The good psoriatic response was associated to a slight improvemen

The good psoriatic response was associated to a slight improvement of the liver condition, even though the HCV-RNA was reduced by less than 1 log(10) without normalization of aminotransferase’ levels.\n\nConclusion: The reduced liver toxicity, the

potential anti-HCV properties and the well-known systemic anti-inflammatory effect, make cyclosporine a good alternative for recalcitrant psoriatic patients with HCV-liver PP2 inhibitor disease. Copyright (c) 2012 Kowsar Corp. All rights reserved.”
“BACKGROUND: Sphenoid wing region dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) are rare lesions that are typically fed by middle meningeal artery feeders and that drain via the sphenoparietal sinus or middle cerebral vein. We describe a unique case of a medial sphenoid wing fistula draining exclusively via the basal vein of Rosenthal.\n\nMETHODS: A 55-year-old man presented with progressive right temporal homonymous hemianopsia. Cerebral angiography revealed a DAVF that rapidly filled into the deep venous system via the basal vein of Rosenthal with a large venous varix compressing

the optic nerve. The sphenoid wing DAVF was not amenable to endovascular embolization due to direct ophthalmic artery feeders and was therefore treated with surgical obliteration. A right pterional craniotomy with orbitozygomatic osteotomy was performed.\n\nRESULTS: The fistula was clip ligated, and the venous varix was incised and drained. Intraoperative angiography demonstrated complete obliteration of the fistula.\n\nCONCLUSIONS: Sphenoid wing DAVFs may drain via the deep venous system and have a GSK3326595 Epigenetics inhibitor complex arterial feeding network. Key features of the fistula, including deep venous drainage, presence of venous varices, and retrograde leptomeningeal venous drainage, make this an aggressive lesion with a high risk of rupture

based on the available natural history data.”
“The Barents Sea capelin stock underwent drastic changes in stock size during the last three decades. Three stock collapses occurred in 1985-1989, 1993-1997, and 2003-2006. The collapses had effects both downwards and upwards in the food web. The release in predation pressure from the capelin stock led to increased Adavosertib clinical trial amounts of zooplankton during the collapse periods. When capelin biomass was drastically reduced, its predators were affected in various ways. Cod experienced increased cannibalism, growth was reduced and maturation delayed. Sea birds experienced increased rates of mortality and total recruitment failures, and breeding colonies were abandoned for several years. Harp seals experienced food shortage, increased mortality because they invaded the coastal areas and were caught in fishing gears, and recruitment failures. There is evidence for differences in how the three capelin collapses affected the predators. The effects were most serious during the 1985-1989 collapse and can hardly be traced during the ongoing collapse.

Copyright (C) 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd “
“The nucleocapsi

Copyright (C) 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“The nucleocapsid of a negative-strand RNA virus is assembled with a single nucleocapsid protein and the viral genomic RNA. The nucleocapsid protein polymerizes along the length of the single-strand genomic RNA (viral RNA) or its cRNA. This process of encapsidation occurs concomitantly with genomic replication. Structural comparisons of several nucleocapsid-like particles show that the mechanism of RNA encapsidation in negative-strand RNA viruses has many common features. Fundamentally, there is a unifying mechanism to keep the capsid

protein protomer monomeric prior to encapsidation of viral RNA. In the nucleocapsid, there is a cavity between two globular domains of the nucleocapsid protein where the viral RNA is sequestered. buy LY2606368 The viral RNA must be transiently released from the nucleocapsid in order to reveal the template RNA sequence for transcription/replication. There are cross-molecular interactions among the protein subunits linearly along the nucleocapsid see more to stabilize its structure. Empty capsids can form in the absence of RNA. The common characteristics of RNA encapsidation not only delineate

the evolutionary relationship of negative-strand RNA viruses but also provide insights into their mechanism of replication.”
“In our early work, one mutation (A898G, which caused Ser32Gly (S32G) change of mature peptide) was identified in the goat BMP15 gene and the allele G was associated with high litter size in fining Grey goats (the goat breed with the highest fecundity in China). The aim of this research was to investigate the genetic structure of the prolific BMP15 gene in 18 goat breeds reared

