The Nd-YAG laser may prove to be an attractive treatment alternat

The Nd-YAG laser may prove to be an attractive treatment alternative for pilonidal sinus.”
“Objective: Depressed skull fractures (DSF) with operation indications should be paid with enough attention because they have several complications and can influence esthetics. The optimal surgical method for DSF remains unclear. We explored the merits of dissociate bone flap cranioplasty. Patients and

Methods: From July 2006 to August 2012, we performed 30 craniotomies on patients with DSF, which were divided into 2 groups: 1 group, which consisted of 18 patients, underwent dissociate bone cranioplasty; the other 12 patients underwent Ulixertinib research buy lever-up cranioplasty. A helical computed tomographic scan was routinely

Sapitinib Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor obtained after the operation and a 3-dimensional technique was performed on some patients to evaluate the postoperative condition of the flap.

Results: Dissociate bone flap cranioplasty was performed on the 18 patients [11 men, 7 women: age, 26-70 (41) y]. No complications were observed in these patients. Lever-up cranioplasty was applied in the 12 patients [8 men, 4 women: age, 19-60 (41.8) y]; 2 patients had wound infection and 2 emerged with

epidural hematoma. Obvious statistical significance of stability (P = 0.013) and position (P = 0.015) was found between the 2 methods.

Conclusions: Dissociate bone flap cranioplasty is safer, more flexible, has less complications, and has better plasticity. We advocate the use of bone flap cranioplasty in dealing with DSF.”
“A large gastric pouch is a classic explanation for weight loss problems after gastric bypass. However, several reports have emphasized the role of others, essentially behavorial, factors. We reviewed the outcomes of 151 patients buy JQ1 who were operated on over a period of nearly 2 years. 132 patients who had not been reoperated on were assessed between June and September 2009. A barium swallow was available to assess the gastric pouch volume which was determined by the radiologist. %EWL was compared to the pouch volume using ANOVA test. Pouch volumes were compared using t test. The gastric pouch was dilated when > 50 ml and failure to lose enough

weight was defined by a %EWL < 50%. 107 patients (81%) had a complete follow up of 35.7 +/- 5.8 months. Mean pouch volume was 68 +/- 4.5 ml with a %EWL of 68 +/- 26.1%. 59 patients had a large pouch with a weight loss similar to those with a normally sized pouch (68 +/- 3.6 vs 66 +/- 3.6%EWL). 25 patients (23.3%) had weight loss failure with a similar pouch volume. No correlation was found between the %EWL and the pouch volume. Pouch size probably plays a role in the weight loss process of RYGB. However, 3 years later, pouch volume does not appear to be the most important factor. Behavorial factors such as recurrent eating disorders and failure to adapt to the changes induced by the surgery may explain at least in part weight loss failure.

It will be important to develop methods of addressing this potent

It will be important to develop methods of addressing this potential barrier RG-7388 research buy (such as detailed explanation and supervised practice) if these methods are to be successfully implemented.”
“To describe the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of grade-five students in Alberta,

Canada, and to assess how this correlates with sociodemographic and neighbourhood characteristics.

In 2008, we conducted a comprehensive population-based survey among 3,421 grade-five students aged primarily 10-11 years from 148 schools and their parents that included questions on sociodemographic and neighbourhood factors. The HRQOL of the students was assessed using the EQ-5D Canadian English child version (EQ-5D-Y). We applied multilevel multivariable linear regression to examine the independent importance of sociodemographic and neighbourhood factors for the EQ-5D-Y index and EQ-5D-Y Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score.

In five EQ-5D-Y dimensions, problems with ‘walking’, ‘looking after myself’, ‘usual activities’, ‘pain or discomfort’ and ‘worried, sad or unhappy’ were reported by 8.1% (n = 288), 6.5% (n = 215), 11.8% (n = 431), 46.0% (n = 1600), and 37.7% (n = 1292) of students, respectively. Their mean EQ-5D-Y index was 0.86 and mean EQ-5D-Y VAS was 80.4. Children from families reporting

higher educational attainment reported AZD8931 purchase higher HRQOL both in terms of a higher EQ-5D-Y index and in terms of a higher EQ-5D-Y VAS. Also, children residing in neighbourhood characterized as providing good satisfaction and facilities reported higher HRQOL.

