K (HML-2) proviruses were discovered, including K111, which is specifically active during HIV-1 AZD1480 infection. Viral RNA arose from complete proviruses and proviruses devoid of

a 5′ long terminal repeat, suggesting that the expression of HERV-K (HML-2) RNA in these patients may involve sense and antisense transcription. In HIV-1-infected individuals, the HERV-K (HML-2) viral RNA showed evidence of frequent recombination, accumulation of synonymous rather than nonsynonymous mutations, and conserved N-glycosylation sites, suggesting that some of the HERV-K (HML-2) viral RNAs have undergone reverse transcription and are under purifying selection. In contrast, HERV-K (HML-2) RNA sequences found in the blood of breast cancer patients showed no evidence of recombination and exhibited only sporadic viral mutations. This study suggests Foretinib supplier that HERV-K (HML-2) is active in HIV-1-infected patients, and the resulting

RNA message reveals previously undiscovered HERV-K (HML-2) genomic sequences.”
“The Woelcke method is classically used for myelin staining. Degenerating neurons can be revealed histologically by hemalun and phloxin (H&P) where they appear “”eosinophilic”". In the first 24 h following soman-induced status epilepticus, we observed that the Woelcke method also revealed condensed, dark blue/black cells (W+ cells) in the gray matter of brain regions known to be sites of seizure-related brain damage, marked by the presence of eosinophilic cells. In the present study, using adjacent brain sections alternately stained with either the Woelcke or the H&P method, we show that eosinophilic cells and W+ cells are the same degenerating cells. Moreover, we show that semi-automated quantitative evaluation of W+ cells through computerized image analysis is considerably easier and faster than that of eosinophilic cells.

For statistical parity an unlikely fourth hypothesis was included

For statistical parity an unlikely fourth hypothesis was included, that is patients with nonHunner-lesion interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome are distinct from controls and patients with Hunner lesion-interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome combined.

Results: Analysis supported selective up-regulation of genes in the Hunner lesion interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome group (hypothesis 3), which Staurosporine mouse were primarily

associated with inflammation. The inflammatory profile was statistically similar to that reported in a prior Hunner lesion interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome bladder biopsy study.

Conclusions: Gene expression analysis of urine sediment was feasible in this pilot study. Expression profiles failed to discriminate nonHunner-lesion interstitial PU-H71 cost cystitis/bladder pain syndrome from controls and they are unlikely to be a noninvasive marker for nonHunner-lesion interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome. In contrast, patients with Hunner lesion had increased proinflammatory gene expression in urine sediment, similar to that in a prior microarray study of bladder biopsies. If these preliminary results are validated

in future research, they may lead to a noninvasive biomarker for Hunner lesion-interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome.”
“We have succeeded over in the expression of Stereum purpureum endopolygalacturonase

I (EndoPG I) using the Pichia expression system and in purification of the three kinds of recombinant EndoPG I, which have one to three sugar chains by using CM52 column chromatography. The sugar chains which were added to EndoPG I were the M8, M9, and/or M 10 high-mannose type. The results of LC-MS analysis showed that recombinant EndoPG Is were randomly glycosylated at four N-glycosylation sites. From the thermal denaturation curves of the recombinant enzymes, it was suggested that EndoPG I differing in thermal stability was included in the sample after purification. Therefore, we investigated the disulfide bonds of recombinant EndoPG I by LC-MS analysis. As a result, peptides without a second or third disulfide bond were detected. This result is the first indicating that there are incomplete enzymes in terms of disulfide bonds in the Pichia expression system. (C) 2009 Published by Elsevier Inc.”
“Neuronal networks confront researchers with an overwhelming complexity of interactions between their elements. A common approach to understanding neuronal processing is to reduce complexity by defining subunits and infer their functional role by selectively modulating them. However, this seemingly straightforward approach may lead to confusing results if the network exhibits parallel pathways leading to recurrent connectivity.

However, whether PTN could provide neurotrophic support to neuron

However, whether PTN could provide neurotrophic support to neurons by regulating microglia function is not clear. In this study, we demonstrated that the expression of PTN was induced in microglia after oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion. PTN promoted the proliferation of microglia by enhancing the G1 to S phase transition. PTN also stimulated the secretion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and nerve growth factor (NGF)

in microglia, but did not upregulate the expression of proinflammatory factors such as TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta and iNOS. Mechanistically, we found that PTN increased the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase

selleck inhibitor (ERK) 1/2 in microglia in both concentration-dependent and time-dependent manners. In addition, ERK1/2 inhibitor U0126 abolished the proliferation and G1 to S phase transition of microglia stimulated by PTN, and inhibited the production of BDNF, CNTF and NGF induced by PTN. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that PTN-ERK1/2 pathway plays important role in regulating microglia growth and secretion of neurotrophic factors. These findings provide new insight into the neuroprotective role of Tariquidar purchase PTN and suggest that PTN is a new target for therapeutic intervention of stroke. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: We describe trends in the use of intensity modulated radiotherapy vs 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer and identified predictors of intensity modulated radiotherapy use.

Materials and Methods: From the SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results)-Medicare database we identified 52,290 men with incident nonmetastatic ADAM7 prostate cancer from 2000 to 2007 who were treated with radiotherapy. We tracked trends in the use of intensity modulated radiotherapy, 3-dimensional conformal

radiotherapy, brachytherapy and combinations. Patient demographic and clinical characteristics were described and compared using chi-square and multivariate logistic regression. Trends at the place of service were also examined.