in China, including 12 native breeds, 3 introduced breeds, and 2 cultivated breeds. Genomic DNA of 1011 goats was screened for the S32G mutation. The results showed that this mutation existed in all 3 cultivated and 8 native goat breeds but in none of the 3 introduced goat breeds, which hinted that this mutation may originate from native goat breeds of China. Besides the fining Grey goats, the BMP15 gene was also a potential prolificacy gene in Matou goats. Moreover, the structure prediction indicated click here that the S32G mutation might participate in the binding of BMP15 with receptors.”
“The goal of this study was to determine whether combined targeted therapies, specifically those against the Notch, hedgehog and ubiquitin-proteasome pathways, could overcome ovarian cancer chemoresistance. Chemoresistant ovarian cancer cells were exposed to gamma-secretase inhibitors (GSI-I, Compound E) or the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib, alone and in combination with the hedgehog antagonist, LDE225. Bortezomib, alone and in combination with LDE225, was evaluated for effects on paclitaxel efficacy. Cell viability and cell cycle analysis were assessed by MTT assay and propidium iodide staining, respectively. Proteasome activity and gene expression were determined by luminescence assay and qPCR, respectively.

Inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) retards, but doe

Inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) retards, but does not abrogate, CKD progression. Statins and spironolactone may decrease the rate of CKD progression independently or in addition to RAS inhibition.\n\nStudy buy YAP-TEAD Inhibitor 1 Design: Randomized open-label study.\n\nSetting & Participants: We recruited 128 patients (82 men and 46 women) with a clinical diagnosis of idiopathic chronic

glomerulonephritis and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >30 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (range, 36-102 mL/min/1.73 m(2)), and urine protein-creatinine ratio ranging from 1.1-5.2 g/g.\n\nIntervention: Intensive therapy (a combination of RAS inhibitors [angiotensin-converting enzyme [ACE] inhibitors plus angiotensin receptor blockers [ARBs] plus a high-dose statin and spironolactone) versus conventional S3I-201 cost therapy (a regimen based on ACE inhibitors with a low-dose statin).\n\nOutcomes: Changes in eGFR, proteinuria, and adverse events after 3 years of therapy.\n\nResults: With intensive therapy, urine protein-creatinine ratio decreased from 2.65 (range, 1.1-5.2) to 0.45(0.14-1.51) g/g (P < 0.001)

and eGFR did not significantly change over time (64.6 +/- 2.1 vs 62.9 +/- 2.9 mL/min/1.73 m(2)). With conventional therapy, urine protein-creatinine ratio decreased from 2.60 (range, 1.32-5.4) to 1.23(0.36-3.42) g/g (P < 0.001) and eGFR decreased from 62.5 +/- 1.7 to 55.8 +/- 1.9 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (P < 0.001). Comparison of the decreases in proteinuria and GFR between intensive versus conventional therapy was significantly different starting in the 1st and 12th months, respectively. Systolic blood pressure was lower with intensive than conventional therapy (113.5 +/- 1.4 vs 122.7 +/- 1.2 mm Hg; P < 0.01). We found an inverse selleck screening library relationship between percentage of decrease in proteinuria and change in eGFR (P < 0.001). Patients on intensive therapy were more likely to develop adverse events, such as hyperkalemia (9 vs 3 patients

in the conventional therapy group) and discontinue therapy (15 vs 8 patients in the conventional therapy group).\n\nLimitations: Open-label design.\n\nConclusions: A more intensive therapy that includes a combination of ACE inhibitors and ARBs plus high-dose statins and spironolactone may retard CKD progression more effectively than conventional therapy based on ACE inhibitors plus low-dose statin, but may lead to more adverse effects and discontinuation of therapy. Am J Kidney Dis 55:671-681. (C) 2010 by the National Kidney Foundation, Inc.”
“Biofouling in water treatment processes represents one of the most frequent causes of plant performance decline. Investigation of clogged membranes (reverse osmosis membranes, microfiltration membranes and ultrafiltration membranes) is generally performed on fresh membranes. In the present study, a multidisciplinary autopsy of a reverse osmosis membrane (ROM) was conducted.