Public health initiatives to improve HRQOL among children selleck are suggested to take into account the influence of different sociodemographic and neighbourhood characteristics such that priority is given to those residing in towns, rural areas and dissatisfying neighbourhoods with poor access to recreational facilities and stores for fresh products.”

objective of this study was to assess the factor structure of nine health-related quality of life (HRQOL) survey items among people with and without disabilities or functional limitations (FL) and determine whether factor loadings were similar for the two groups.

Data were from US states and territories in the 2001 and 2002 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Confirmatory factor analyses assessed fit of the data to a previously found factor structure.

A two-factor structure was confirmed, conceptually representing physical and mental health. Although this structure fit data for both people with and without FL, factor loadings were significantly different for the two groups. In all but one instance, factor loadings were higher for people with FL than for people without FL.

Results suggest that people with and without FL conceptualize physical and mental HRQOL similarly. However, the nine items analyzed appear to be a better reflection of the latent constructs of physical and mental HRQOL in the population of people with FL than those without FL.

The Sb desinsertion reaction from SbxCoSb3-x follows a first orde

The Sb desinsertion reaction from SbxCoSb3-x follows a first order kinetics, with a transition enthalpy of approximately 21 kJ/mol and an activation energy of 83 kJ/mol. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3626045]“
“The chemically modified analogs, the demethylated analogs 4-6, the tetrahydro analogs 7-9 and the hexahydro analogs 10-12, of curcumin (1), demethoxycurcumin

(2) and bisdemethoxycurcumin (3) were evaluated for their inhibitory activity on lipopolysaccharide activated nitric oxide (NO) production in HAPI microglial cells. Di-O-demethylcurcumin (5) and O-demethyldemethoxycurcumin (6) are the two most potent compounds that inhibited NO production. The analogs 5 and 6 were twofold and almost twofold more active than the 5-Fluoracil cost parent

curcuminoids 1 and 2, respectively. Moreover, the mRNA expression level of inducible NO synthase was inhibited by these two compounds. The strong neuroprotective activity of analogs 5 and 6 provide potential alternative compounds to be developed as therapeutics for neurological disorders associated with activated microglia.”
“Charge carrier transport in disordered organic semiconductors, performed in electronic devices such as optoelectronic and photovoltaic ones, is usually affected by an exponential distribution of localized states in the band-gap (traps) under space-charge limited current. In this paper, we provide a full analysis for the trap-controlled transport of the single-carrier device in the frequency

domain. Trap-limited mobility is interpreted in terms of the classical multiple-trapping picture with one transport state and the trapping-detrapping dynamics of the exponential density of traps. This allows us to provide a suitable explanation of the usual experimental features of the mobility dependence on voltage as along with the capacitance spectra. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3622615]“
“Many natural products from plants have been identified to exert anticancer activity. It might be expected to be a challenge to look at the Saudi plants in order to discover new sources for new molecules which may have anticancer activity. The methanolic extracts of forty species LBH589 Epigenetics inhibitor of plants traditionally used in Saudi Arabia for the treatment of a variety of diseases were tested in vitro for their potential anticancer activity on different human cancer cell lines. The cytotoxic activity of the methanolic extracts of the tested plants were determined using three human cancer cell lines, namely, breast cancer (MCF7), hepatocellular carcinoma (HEPG2), and cervix cancer (HELA) cells. In addition, human normal melanocyte (HFB4) was used as normal nonmalignant cells. Sulforhodamine B colorimetric assay was used to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic activity of the different extracts. The growth inhibition of 50% (IC50) for each extract was calculated from the optical density of treated and untreated cells.

The majority (88 7%) regarded the musculoskeletal assessment as d

The majority (88.7%) regarded the musculoskeletal assessment as difficult/challenging and 61.3% thought that it should not be included as part of a general CA4P medical examination. However, 80% of doctors felt that they had not received adequate teaching in musculoskeletal assessment and would welcome further training. The omission of the musculoskeletal assessment for medical patients admitted to hospital is reflected in the fact that doctors lack training in this area. Furthermore, doctors lack confidence in their ability to recognise both common and rare rheumatic diagnoses, a problem likely to impact adversely on the outcome of patients with

these conditions.”
“Peroxide-cured natural rubber (NR) reinforced GSK-3 inhibitor by zinc dimethacrylate (ZDMA) was prepared. The cocrosslinking action of ZDMA and the formation and evolution of the phase morphology induced by ZDMA during the curing process were systematically investigated. A curemeter and a differential scanning calorimeter were used to investigate the cure kinetics, and the kinetic parameters and the apparent activation energy were obtained. The phase morphology of the composites obtained from transmission electron microscopy revealed that separated nanophases of poly(zinc dimethacrylate) (PZDMA) existed in the rubber matrix.

