Structural characterization of the copolymer and modified copolym

Structural characterization of the copolymer and modified copolymer were carried out by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR). FTIR and (1)H NMR spectra confirmed that NA was successfully covalently bound onto the MAST copolymer backbone by both chemical and enzymatic methods. Surface morphology of the samples was studied by scanning electron microscopy. Results obtained indicated that chemical and enzymatic addition of NA to MAST backbone

yielded products having quite similar physical S3I-201 cost and chemical properties. On the other hand, MASTNA-modified copolymer synthesized by individual monomers appeared to be different in its chemical structure. Furthermore, enzymatic modification and synthesis appeared to provide a good alternative method because it required much milder conditions such as low temperature, and better product qualities: higher solubility in water, higher yield and purity. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 122: 2821-2828, 2011″
“In this paper, we demonstrate a phosphorescent organic light-emitting device (OLED) with enhanced current efficiency (in terms of cd/A) based on an oxadiazole (OXD) derivative as

the electron-transporting host of the emitting layer (EML) doped with a phosphorescent NCT-501 nmr dopant, iridium(III) bis[4,6-(di-fluorophenyl)-pyridinato-N, C2'] picolinate (FIrpic). The maximum current efficiency of OXD-based OLEDs was 13.0 cd/A. Compared to the Sonidegib research buy phosphorescent OLED with a conventional hole-transporting host, 1,3-bis(carbazol-9-yl)benzene (mCP) with 11.1 cd/A in maximum current efficiency, 17.2% improvement was achieved. However, in terms of external quantum efficiency (EQE), the OXD- and mCP-based OLEDs were 4.01 and 4.66%, respectively, corresponding to a 13.9% decrease. Such a discrepancy can be understood from the electroluminescence (EL)

variation. Contrary to the hole-transporting mCP, OXD exhibited electron transporting characteristics which shifted the recombination zone toward the anode. The optical interference effect result was that the relative intensity at long wavelengths (500-600 nm) was higher in the OXD-based OLED, which was more sensitive to the human eye and increased the current efficiency, even though the EQE was lower. Besides, in OXD-OLED, the recombination zone shifted toward the anode side with a high driving voltage, which was also deduced from the EL spectral variations. Under a high driving voltage, we observed the relative intensity of FIrpic emission ata longer wavelength increased which resulted from the optical interference effect, and emission from the hole-transporting layer increased. By using hole-transporting mCP and electron-transporting OXD as the hosts of double EML (DEML), the maximum current-efficiency and EQE of the optimized DEML-OLED further increases to 17.6 cd/A and 7.06%, which corresponds to improvements of 58.6% and 51.

3 +/- 1 2 mg/dL vs 5 7 +/- 1 4 mg/dL and 488 +/- 205 pg/ml vs 177

3 +/- 1.2 mg/dL vs 5.7 +/- 1.4 mg/dL and 488 +/- 205 pg/ml vs 177 +/- 100 pg/ml respectively; p < 0.05) with decreasing of phosphate and potassium intake. No significant differences were found in the control group. No significant changes CA3 were observed in serum albumin, calcium, potassium, Kt/V, body weight

and body composition in both the intervention and control groups.

Conclusion: Dietary intake of phosphate mainly comes from protein sources, so dietary phosphorus restriction may lead to a protein/energy malnutrition in a dialysis patient. A phosphorus-controlled diet plan including a nutritional substitute resulted in serum phosphate and intact parathyroid hormone decrease without nutritional status modifications in dialysis patients. (C) 2010 Elsevier

B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Study Design: Retrospective review of a prospectively collected database.

Objective. Our objective was to assess the rates of postoperative wound infection associated with spine surgery.

Summary of Background Data. Although wound infection after spine surgery remains a common source of morbidity, estimates of its rates of occurrence remain relatively limited. The Scoliosis Research Society prospectively collects morbidity and mortality data from its members, including the occurrence of wound infection.

Methods. The Scoliosis Research Society morbidity and mortality database was queried for all reported spine surgery cases from 2004 to 2007. Cases were stratified based on factors including diagnosis, adult (>= 21 years) versus pediatric

(< 21 years), primary versus revision, click here selleck chemicals use of implants, and whether a minimally invasive approach was used. Superficial, deep, and total infection rates were calculated.