Secondly, it has the potential to illuminate the relationship bet

Secondly, it has the potential to illuminate the relationship between background states (or ‘levels’) of consciousness and the contents of consciousness. Thirdly, it has the potential to bear on our understanding 5-Fluoracil purchase of the unity of consciousness.”
“Solder joints between semiconductors and a printed circuit board may fail due to temperature change or vibration. To assess the durability of solder joints a mechanical fatigue test was conducted instead of a thermal cycling test, and a resistance change was monitored to detect

a failure at real time. Fatigue tests were conducted for five different semiconductors at three different frequencies, temperatures and displacements, and a fatigue life prediction equation with consideration of frequency, temperature and cracking energy density was proposed. It was shown that all the fatigue test data could be represented appropriately by the prediction equation. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The analysis of single cells with multiple parameters in flow cytometry or microscopy requires suitable combinations of fluorophores

and optical filters. The growing demands for the multiplex analysis of cells increase the requirements for developing new fluorophores and techniques. We have developed a novel method of analyzing Z IETD FMK a large number of cells with multiple parameters on a single-cell basis using a single fluorophore. Cells were arrayed onto a microwell array chip with an array of 45,000 microwells, which could capture single cells, stained with a phycoerythrin (PE)-conjugated antibody to a marker, and analyzed with a cell-scanner. After analysis, we photobleached the PE molecules by irradiating the sample with blue light. Because the fluorescence of PE was not recovered after the photobleaching and the analyzed cells remained in the same microwells on the chip, we could repeatedly https://www.selleckchem.com/products/epz004777.html stain and analyze the same cells with other markers using PE. We applied a method of

analyzing lymphocytes from 100 mu L of peripheral blood for cytokine secretion and expression of intracellular proteins as well as for multiple cell surface markers. This novel method enables us to analyze multiple markers with a single fluorophore using a simple apparatus. The method may expand the scope of cytometry. D 2008 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry”
“Pilicides are a class of compounds that attenuate virulence in Gram negative bacteria by blocking the chaperone/usher pathway in Escherichia coli. It has also been shown that compounds derived from the peptidomimetic scaffold that the pilicides are based on can prevent both A beta aggregation and curli formation. To facilitate optimizations towards the different targets, a new synthetic platform has been developed that enables fast and simple introduction of various substituents in position C-7 on the peptidomimetic scaffold.

We note that the human population is naive to the H7N9 virus, and

We note that the human population is naive to the H7N9 virus, and current seasonal vaccination could not provide protection.”
“A new series of 1,3-thiazole and benzo[d] thiazole derivatives 10-15 has been developed, characterized, and evaluated for in vitro antimicrobial activity at concentrations of 25-200 mu g/mL against Gram+ve organisms such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Gram-ve VX-809 chemical structure organisms such as Escherichia coli (E.

coli), and the fungal strain Aspergillus niger (A. niger) by the cup plate method. Ofloxacin and ketoconazole (10 mu g/mL) were used as reference standards for antibacterial and antifungal activity, respectively. Compounds 11 and 12 showed notable antibacterial and antifungal activities at higher concentrations (125-200 mu g/mL), whereas benzo[d] thiazole derivatives 13 and 14 were found to display significant antibacterial or antifungal activity (50-75 mu g/mL) against the Gram+ve, Gram-ve bacteria, or fungal cells used in the present study. In addition, a correlation between calculated and determined partition coefficient (log P) was established which allows future development of compounds within this series to be carried out based on calculated log P values. Moreover, compounds 13 and 14 show that the optimum logarithm of partition coefficient

(log P) should be around 4.”
“Angiotensin II (Ang II) is known to induce cardiomyocyte hypertrophy by activating the Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptor. Some studies have demonstrated that the autoantibodies against angiotensin AT1 receptor (AT1-AAs) cause P5091 chemical structure functional effects, which is similar to those observed for Cl-amidine price the natural agonist

Ang II. In this study, we investigated the effects of AT1-AAs on cardiomyocytes’ structure and function. Male Wistar rats were immunized with synthetic peptides corresponding to the second extracellular loop of AT1 receptor and Freund’s adjuvant. The titers of AT1-AAs in rat serum were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay every week. Hemodynamic analysis and heart weight (HW) indices were measured on the 4th and 8th months after initial immunization, respectively. Cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were used to observe the hypertrophic effects of AT1-AAs. Results showed that systolic blood pressure and heart rate were significantly increased, the titers of AT1-AAs were also increased after 4 weeks of initial immunization. Compared with control group, the HW/body weight (BW) and left ventricular weight/BW of immunized rats were increased significantly and cardiac function was enhanced compensatively. The cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes respond to AT1-AAs stimulation with increased 3H-leucine incorporation and cell surface area in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that the AT1-AAs have an agonist effect similar to Ang II in hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes in vivo and in vitro.

