Structural characterization of the copolymer and modified copolymer were carried out by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR). FTIR and (1)H NMR spectra confirmed that NA was successfully covalently bound onto the MAST copolymer backbone by both chemical and enzymatic methods. Surface morphology of the samples was studied by scanning electron microscopy. Results obtained indicated that chemical and enzymatic addition of NA to MAST backbone
yielded products having quite similar physical S3I-201 cost and chemical properties. On the other hand, MASTNA-modified copolymer synthesized by individual monomers appeared to be different in its chemical structure. Furthermore, enzymatic modification and synthesis appeared to provide a good alternative method because it required much milder conditions such as low temperature, and better product qualities: higher solubility in water, higher yield and purity. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 122: 2821-2828, 2011″
“In this paper, we demonstrate a phosphorescent organic light-emitting device (OLED) with enhanced current efficiency (in terms of cd/A) based on an oxadiazole (OXD) derivative as
the electron-transporting host of the emitting layer (EML) doped with a phosphorescent NCT-501 nmr dopant, iridium(III) bis[4,6-(di-fluorophenyl)-pyridinato-N, C2'] picolinate (FIrpic). The maximum current efficiency of OXD-based OLEDs was 13.0 cd/A. Compared to the Sonidegib research buy phosphorescent OLED with a conventional hole-transporting host, 1,3-bis(carbazol-9-yl)benzene (mCP) with 11.1 cd/A in maximum current efficiency, 17.2% improvement was achieved. However, in terms of external quantum efficiency (EQE), the OXD- and mCP-based OLEDs were 4.01 and 4.66%, respectively, corresponding to a 13.9% decrease. Such a discrepancy can be understood from the electroluminescence (EL)
variation. Contrary to the hole-transporting mCP, OXD exhibited electron transporting characteristics which shifted the recombination zone toward the anode. The optical interference effect result was that the relative intensity at long wavelengths (500-600 nm) was higher in the OXD-based OLED, which was more sensitive to the human eye and increased the current efficiency, even though the EQE was lower. Besides, in OXD-OLED, the recombination zone shifted toward the anode side with a high driving voltage, which was also deduced from the EL spectral variations. Under a high driving voltage, we observed the relative intensity of FIrpic emission ata longer wavelength increased which resulted from the optical interference effect, and emission from the hole-transporting layer increased. By using hole-transporting mCP and electron-transporting OXD as the hosts of double EML (DEML), the maximum current-efficiency and EQE of the optimized DEML-OLED further increases to 17.6 cd/A and 7.06%, which corresponds to improvements of 58.6% and 51.