Results. In total, 108,419 cases were identified, with an overall total infection rate of 2.1% (superficial = 0.8%, deep = 1.3%). Based on primary diagnosis, total postoperative wound infection rate for adults ranged from 1.4% for degenerative disease to 4.2% for kyphosis. Postoperative wound infection rates for pediatric patients ranged from 0.9% for degenerative disease to 5.4% for kyphosis. Rate of infection was further stratified based on subtype of degenerative disease, type of scoliosis, and type of kyphosis for both adult and pediatric patients. Factors associated with increased rate of infection included revision surgery (P < 0.001), performance of spinal fusion (P < 0.001), and use of implants (P < 0.001). Compared with a traditional open approach, use of a minimally invasive approach was associated with a lower rate of infection for lumbar discectomy (0.4% vs. 1.1%; P < 0.001) and for transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (1.3% vs. 2.9%; P = 0.005).

Conclusion. Our data suggest that postsurgical infection, even among skilled spine surgeons, is an inherent potential complication.

The psychological processes influencing

The psychological processes influencing Selleck Liproxstatin-1 the use of protective equipment require

further investigation.”
“A characterization of 2D critical behavior in the classic 2D antiferromagnets K(2)NiF(4), Rb(2)MnF(4), and K(2)MnF(4) made originally by Birgeneau et al. [Phys. Rev. B 1, 2211 (1970)], using neutron scattering (NS), is used to review NMR data in these compounds and in some classic 2D ferromagnets. On analyzing the NMR data, very serious discrepancies were found between the NMR and NS results for the critical exponent beta, with the values of the NMR beta s being some 50% higher. Some novel results were also found, including 2D cases where beta = 0.33 (but characterized by a non-3D parameter, D similar to 1). The discrepancies surely need to be resolved, and if the present analysis of the NMR data is further validated, these results could present a clear and nontrivial hurdle for current critical-region theories. Additionally, from the NMR data it was found that the low-temperature behaviors of these classical 2D systems are at odds with the predictions of conventional spin-wave theory analyses. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3549596]“
“Purpose: To Bafilomycin A1 research buy report an updated, systematic review of medical literature from January 2003 to July 2008, on endovascular treatment (EVT) of intracranial unruptured aneurysms (UAs) (a) to assess the morbidity and case fatality rate of EVT of UAs,

(b) to understand how bias can affect results, and (c) to estimate the efficacy of EVT by using reported digital subtraction angiographic (DSA) results and clinical follow-up events.

Materials and Methods: This article was prepared in accordance with the Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic C59 Wnt mw Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. The literature was searched by using PubMed and the EMBASE

and Cochrane Library databases. Eligibility criteria were (a) explicit procedural mortality and morbidity rates; (b) at least 10 patients; (c) saccular, intradural, nondissecting UAs; (d) original study published in English or French between January 2003 and July 2008; and (e) a methodological quality score higher than 6, according to Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology criteria. End points included procedural mortality and morbidity, defined as a modified Rankin scale score of 3-6 at 1 month, and efficacy, estimated by using immediate and follow-up digital subtraction angiographic results, as well as delayed hemorrhagic events.

Results: Seventy-one studies were included. Procedural unfavorable outcome was found in 4.8% (random-effect weighted average; 189 of 5044) of patients (99% confidence interval [CI]: 3.9%, 6.0%). Immediate angiographic results showed satisfactory occlusion in 86.1% (2660 of 3089) of UAs. Recurrences were shown in 321 (24.

The current article reviews the incidence, risk factors, and cons

The current article reviews the incidence, risk factors, and consequences of ganciclovir-associated hematologic adverse events in transplant recipients. Management strategies, including ganciclovir dose reduction, and the addition beta-catenin tumor of CMV hyperimmune globulin are discussed. Exposing this relatively frequently occurring, but uncommonly discussed, toxicity should lead to better avoidance and treatment strategies, without placing patients at increased risk of CMV disease.”
“The Green’s function formalism [see B. Baumeier , J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8, S191 (2006)] for calculating the reflection and transmission of light at etched single-groove gratings on both sides of a thin silver film was extended to study the case with