P-Glucosidase activity and changes in succinyl genistin and succi

P-Glucosidase activity and changes in succinyl genistin and succinyl daidzin were monitored. beta-Glucosidase activity in cheonggukjang with 5 and 10% (w/w) L. edodes powder were significantly higher than those in control samples (p <0.05). Nocodazole ic50 Total isoflavones in 48-h fermented cheonggukjang with 0, 5, and 10% (w/w) L. edodes powder were 4.88,

4.26, and 3.99 mu mole/g, respectively. Aglycones of isoflavones in cheonggukjang with 5 and 10% (w/w) L. edodes powder were 27.61 and 24.76% for 24 h and 28.2 and 38.74% for 48 h, whereas those in control samples were 5.50 and 21.11% for 24 and 48h, respectively. Succinyl daidzin and succinyl genistin in L. edodes powder-added cheonggukjang were significantly lower than those of control samples (p <0.05), implying that beta-glucosidase activity from L. edodes negatively affected the formation of succinyl derivatives.”
“Background: Although studies have demonstrated that stair prompts are associated with increased physical activity, many were conducted in low-rise buildings over a period of weeks and did not differentiate Selleckchem Nutlin-3 between stair climbing and descent.\n\nPurpose:

This study evaluated the impact of a prompt across different building types, and on stair climbing versus descent over several months.\n\nMethods: In 2008-2009, stair and elevator trips were observed and analyzed at three buildings in New York City before and after the posting of a prompt stating “Burn Calories, Not Electricity” (total observations = 18,462). Sites included a three-story health clinic (observations = 4987); an eight-story academic building (observations = 5151); and a ten-story affordable housing site (observations = 8324). Stair and elevator trips up and down were recorded separately

at the health clinic to isolate the impact on climbing and descent. Follow-up was conducted at the health clinic and affordable housing site to assess long-term impact.\n\nResults: BVD-523 datasheet Increased stair use was seen at all sites immediately after posting of the prompt (range = 9.2%-34.7% relative increase, p < 0.001). Relative increases in stair climbing (20.2% increase, p < 0.001) and descent (4.4% increase, p < 0.05) were seen at the health clinic. At both sites with long-term follow-up, relative increases were maintained at 9 months after posting compared to baseline: 42.7% (p < 0.001) increase in stair use at the affordable housing site and 20.3% (p < 0.001) increase in stair climbing at the health clinic.\n\nConclusions: Findings suggest that the prompt was effective in increasing physical activity in diverse settings, and increases were maintained at 9 months.

7 mu M NAA and 1 1 mu M BAP The period for dark and light cultur

7 mu M NAA and 1.1 mu M BAP. The period for dark and light culture was 20 days. Shoots were multiplied on MS medium, 30 g.L-1 sucrose supplemented with 1.1 mu M BAP. Shoots were elongated on MS medium free of plant growth regulators. Shoots were rooting on half-strength MS salts. Acclimatization was performed in a hydroponics floating system. Moreover, the shoot multiplication in liquid medium with different CaCl2 levels was carried out under agitation. Organogenesis selleck chemicals of cotyledonary nodes was characterized by simultaneous occurrence of shoot and callus. Shoots presented hyperhydricity under liquid medium, however, the CaCl2 reduces the hyperhydricity in

liquid medium; nevertheless, it OSI-744 datasheet had been not effective in eliminating hyperhydricity due to toxicity of