Results: Intensity modulated radiotherapy use increased from 1% of all radiotherapy in 2000 to 70% in 2007. Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy use decreased from 75% to 12%. Most cases were treated with intensity modulated radiotherapy monotherapy. In 2007, 12% of the cohort received intensity modulated radiotherapy plus brachytherapy. In 2005, 81% of all external radiation was given as intensity modulated radiotherapy. Except for geography there were minimal differences in patient demographic and clinical characteristics between those treated with 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy vs intensity modulated radiotherapy.

Hepatic retinol correlated negatively with sigma-dichlorodiphenyl

Hepatic retinol correlated negatively with sigma-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (sigma DDT) and and sigma-polybrominated diphenyl ethers (sigma PBDE) for all exposed animals. A negative correlation between kidney -tocopherol and sigma PCB concentrations was observed, whereas two positive significant correlations were observed between kidney retinol and sigma-chlordane-related compounds (sigma CHL) and dieldrin concentrations. Hepatic -tocopherol concentrations were significantly lower in exposed compared to controls, most likely due to a combination by OHC exposure and high dietary intake of unsaturated fatty acids. These results suggest that dietary exposure from OHC may, even

at low concentrations, possibly affect retinol and -tocopherol status in Arctic top predators.”
“2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a potent toxicant that alters normal brain learn more development and produces cognitive disability and motor dysfunction.

However, after decades of intense study, the molecular mechanisms of TCDD-induced neurotoxicity, the signaling pathways involved and its molecular targets in neurons still remain unknown. TCDD acts as an exogenous ligand LY3009104 mw of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) that becomes a key signaling molecule in the regulation of the toxic and carcinogenic properties of TCDD. We have used NGF-differentiated pheochromocytoma (dPC12) cells to determine the type of cell death that takes place by TCDD toxicity. TCDD induced cell death in dPC12 cultures with an EC(50) of 218 +/- 24 nM, similar to that obtained in undifferentiated PC12 cells, 171 +/- 31 nM. Nuclear fragmentation was observed after TCDD incubation in parallel to an increase in caspase-3 activity. Staurosporine, which readily induced apoptosis in dPC12 cells, showed a similar increase in caspase-3 activity and the characteristic pattern of nuclear fragmentation. Flow cytometry measurements showed that dPC12 cells

in the presence see more of TCDD were positive for annexin V labeling but negative for propidium iodide staining. In addition, TCDD increased the area of the peak corresponding to hypodiploid (apoptotic) DNA content. All together these results support the hypothesis that TCDD toxicity in dPC12 cells takes place mainly through an apoptotic process. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“As the initial effort in a multi-step uncertainty analysis of a biologically based cancer model for formaldehyde, a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) analysis was performed for a compartmental model that predicts DNA-protein cross-links (DPX) produced by formaldehyde exposure. The Bayesian approach represented by the MCMC analysis integrates existing knowledge of the model parameters with observed, formaldehyde-DPX-specific data, providing a statistically sound basis for estimating model output uncertainty.

Paliperidone palmitate treatment was tolerated, irrespective

Paliperidone palmitate treatment was tolerated, irrespective check details of injection site, and thus could offer the choice of administration into either the deltoid or gluteal muscle to meet patient and physician preference. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Ecomorphological analyses have identified a number of important evolutionary trends in vertebrate limb design, but the relationships between daily travel distance, locomotor ecology, and limb length in terrestrial animals remain

poorly understood. In this paper I model the net rate of energy intake as a function of foraging efficiency, and thus of locomotor economy; improved economy leads to greater net energy intake. However, the relationship between locomotor economy and net intake is highly dependent on foraging efficiency;

only species with low foraging efficiencies experience strong selection pressure for improved locomotor economy and increased limb length. Examining 237 terrestrial species, ABT-737 in vivo I find that nearly all taxa obtain sufficiently high foraging efficiencies that selection for further increases in economy is weak. Thus selection pressures for increased economy and limb length among living terrestrial animals may be relatively weak and similar in magnitude across ecologically diverse species. The Economy Selection Pressure model for locomotor economy may be useful in investigating the evolution of limb design in early terrestrial taxa and the coevolution of foraging ecology and

locomotor anatomy in lineages with Orotic acid low foraging efficiencies. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Heroin addicts can benefit from methadone substitution therapy. However, little is known about the significance of pre-exposure to opioids for psychoactive effects of methadone. We modeled some behavioral and neurobiological aspects of the opioid abuse-related phenomena in Sprague-Dawley rats, using morphine (10 mg/kg/day) or methadone (1 or 2 mg/kg/day) treatment (14 doses over a 16-day period) followed by 2-week withdrawal and methadone challenge; control rats were given 0.9% NaCl treatment and methadone challenge by the same schedule. Locomotor response to the challenge showed substantial enhancement only after the morphine treatment. Fos immunohistochemistry in selected brain regions including cortex, nucleus accumbens, striatum and some parts of the hippocampus, thalamus and amygdala also revealed marked differences between the effects of the tested treatments. Sensitization of Fos response was found in a few regions of the morphine-treated rats. The rats given the higher methadone dose treatment showed a fairly weak tendency for sensitization that reached significance only in somatosensory cortex layer IV.