Covalent crosslinking, physical adsorption, and ionic crosslinking simultaneously existed in the composites, and they were determined with an equilibrium swelling method. On the basis of this, new microstructure models of NR/ZDMA composites and ionic crosslinking were put forward. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. I Appl Polym Sci 115: 99-106, 2010″
“Background: Heart failure

(BF) care takes place in multiple settings, with a variety of providers, and generally involves patients who have multiple comorbidities. This situation is a “”perfect storm”" of factors that predispose patients to medication errors.

Methods and Results: The goals of this paper are to outline potential roles for clinical pharmacists in a multidisciplinary BF team, to document outcomes associated with interventions by clinical pharmacists, to recommend minimum Crenigacestat supplier training for clinical pharmacists engaged in HF care, and to suggest financial strategies to support clinical pharmacy services within a multidisciplinary team. As patients transition from inpatient to outpatient settings and between multiple caregivers, pharmacists can positively affect medication reconciliation and education, assure consistency in management that results in improvements in patient satisfaction and medication adherence, and reduce medication errors. For mechanical circulatory support and heart transplant teams, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services considers the participation of a transplant pharmacology expert (e.g., clinical pharmacist) to be a requirement for accreditation, given the highly specialized and complex drug regimens used.

RESULTS: The predictions by others of exon 3 skipping in specific

RESULTS: The predictions by others of exon 3 skipping in specific DSPP mutations have been validated and a cryptic splicing donor site has been identified. However, the degree of mutational effect on

pre-mRNA splicing varied considerably depending on the changed nucleotide.

CONCLUSIONS: The predictions of exon 3 skipping in specific DSPP mutations have been validated, and a cryptic splicing donor site has been identified. Our data may provide insight into the contribution of DSPP mutations in the pathogenesis and genotype-phenotype correlations of hereditary dentin defects. Oral Diseases (2011) 17, 690-695″
“Background: In the United States, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability BIX 01294 clinical trial Act (HIPAA) protects the confidentiality Screening Library of patient data and requires the informed consent of the patient and approval of the Internal Review Board to use data for research purposes, but these requirements can be waived if data is de-identified. For clinical data to be considered de-identified, the HIPAA “”Safe Harbor”" technique requires 18 data elements (called PHI: Protected Health Information) to be removed. The de-identification of narrative text documents is often realized manually, and requires

significant resources. Well aware of these issues, several authors have investigated automated de-identification of narrative text documents from the electronic health record, and a review of recent research in this domain is presented here.

Methods: This review focuses on recently published research (after 1995), and includes relevant publications from bibliographic queries in PubMed, conference proceedings, the ACM Digital Library, and interesting publications referenced in already included papers.

Results: The literature search returned more than 200 publications. The majority focused only on structured data de-identification instead of narrative text, on

image de-identification, or described manual de-identification, and were therefore excluded. Finally, 18 publications describing automated text de-identification were selected for detailed analysis of the architecture and methods used, the types of PHI detected and removed, the external resources used, and the types of clinical documents targeted. All text de-identification systems aimed to identify and remove person names, and many included other types of PHI. Most systems used only one or two specific clinical document types, and were mostly based on two different groups of methodologies: pattern matching and machine learning. Many systems combined both approaches for different types of PHI, but the majority relied only on pattern matching, rules, and dictionaries.

Conclusions: In general, methods based on dictionaries performed better with PHI that is rarely mentioned in clinical text, but are more difficult to generalize. Methods based on machine learning tend to perform better, especially with PHI that is not mentioned in the dictionaries used.