chlorine. The hydroponics acclimatization results in 90% plant survival. An efficient protocol for micropropagation of E. saligna was suitable established and can be used for clonal propagation or genetic transformation.”
“Addiction has been characterized as an attentional bias towards drug-related cues. In two experiments we investigate the effects of non-words that have been associatively trained to addiction-related images in a group of marijuana and cocaine users. These associated non-words were presented along with unstudied non-words in a subsequent addiction Stroop task. Results indicate a slowdown in responding to the colour of non-words that were paired with cocaine-related images compared with non-cocaine related images. The slowdown was also characterized as a carryover effect, with the largest effect occurring on trials following the addiction-associated non-word. No effects were found for marijuana images associated with non-words.”
“Animal models of ototoxicity represent an elementary tool in otolaryngologic research. Such models are usually created via the consecutive injection of ototoxic drugs

or the co-administration of ethacrynic acid and low-dose ototoxic drugs. Injection via the round window membrane (RWM) is one approach that allows for local drug delivery into the inner ear. In this study, 47 guinea pigs received an injection of varying NU7441 DNA Damage inhibitor doses of cisplatin via the RWM, and data concerning the animals’ auditory brainstem responses, hair cells, and spiral ganglion neurons were analyzed. Our results indicate the high efficiency and generally small reaction of the subjects, suggesting that the application of cisplatin via the RWM is an effective animal model for ototoxicity research.”
“Background: Some reports have described the midst of the lumen of the bony eustachian tube to meet the lumen of the external ear canal more nearly straight in ears afflicted with otitis media.\n\nObjectives: To determine whether the “auditory tube angle” indeed is more nearly straight in ears with evidence of childhood otitis media.

Likewise, studies that identify moderators of treatment efficacy

Likewise, studies that identify moderators of treatment efficacy will assist clinicians in deciding how and for whom to prescribe exercise.”
“Pain after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) represents a common observation in about 20% of the patients after surgery. Some of these painful knees require early

revision surgery within 5 years. Obvious causes of failure might be identified with clinical examinations and standard radiographs only, whereas the unexplained painful TKA still remains a challenge for the surgeon. It is generally accepted that a clear understanding of the failure mechanism in each case is required ABT-737 concentration prior considering revision surgery. A practical 10-step diagnostic algorithm is described for failure analysis in more detail. The evaluation of a painful TKA includes an extended history, analysis of the type of pain, psychological exploration, 4 thorough clinical examination including spine, hip and ankle, laboratory tests, joint aspiration and test infiltration, radiographic analysis and special imaging techniques. It is also important to enquire about the length and type of conservative therapy. Using this diagnostic algorithm, a sufficient failure analysis is possible in almost all patients with painful TKA.\n\nLevel of evidence

IV.”
“During the past decade there has been an increasing recognition of the incidence of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and a better understanding of the subtle neurological and cognitive deficits that may result from it. A substantial, albeit suboptimal,

effort selleck inhibitor has been made to define diagnostic criteria for mTBI and improve diagnostic accuracy. Thus, biomarkers that can accurately and objectively detect brain injury after mTBI and, ideally, aid in clinical IAP inhibitor management are needed. In this review, we discuss the current research on serum biomarkers for mTBI including their rationale and diagnostic performances. Sensitive and specific biomarkers reflecting brain injury can provide important information regarding TBI pathophysiology and serve as candidate markers for predicting abnormal computed tomography findings and/or the development of residual deficits in patients who sustain an mTBI. We also outline the roles of biomarkers in settings of specific interest including pediatric TBI, sports concussions and military injuries, and provide perspectives on the validation of such markers for use in the clinic. Finally, emerging proteomics-based strategies for identifying novel markers will be discussed.”
“Increasing evidences have suggested vascular endothelial inflammatory processes are the initiator of atherosclerosis. Bestrophin 3 (Best-3) is involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation of a variety of physiological functions, but its function in cardiovascular system remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of Best-3 on endothelial inflammation.