double-groove gratings. A splitting of surface-plasmon-polariton (SPP) modes was found due to electromagnetic (EM) coupling between the two grooves in the complex unit cell of the grating. Spectral features corresponding to the split SPP branches (peaks in the transmissivity) were found in this system. In addition, the calculated full spatial distributions

of the total EM field were used to provide intuitive explanations for these observations by indicating the high-surface-field regions, the coupling between the two grooves in the same complex unit cell, and the cross coupling between the two nearby grooves located at the upper and lower surfaces of the metal film. The effects on the transmissivity and reflectivity due to changing the depth ratio, groove separation, and lattice constant were also highlighted. The split antisymmetrical SPP mode Ruboxistaurin datasheet due to EM coupling between the two grooves in the same complex unit cell, as well as the cross EM coupling between the two nonaligned grooves at the upper and lower surfaces, were found to be responsible for the large peaks found in the transmissivity.”

The Food and Drug Administration has approved the reconstitution of botulinum toxin A with preservative-free saline. Reconstitution of onabotulinumtoxinA with preserved saline has been previously reported to decrease the pain of injections. We present the first split-face study investigating differences in subjective pain when using preserved and preservative-free saline as the reconstituent Selleckchem Belinostat of choice for abobotulinumtoxinA. Objective To determine whether patients notice a difference in pain when injecting abobotulinumtoxinA diluted with preserved saline versus preservative-free saline. Materials and Methods A prospective, randomized, double-blind, side-by-side trial was conducted in a private practice dermatology office in Boulder, Colorado. Twenty volunteer patients received injections on one side of their face with abobotulinumtoxinA reconstituted with preservative-free saline and with abobotulinumtoxinA reconstituted with preserved saline on the other side. Patients reported their pain on a 10-point visual analogue pain scale after each side was injected.

3 +/- 9 6%) than in patients with improved pulmonary lesions (imp

3 +/- 9.6%) than in patients with improved pulmonary lesions (improved group; -9.2 +/- 28.6%, P = 0.0075). The diagnostic accuracy of RI-SUV in the persistent group was significantly greater than that of early SUV or Ga-67 uptake, and serum soluble IL-2 receptor showed

a significant correlation with RI-SUV.

Conclusions: RI-SUV showed better diagnostic accuracy compared with early SUV or Ga-67 uptake, in patients with persistent lung involvement at 1 year. It may be a useful measure of persistent inflammation in patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis.”
“In this study, a simple model to simulate a uterine environment affected by subclinical endometritis was established by culturing isolated primary bovine uterine epithelial cells (pbUEC). Co-incubation of pbUEC and polymorphonuclear (PMN) granulocytes derived from peripheral bovine blood samples, was performed before testing the cell culture supernatant for AZD6094 production of interleukin-8 (IL-8) via ELISA. Cytokine

secretion was only detectable after co-incubation of pbUEC with PMN, whereas neither EVP4593 pbUEC nor PMN alone generated IL-8 in relevant chemo attractive doses. Another objective was to examine the influence of bovine seminal plasma (SP) and vesicular gland fluid (VGF) on various functional parameters of PMN including cell viability, production of reactive oxygen species and chemotaxis. Analysis of these effects was conducted by flow cytometry. Viability of PMN was determined by staining the cells with propidium iodide. Seminal plasma was added to suspensions of PMN in increasing increments and resulted in a significant increase of cell membrane damaged PMN when using SP concentrations above 0.2%. The reactive oxygen species production of PMN suspensions, stimulated with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate, was significantly decreased by 30% up to 90% when adding 0.06-30 parts per thousand of either SP or VGF. The PMN transmigration induced by IL-8 was diminished by 50% when 0.4 parts per thousand

of either SP or VGF were added. The results of this study indicate a potential regulatory impact of SP and VGF on inflammatory processes in the bovine uterus.”
“The aim of this study was to validate the safety and effectiveness of a new therapeutic procedure for the treatment of lower leg telangiectasia without clinical vein insufficiency. A group of 20 healthy women aged between 24 and 47 years (mean +/- sem 37.05 +/- 1.47) with lower leg telangiectasia without clinical vein insufficiency, previously investigated by echo colour Doppler sonography, were recruited and were treated with neodymium:YAG laser (mean +/- sem 2.5 +/- 0.11 sessions). Good or excellent results were obtained in 16 patients and the improvements were statistically significant (p < 0.01). Out of the 20 patients, 16 were satisfied with the procedure.