(C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc J Appl Polyrn Sci 113: 4032-4041

(C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polyrn Sci 113: 4032-4041, 2009″
“The stability of the major flavonol glucosides and anthocyanins was studied in two regional varieties of Portuguese PP2 inhibitor onion (a white variety “”branca da Povoa”" and a red variety “”vermelha da Povoa”"). White and red onions from 2007 and 2008 harvests were subjected to field curing with and without light, but the red cultivar from 2008 was also subjected to typical domestic processing, including chopping and different cooking treatments. Field curing resulted in increases in quercetin content compared to levels at lifting, especially important for all white bulbs (33-40% increase). Flavonol and anthocyanin levels in onions cured

in the dark were similar to those obtained in bulbs cured in the light. The treatments chopping followed by refrigerated storage, oven roasting and frying, did practically not contribute to modify the total levels of flavonols. Moderate microwave cooking did not affect to the flavonol content, but intense microwave treatment cause flavonol losses of 16% and 18% for quercetin 3,4′-diglucoside (QdG) and quercetin 4′-glucoside (QmG). respectively. Boiling onions for 30 min leaded losses of quercetin glycosides which, leached to the boiling water

without being degraded at 37% and 29% for QdG and QmG, respectively. Boiling for 60 min had more severe effects, since it caused the degradation of quercetin derivatives at 53% and 44% for QdG and QmG, respectively. For anthocyanins, Ro-3306 solubility dmso BLZ945 ic50 the severity of the cooking treatments was in the following order: frying > boiling > roasting (microwave roasting > oven roasting). (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective-To identify dogs and cats with baclofen toxicosis and characterize the patient population, clinical signs, and outcome.

Design-Retrospective case series.

Animals-140 dogs and 5 cats with baclofen toxicosis.

Procedures-An animal poison control center electronic database was reviewed from November 2004 through April

2010 to identify dogs and cats with baclofen toxicosis. Information on signalment, clinical signs, and amount of baclofen ingested was obtained. Clinical signs were categorized as CNS, gastrointestinal, general malaise, cardiovascular, respiratory, or urogenital. Follow-up communications were performed to determine overall outcome.

Results-Dogs had a median age of 0.67 years (range, 0.1 to 15 years) and cats of 1 year (range, 0.7 to 16 years). Of 145 patients, 133 (92%) developed clinical signs of baclofen toxicosis. A total of 259 signs fell within defined categories: CNS (121/259 [46.7%]), gastrointestinal (69/259 [26.6%]), general malaise (27/259 [10.4%]), cardiovascular (23/259 [8.9%]), respiratory (14/259 [5.4%]), and urogenital (5/259 11.9%]). For 68 dogs with known survival status, survival rate was 83.8% (57/68); of these dogs, the amount of baclofen ingested was known for 53 (46 survivors and 7 nonsurvivors).

Interleukin 6 (IL-6), such as present during

Interleukin 6 (IL-6), such as present during GSK1210151A orthodontic tooth movement, also strongly affects bone mass, but little is known about the effect of IL-6 on osteocyte function. Therefore we aimed to determine in vitro

whether IL-6 affects osteocyte mechanosensitivity, and osteocyte regulation of osteoclastogenesis and osteoblast differentiation. MLO-Y4 osteocytes were incubated with/without IL-6 (1 or 10 pg/mL) for 24 hr. Subsequently, osteocytes were subjected to mechanical loading by pulsating fluid flow (PFF) for 1 hr. Mouse osteoclast precursors were cultured for 7 days on top of IL-6-treated osteocytes. Conditioned medium from osteocytes treated with/without IL-6 was added to MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts for 14 days. Exogenous IL-6 (10 pg/mL) did not alter the osteocyte response to PFF. PFF significantly enhanced IL-6

production by osteocytes. IL-6 enhanced Rankl expression but reduced caspase 3/7 activity by osteocytes, and therefore did not affect osteocyte-stimulated osteoclastogenesis. Conditioned medium from IL-6-treated osteocytes reduced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and Runx2 expression in osteoblasts, but increased expression of the proliferation marker Ki67 and osteocalcin. Our results suggest that IL-6 is produced by shear-loaded osteocytes and that IL-6 may affect bone mass by modulating osteocyte communication toward osteoblasts.”
“We describe a case with a focal atrial tachycardia (AT) masquerading as perimitral atrial flutter revealed after circumferential pulmonary vein antral isolation for atrial fibrillation. It was successfully terminated and became noninducible Ubiquitin inhibitor by a point ablation on the left atrial anterior wall (LAAW) near the mitral annulus in contact with the aortic root and on the left superior pulmonary vein-left atrial appendage ridge, without ACY-241 cost any linear ablation, using electroanatomical mapping and conventional precise mapping with a maximum amplified gain within the low-voltage area. The AT revealed in our case was an LAAW-aorta contiguity