We express these sensitivities for conductance tensor components

We express these sensitivities for conductance tensor components and for other charge

transport quantities. Both resistive and Hall sensitivities, for a van der Pauw specimen Selleck Crenolanib in a finite magnetic field, are a superposition of the zero-field sensitivities to both sheet resistance and Hall sheet resistance. Strong perturbations 123 produce a nonlinear correction term that depends on the strength of the inhomogeneity. Solution of the specific case of a finite-sized circular inhomogeneity coaxial with a circular specimen suggests a first-order correction for the general case. Our results are confirmed by computer simulations on both a linear four-point probe array on a large circular disc and a van der Pauw square geometry. Furthermore, the results also agree well with Nahlik et al. published experimental results for physical holes in a circular copper foil disc. (C) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.”
“Here we show how agricultural practices by indigenous peoples as well as forest recovery relate to the structure and composition of Amazon soil bacterial communities. Soil samples were collected in different land use systems and bacterial community composition and diversity were explored by

T-RFLP, cloning and sequencing, and data were analyzed with multivariate techniques. The main differences in bacterial community structure were related to changes in the soil attributes that, in turn, were correlated to land use. Community structure changed significantly along gradients of base saturation, [Al(3+)] and pH. The relationship with soil attributes accounted for CT99021 chemical structure about 31% of the variation of the studied communities. Clear differences were observed in community composition as shown by the differential distribution of Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria and Actinobacteria. Similarity between primary and secondary forest communities indicates the recovery of bacterial community structure during succession. Pasture and crop soil communities were among the most diverse, showing that these land use types did not deplete bacterial

diversity under the conditions found in our sites. The ISME Journal (2009) 3, 1004-1011; doi:10.1038/ismej.2009.47; published online 14 May 2009″
“Generation of the pleiotropic sphingolipid mediator ceramide by acid and www.selleckchem.com/products/bindarit.html neutral sphingomyelinases is a key event in many cellular pathophysiological processes including survival, death, proliferation, and differentiation, in which also the short-lived gaseous messenger nitric oxide plays a crucial role. This review describes how the outcome of these key cellular processes is finely tuned by surprising and complex interplays among nitric oxide, ceramide, and their effectors.”
“Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of breast masses has been replaced by ultrasound-guided core-needle biopsy (USG-CNB) in many countries.

Of 27 patients with available information, 11 (41%) had objective

Of 27 patients with available information, 11 (41%) had objective

evidence of reflux disease. Nineteen patients (70%) had concomitant typical reflux symptoms. Despite a frequently negative DeMeester score, abnormal proximal exposure, which occurred in the upright position, was observed in 19 patients (70%). Of 20 patients who subsequently underwent ARS, asthma symptoms improved in 18 (90%), and 6 of JNK-IN-8 cell line them discontinued or reduced pulmonary medications at a mean (range) follow-up of 4.6 (0.6-15.2) months. Pulmonary function test results before and after ARS revealed that of 5 patients, 4 (80%) had improvement of the forced expiratory volume in the first second of expiration and/or the peak expiratory flow rate, which correlated with symptomatic this website improvement.\n\nConclusions: Adult-onset asthma is associated with abnormal proximal

exposure of the aerodigestive tract to refluxate; these patients respond to ARS despite negative pH test results. Patients with AOA should undergo testing with HMII because they would not be detected with 123 conventional pH testing. JAMA Surg. 2013;148(1):50-58″
“Vaccination and antimicrobial therapy remain the cornerstones of the management of pneumococcal pneumonia. Despite significant successes, the capacity of the pneumococcus to evolve in the face of the selective pressure of anticapsular immunity challenges immunization programs. Treatment focuses on antimicrobial therapy but ignores the central role of the dysregulated inflammatory response during pneumonia. Future

therapeutic approaches Belnacasan need to build on the considerable recent advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of pneumococcal pneumonia, including those from models of pneumonia. Enhancement of the essential components of the host response that prevents most colonized individuals from developing pneumonia and strategies to limit inappropriate inflammatory responses to lower respiratory tract infection are approaches that could be exploited to improve disease outcome. This review highlights recent discoveries relating to the microbial and host determinants of microbial clearance and regulation of the inflammatory response, which provide clues as to how this could be achieved in the future. CHEST 2012; 142(2):482-491″
“We briefly review the characteristics of several established health technology assessment (HTA) programs in industrialized societies including Germany, the UK and France. Special attention is paid on two issues: the position of HTA in coverage decision making and the role of economic assessment in evaluation processes.