The results of this study provided useful information on the util

The results of this study provided useful information on the utilization of ion exchange resins as release modifiers in matrix systems.”
“Study Design. Cross-sectional study.

Objective. To investigate

the automatic balance correction related to anticipatory perturbation (AP) and quick backward perturbation in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS).

Summary of Background Data. Most previous studies on AIS patients focused on posture sway and lacked analysis of muscle activated patterns in dynamic standing control.

Methods. Thirty-two AIS patients and 23 age-matched normal subjects received perturbation balance tests on an unstable platform. The tilting angle of the platform and the muscle MK-2206 manufacturer activity of the bilateral lumbar multifidi, gluteus medii, and gastrocnemii muscles were recorded. Electromyographic (EMG) amplitude, onset latencies, and duration were calculated with

software accompanied with machine.

Results. The AIS group had less posture see more tilting but higher muscle activities than normal subjects under both perturbation conditions (P < 0.05). Under the AP test, AIS showed earlier onset and prolonged activation of left multifidus and right gastrocnemius compared with normal subjects (P < 0.05). The latency of the multifidus on the lumbar convex side occurred earlier than on the concave side. However, the asymmetric onset timing of the gastrocnemius was the opposite of the multifidi in the AIS group (P < 0.05). In contrast to the AP condition, bilateral leg and trunk muscles activated at similar latencies and durations in the AIS group (P < 0.05). Under the quick backward perturbation test, the control group had longer active duration of right multifidus and bilateral gastrocnemii than AIS to cope with larger platform tilting. In addition, asymmetric onset of gluteus medii and duration of multifidi was observed in the control group

(P < 0.05).

Conclusion. There were significant differences in posture control patterns between AIS and normal subjects. AIS subjects have asymmetric habitual muscle activities Gilteritinib for AP, whereas when coping with sudden balance threats, they react with synchronized recruitment of bilateral postural muscles.”
“The purpose of this study was to resolve an anomalously high measure of extra-fine particle fraction (EPF) determined by the abbreviated cascade impactor possibly relevant for human respiratory tract (AIM-HRT) in the experiment described in Part 1 of this two-part series, in which the relative precision of abbreviated impactors was evaluated in comparison with a full resolution Andersen eight-stage cascade impactor (ACI).

It proved to be easily conducted with minimized complications Fu

It proved to be easily conducted with minimized complications. Further investigations are needed to confirm our results.”
“A new

oxyneolignan (rel-(7 alpha,8 beta)-3-methoxy-4′,7-epoxy-8,3′-oxyneolignan-4,9,9′-triol) with a scarce C(7)-O-C(4′) and C(8)-O-C(3′) epoxy linkage, along with eight known compounds, abieta-8,11,13-triene, sandaracopimara-8(14), 15-diene, 6,7-dehydroferruginol methyl ether, 18-hydroxydehydroabietane, sandaracopimara-8(14), 15-dien-18-ol, docosanol, sugiol and palmitic acid, were isolated from the chloroform-soluble fraction of the acetone extract from Juniperus brevifolia leaves. Their selleck chemical structures were established on the basis of the spectral evidences and direct comparison with values from literature data. (C) 2010 Phytochemical Society of Europe. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”

is a proven strategy for protection from disease. An ideal vaccine would include antigens that elicit a safe and effective protective immune response. HLA-restricted epitope vaccines, which include T-lymphocyte epitopes restricted by HLA alleles, represent a new and promising immunization approach. In recent years, research in HLA-restricted epitope vaccines SBE-β-CD for the treatment of tumors and for the prevention of viral, bacterial, and parasite-induced infectious diseases have achieved substantial progress. Approaches for the improvement of the immunogenicity of epitope vaccines include (1) improving the accuracy of the methods used for the prediction of epitopes, (2) making use of additional HLA-restricted CD8(+) T-cell epitopes, (3) the inclusion of specific CD4(+) T-cell epitopes, (4) adding B-cell epitopes to the vaccine construction, (5) finding more effective adjuvants and delivery systems, (6) using immunogenic carrier proteins, and (7) using multiple

