The curves BTSA1 cost for the buildup and decay of birefringence fit well to biexponential functions. The dependence of the fitting parameters on the temperature is also discussed. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 117: 2069-2074, 2010″
“Background: The spread of pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae s.s. is a critical issue for malaria vector control based on the use of insecticide-treated nets. Carbamates and organophosphates insecticides are regarded as alternatives or supplements to pyrethroids used in nets treatment. It is, therefore, essential to investigate
on the susceptibility of pyrethroid resistant populations of An. gambiae s.s. to these alternative products.
Methods: In September 2004, a cross sectional survey was conducted in six localities in Cote d’Ivoire: Toumbokro, Yamoussoukro, Toumodi in the Southern Guinea savannah, Tiassale in semi-deciduous forest, then Nieky and Abidjan in evergreen forest area. An. gambiae populations from these localities were previously reported to be highly resistant to pyrethroids insecticides. Anopheline larvae were collected from the field and reared to adults. Resistance/susceptibility to carbamates (0.4% carbosulfan, 0.1% propoxur) and organophosphates (0.4% chlorpyrifos-methyl, 1% fenitrothion) was assessed using WHO bioassay test kits for adult mosquitoes. Then, PCR assays were run to determine the
molecular forms (M) and (S), as well JQEZ5 manufacturer as phenotypes for insensitive acetylcholinesterase (AChE1) due to G119S mutation.
Results: Bioassays showed carbamates (carbosulfan and propoxur) resistance in all tested populations of An. gambiae s.s. In addition, two out of the six tested populations (Toumodi and Tiassale) were also resistant to organophosphates (mortality rates ranged from 29.5% to 93.3%). The M-form was predominant in tested samples (91.8%). learn more M and S molecular forms were sympatric at two localities but no M/S hybrids
were detected. The highest proportion of S-form (7.9% of An. gambiae identified) was in sample from Toumbokro, in the southern Guinea savannah. The G119S mutation was found in both M and S molecular forms with frequency from 30.9 to 35.2%.
Conclusion: This study revealed a wide distribution of insensitive acetylcholinesterase due to the G119S mutation in both M and S molecular forms of the populations of An. gambiae s.s. tested. The low cross-resistance between carbamates and organophosphates highly suggests involvement of other resistance mechanisms such as metabolic detoxification or F290V mutation.”
“The Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit (LT-B) has been used as a model antigen for the production of plant-derived high-valued proteins in maize. LT-B with its native signal peptide (BSP) has been shown to accumulate in starch granules of transgenic maize kernels.