area-related AT.”
“The antioxidant status of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) was investigated in plasma, erythrocytes, and platelets of juvenile patients with anorexia nervosa. Blood for analysis of the CoQ10 status was taken from 16 juvenile patients suffering from anorexia nervosa (restricting form) at the time point of admission to the hospital and at discharge after about 12 weeks. Plasma and blood cells isolated by a density gradient were stored at -84 degrees C until analysis. CoQ10 concentration and redox status were measured by high pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection and internal standardization. The improvement of physical health during the hospital refeeding process was followed up by the body mass index (BMI). The antioxidant status of plasma CoQ10 in juvenile patients suffering from anorexia nervosa indicated no abnormalities in comparison to healthy controls.

The parameters evaluated on preoperative full-length coronal and

The parameters evaluated on preoperative full-length coronal and lateral radiographs were PI, sacral slope (SS), pelvic

tilt, lumbar lordosis (LL), thoracic kyphosis, sagittal Cobb angle, and the shift of the sagittal C7 plumb line. Results. Age, gender, major and minor cobb angles were similar in the 2 groups. PI, pelvic tilt, and LL were found to be significantly greater in the black group when compared with the white group (black: 56.0, 13.9, and -63.6 vs. white: 52.5, 10.8, and -59.1).

Conclusion. In our study, significant differences were found in 3 of the 6 sagittal plane parameters between the 2 groups. With a larger PI, a larger LL is required in order maintain a neutral sagittal balance. Our results suggest that race HSP phosphorylation may influence an individual’s natural spinopelvic alignment, and serves as a reminder when planning surgical reconstruction for spinal deformity.”
“We examine age- and sex-specific associations between weight status and intensity of LXH254 cigarette smoking in a large sample of adolescents. Additionally, we test whether quality of life (QOL) and weight control behaviors (i.e., trying to lose, gain, or stay the same weight) mediate the association.

We used

cross-sectional data from the 2010 Washington State Healthy Youth Survey collected in grades 8, 10, and 12 (n = 11,222). Multinomial logistic regression was used to model cigarette smoking (none, light, frequent) as a function of weight status, weight control behaviors, and QOL by sex and age. Indirect effects of presumed mediators were assessed using the product of coefficients approach.


status was not associated with smoking. Trying to stay the same weight was associated with lower odds of light smoking for younger girls (OR = 0.25; 95 % CI = 0.08, 0.84), whereas trying to lose weight was associated with higher odds of light smoking for older girls (OR = 1.73; 95 % CI = 1.11, 2.70). Low QOL was associated with higher odds of light and frequent smoking for both girls and boys (P < 0.001). The mediation effects of weight control behavior and QOL combined were significant in 8-Bromo-cAMP purchase the associations between body mass index percentile and smoking among older girls.

Targeted interventions designed to promote QOL and healthy weight control behaviors among youth may help to decrease the prevalence of smoking.”
“Structural and functional asymmetries are present in many regions of the human brain responsible for motor control, sensory and cognitive functions and communication. Here, we focus on hemispheric asymmetries underlying the domain of social perception, broadly conceived as the analysis of information about other individuals based on acoustic, visual and chemical signals.

008) These findings suggest that patients have concerns about th

008). These findings suggest that patients have concerns about their memory underpinned by distinct psychological and neurobiological factors depending on the location of their epileptogenic HIF inhibitor focus. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“The present study was aimed at investigating the impact of hippocampal and temporal cortical lesions on remote autobiographical memories in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Episodic specificity, episodic richness, and

personal semantic memory from different life periods were assessed using a modified version of the Autobiographical Memory Interview (AMI) (M.D. Kopelman, A.E. Wilson, A. Baddeley, The autobiographical memory interview. Bury St. Edmunds: Thames Valley Test Co.; 1990) in 47 patients with unilateral

mesial or lateral TLE and 38 healthy controls. Patients with TLE performed significantly more poorly than controls. Patients with left and right mTLE were equally moderately impaired, but patients Cyclopamine with left lateral TLE had the most severe episodic memory deficits, particularly for childhood memories. With respect to personal semantic memory, patients with left TLE were significantly more impaired than those with right TLE, most pronounced for childhood memories. Both autobiographical memory aspects, episodic and personal semantic memory, were significantly intercorrelated, but both did not correlate with anterograde memory, indicating a structural dissociation between both functions. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Study Design. Retrospective review.

