Methods and results: The number of circulating OPCs was quantifie

Methods and results: The number of circulating OPCs was quantified SB273005 nmr by FACS analysis in 120 postmenopausal women with or without osteoporosis. OPCs were defined as CD34+/alkaline phosphatase(AP)+ or CD34+/osteocalcin(OCN)+ cells. Participants underwent cardiovascular risk factor assessment, measurement of bone mineral density (BMD), and aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV) as a measure of arterial stiffness.

Osteoporotic women had higher aPWV (9.8 +/- 2.8 vs 8.5 +/- 1.9 m/s, p = 0.005) and

levels of CD34+/AP+ and CD34+/OCN+ cells than nonosteoporotic controls [1045 n/mL (487-2300) vs 510 n/mL (202-940), p < 0.001; 2415 n/mL (1225-8090) vs 1395 n/mL (207-2220), p < 0.001]. aPWV was associated with log-CD34+/AP+ (r

= 0.27, p = 0.003), log-CD34+/OCN+ cells (r = 0.38, p < 0.001). In stepwise regression analysis CD34+/OCN+ cells, age, systolic blood pressure and heart rate were significant predictors of aPWV (Model R = 0.62, p < 0.001), independent of cardiovascular risk factors, parathyroid hormone levels and osteoporotic status.

Conclusion: In women with postmenopausal osteoporosis an increased availability of circulating osteoprogenitor cells has a detrimental influence on arterial compliance, which may in part explain the association between osteoporosis and arterial stiffening. (C) 2010 Elsevier see more B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Carbon films were deposited in a filtered Topoisomerase inhibitor cathodic vacuum arc with a bias potential applied to a conducting mesh mounted

in the plasma stream between the source and the substrate. We determined the stress and microstructural properties of the resulting carbon films and compared the results with those obtained using direct substrate bias with no mesh. Since the relationship between deposition energy and the stress, sp(2) fraction and density of carbon are well known, measuring these film properties enabled us to investigate the effect of the mesh on the energy and composition of the depositing flux. When a mesh was used, the film stress showed a monotonic decrease for negative mesh bias voltages greater than 400V, even though the floating potential of the substrate did not vary. We explain this result by the neutralization of some ions when they are near to or passing through the negatively biased mesh. The microstructure of the films showed a change from amorphous to glassy carbonlike with increasing bias. Potential applications for this method include the deposition of carbon films with controlled stress on low conductivity substrates to form rectifying or ohmic contacts. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3562165]“
“Regenerative medicine for complex tissues like limbs will require the provision or activation of precursors for different cell types, in the correct number, and with the appropriate instructions.

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