proteins as epitopes sources. In this manuscript, we review recent research into HLA-restricted epitope vaccines.”
“Diabetes impairs the resolution of periodontal inflammation. We explored pathways altered by inflammation in the diabetic periodontium by using ligatures to induce periodontitis in type-2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki Proteasome inhibitor drugs rats. Ligatures were removed after 7 days, and rats were then treated with TNF inhibitor (pegsunercept) or vehicle alone and euthanized 4 days later. RNA was extracted from periodontal tissue, examined by mRNA profiling, and further analyzed by functional criteria. We found that 1,754 genes were significantly up-regulated and 1,243 were down-regulated by pegsunercept (p < 0.05). Functional analysis revealed up-regulation of neuron-associated and retina-associated gene clusters as well as those related to cell activity and signaling.


loss-of-function screens, applicable in vario


loss-of-function screens, applicable in various different model systems, have begun to systematically interrogate entire genomes to identify the genes that contribute to a certain cellular response. In particular, RNA interference (RNAi)-based high-throughput screens have been instrumental in determining the composition of regulatory systems and paired with integrative data analyses have begun to delineate the genetic networks that control cell biological and developmental processes. Through the creation of tools for both, in vitro and in vivo genome-wide RNAi screens, Drosophila melanogaster has emerged as one of the key model organisms in systems biology research and over the last years has massively contributed to and hence shaped Selleckchem Smoothened Agonist this discipline. (C) 2010 John Wiley & A-1155463 price Sons, Inc. WIREs Syst Biol Med 2011 3 471-478 DOI: 10.1002/wsbm.127″
“Background Mometasone furoate nasal

spray (MFNS) improves nasal symptoms and reduces polyp size in adults with nasal polyposis. This 4-month, multinational, randomized, double-blind study was conducted to assess the safety of MFNS in pediatric subjects aged 617 yr.

Methods Subjects aged 611 yr with bilateral nasal polyps received MFNS 100 mu g once or twice daily or placebo; those aged 1217 yr received MFNS 200 mu g once or twice daily or placebo. End-points included change in 24-h urinary free cortisol (primary), change in 24-h urinary free cortisol Bak apoptosis corrected for creatinine (key secondary), and adverse events. Efficacy parameters included polyp size, nasal symptoms, and investigator-evaluated therapeutic response, although the study was not powered for statistical analysis of efficacy.

Results Least squares baseline mean urinary free cortisol level (nmol/24 h) for both age groups combined (N = 127) was 49.5 in the MFNS once-daily group, 39.6 in the MFNS twice-daily group, and 49.8 in the placebo group. Change in 24-h urinary free cortisol did not significantly differ among MFNS- and placebo-treated

subjects. Least squares mean 24-h urinary free cortisol levels corrected for creatinine also showed no significant differences among MFNS- and placebo-treated subjects. No safety issues emerged.

Conclusions Results of this study confirm the safety profile of MFNS in pediatric patients with bilateral nasal polyps over 4 months, even at double the recommended pediatric dosage for allergic rhinitis.”
“Numerous embryologic epithelial remnants are described in the oral region, when intimately associated with peripheral nerves, may pose a diagnostic pitfall for pathologists. The literature contains cases in which the juxtaoral organ of Chievitz (JOC) was identified in specimens removed because of a malignancy and the correct recognition of this structure potentially avoids unnecessary treatment.

“Study Design Gait analysis and immunohistological analys

“Study Design. Gait analysis and immunohistological analysis in a rat model of myofascial inflammation in low back.

Objective. To investigate gait in a rat model of myofascial inflammation using the CatWalk gait analysis system.

Summary of Background Data. There are few reports examining low back pain behavior in animal models. The CatWalk is a computer-assisted gait analysis system that provides an automated way to assess

gait function and this behavior during pain.

Methods. In a myofascial inflammation group, 0.5 mL of 4% paraformaldehyde buffer and 0.5 mL of 5% Fluoro-Gold (FG) buffer were injected into bilateral multifidus muscles of rats. In a control group, FG buffer alone was injected. Five days after surgery, the gait of rats in both groups was find more investigated using the CatWalk system. In the present study a total of 36 gait parameters were quantified and used to judge pain-related behavior. Bilateral dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) from L1 to L6 levels were resected, and immunostained for calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP).