Objective. To report on the safety of repetitive transcranial electric stimulation (RTES) for eliciting motor-evoked potentials during spine surgery.

Summary of Background Data. Theoretical concerns over the safety of RTES have hindered broader acceptance of transcranial electric selleck chemicals llc motor-evoked potentials (tceMEP), despite successful implementation of spinal cord monitoring with tceMEPs in many large spine centers, as well as their apparent superiority over mixed-nerve somatosensory-evoked potentials (SSEP) for detection of spinal cord injury.

Methods. The records of 18,862 consecutive patients

who met inclusion criteria and underwent spine surgery with tceMEP monitoring were reviewed for RTES-related complications.

Results. This large retrospective review identified only 26 (0.14%) cases with RTES-related complications; all but one of these were tongue lacerations, most of which were self-limiting.

Conclusions. The results demonstrate that RTES is a highly safe modality for monitoring spinal cord motor tract function intraoperatively.”
“Current protocols to extract genomic DNA from microorganisms are still laborious, tedious and costly, especially for the species with thick cell walls. In order to improve the effectiveness of extracting DNA from microbial samples, a novel protocol, defined as two-step extraction method, along with an improved tissue-grinding device, was developed.

OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate that DBS of the NAcc is an effective tr

OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate that DBS of the NAcc is an effective treatment modality for depression and this website that chemical and structural changes associated with these behavioral changes are markers of neuroplasticity.

METHODS: A deep brain stimulator was placed in the NAcc of male Wistar-Kyoto rats. Groups were divided into sham (no stimulation), intermittent (3 h/d for 2 weeks), or continuous (constant stimulation for 2 weeks). Exploratory and anxietylike behaviors were evaluated with the open-field test before and after stimulation.

Tissue samples of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) were processed with Western blot analysis of markers of noradrenergic activity that included the noradrenergic synthesizing enzyme tyrosine Epacadostat cell line hydroxylase. Analysis of tissue levels for catecholamines was achieved with high-performance liquid chromatography. Morphological properties of cortical pyramidal neurons were assessed with Golgi-Cox staining.

RESULTS: Subjects undergoing intermittent and continuous stimulation of the NAcc exhibited an increase in exploratory behavior and reduced anxietylike behaviors. Tyrosine hydroxylase expression levels were decreased in the PFC after intermittent

and continuous DBS, and dopamine and norepinephrine levels were decreased after continuous stimulation. Golgi-Cox staining indicated that DBS increased the length of apical and basilar dendrites in pyramidal neurons of the PFC.

CONCLUSION: Deep brain stimulation induces behavioral improvement

in and neurochemical and morphological alterations of the PFC that demonstrate changes within the circuitry of the brain different from the target area of stimulation. This observed dendritic plasticity may underlie the therapeutic efficacy of this treatment.”
“The mammalian Target Of Rapamycin (mTOR) serine/threonine kinase belongs to two multi-protein complexes, referred to as mTORC1 and mTORC2. mTOR-generated signals have critical roles in leukemic cell biology by controlling mRNA translation of genes that promote proliferation and survival. However, allosteric inhibition of mTORC1 by rapamycin has only modest effects in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Recently, ATP-competitive Raf inhibitor inhibitors specific for the mTOR kinase active site have been developed. In this study, we have explored the therapeutic potential of active-site mTOR inhibitors against both T-ALL cell lines and primary samples from T-ALL patients displaying activation of mTORC1 and mTORC2. The inhibitors affected T-ALL cell viability by inducing cell-cycle arrest in G(0)/G(1) phase, apoptosis and autophagy. Western blot analysis demonstrated a Ser 473 Akt dephosphorylation (indicative of mTORC2 inhibition) and a dephosphorylation of mTORC1 downstream targets.