These peptides can be isolated from various organisms such as pla

These peptides can be isolated from various organisms such as plants [48], insects [45], amphibians [57], fishes [1] and mammals [18]. Despite their different origins, AMPs may show some common properties including cationic surfaces and amphipathic structures [49]. Furthermore,

some peptides also show promiscuity as they attach to different targets such as membranes, cell walls, cytosolic APO866 mw proteins and nucleic acids [7], [27] and [49]. This property could lead to multifunctionality derived from a single protein molecule. This process could also occur due to a specific stimulus, such as pH or protein concentrations. This property is commonly found in plant and animal defense peptides, in which a wide number of different functions must be generated by several structural homologs with identical structures [16]. Moreover, cationic AMPs conformation seems to interact

with anionic microorganism membranes by electrostatic interactions in a first step. AMPs inset into membrane bilayers and aggregate, forming pores and leading to an efflux of intracellular ions [40] and [64]. Additionally, some studies have shown the relation between resistance to certain infectious diseases and AMPs secretion. Cipriano et al. [8] showed that AMPs secreted in fish external mucus may confer resistance to Aeromonas salmonicida in salmonids. Likewise, in Teleostei marine polar fish, some peptides are commonly secreted into the blood and tissues depending on sub-zero temperature [13] and [31]. These

peptides are known as antifreeze peptides (AFP), and the type I AFP family is commonly found in winter flounder (Pleuronectes americanus), Epigenetic inhibitor named HPLC-6 and HPLC-8 [18]. Comparing AMPs and AFPs, similar structural and physical–chemical properties have been found, such as the hydrophobic ratio, hydrophobic moment and specific amino acid composition [61]. Migliolo et al. [34] studied a synthetic peptide named Pa-MAP, a derivate of the HPLC-8 peptide [25]. Additionally, Pa-MAP Y-27632 2HCl primary sequence was selected from the AFP HPLC-8 produced by the polar fish P. americanus with length (decreased from 37 residues to 26) and residue modifications, such as lysine 7 and 18 substituted by alanine, valine 2 and 13 by treonine, and glutamic acid 11 by alanine. The first amino acid residue in HPLC-8 is aspartic acid, also substituted by histidine [34]. Surprisingly, Pa-MAP is devoid of arginine and lysine cationic residues, which seems to be important for antimicrobial activity [19] and [41]. Indeed, the peptide has mostly hydrophobic amino acid residues suggesting that that Pa-MAP antimicrobial activity could be attributed mostly to hydrophobic interaction. Furthermore, it shows the ability of inhibiting the HSV virus, the development of mycellar fungi T. mentagrophytes and T. rubrum, and deleterious activity against E. coli, besides cytotoxic effects in tumor cells.

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