Results. In the myofascial inflammation

group, the mean duty cycle (duration of paw contact divided Smoothened Agonist Stem Cells & Wnt inhibitor by time between consecutive paw contacts) of each paws (front and hind) were significantly higher and mean stride length (the distance between successive placements of the same paw) of each paws were significantly shorter compared with the control group. Furthermore, mean minimum contact intensity of the complete paw and mean contact intensity of each paws in the myofascial inflammation group were significantly higher compared with the control group. The proportion of CGRP-immunoreactive FG-labeled neurons

among all FG-labeled DRG neurons in the myofascial inflammation group was significantly higher than the proportion BVD-523 in vitro in the control group.

Conclusion. These results suggest that myofascial inflammation in low back caused the changes to the rat’s gait, including long stands, short stride, and strong paw contact.”
“Poly(L-lactic acid)/o-MMT nanocomposites, incorporating various amounts of organically modified montmorillonite (o-MMT; 010 wt %), were prepared by solution intercalation. The montmorillonite (MMT) was organically modified with dilauryl dimethyl ammonium bromide (DDAB) by ion exchange. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) reveal that the o-MMT was exfoliated in a poly(L-lactic acid), (PLLA) matrix. A series of the test specimens were prepared and subjected to isothermal crystallization at various temperatures (T1T5). The DSC plots revealed that the PLLA/o-MMT nanocomposites that were prepared under nonisothermal conditions exhibited an obvious crystallization peak and recrystallization, but neat PLLA exhibited neither.

The films were deposited by dc magnetron sputtering on monocrysta

The films were deposited by dc magnetron sputtering on monocrystalline p-type (100) Si wafers. Both as deposited and heat treated films consisted of crystalline ITO. The ITO/Si interface showed a more complicated composition. A thin layer of SiOx was found at the ITO/Si interface together with In and Sn nanoclusters, as well as highly oxygen deficient regions, as observed by XPS. High energy electron exposure of this area crystallized 3-MA PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitor the In nanoclusters and at the same time increased the SiOx interface layer

thickness. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3587174]“
“Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) can be hard to treat and treatment plans need to include accurate categorization such as uncomplicated or complicated UTI, or catheterized or uncatheterized UTI. We investigated the antibiotic susceptibilities of representative uropathogens in UTI categories. Methods: We isolated uropathogens and analyzed their antimicrobial susceptibilities according to UTI categorization such as: (1) urology outpatients, urology inpatients, or other department inpatients; (2) uncomplicated or complicated UTIs; (3) upper or lower UTIs, and (4) non-catheterized BMS-777607 or catheterized UTIs. Results: Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were representative uropathogens. Susceptibilities to levofloxacin (LVFX) in E. coli in urology outpatients

(p = 0.0179), those to ceftadizime in E. coli in other department inpatients (p = 0.0327), and those to LVFX in E. faecalis in complicated UTI (p = 0.0137) significantly

decreased in these 3 years compared with the previous 3 years. Susceptibilities of upper UTI to LVFX in E. coli were significantly lower in the recent 4 years compared to lower UTI (p = 0.0452) and those of catheterized UTI to LVFX in E. faecalis were significantly lower than in non-catheterized UTI (p = 0.0153). Conclusions: Data demonstrated different tendencies of uropathogens’ antibiotic susceptibilities according to UTI categorizations and they could be useful for planning UTI treatments. Copyright (C) 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“A multiwavelength Selleckchem AZD1208 erbium-doped fiber laser with linear cavity configuration is proposed and demonstrated. A power-symmetric nonlinear optical loop mirror (NOLM) serves as the laser’s output coupler and has an intensity-induced increase in transmission (IIT) that leads to higher cavity loss for oscillating wavelengths with higher power. The IIT feature of the NOLM suppresses the mode competition in the erbium-doped fiber and ensures stable multiwavelength operation at room temperature. Both the wavelength number and the output power of the laser can be flexibly controlled by adjusting the work state of the NOLM via a quarter wave plate and/or a polarization controller. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3594725]“
“Hemoglobinopathies are common diseases in Mediterranean region of Turkey.