TLRs, the best characterized PRRs, signal via recruitment of intracellular Toll/IL-1R (TIR) domain-containing adaptors (myeloid differentiation primary response
88 (MyD88), Toll-interleukin 1 receptor domain containing adaptor protein, Toll-interleukin1 receptor domain containing adaptor inducing interferon-β, TRIF-related adaptor molecule) that interact with the cytoplasmic TIR domains of TLRs to trigger expression of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines . By the early 2000s, a role for TLRs in differentiated myeloid cells was already well established , but little was known about the timing of the acquisition of functional TLRs during myeloid differentiation in the BM, and whether these receptors influence hematopoietic development. Studies indicated that TLR signaling can promote terminal IWR-1 datasheet differentiation. For example, Hayashi et al. showed that signaling through TLR4 and TLR2 promotes B-cell maturation , and Krutzik et al. showed that TLR activation ABT-263 concentration triggers the rapid differentiation of human monocytes
into macrophages and DCs . Other studies suggested that TLR signaling influences hematopoiesis at earlier stages. For example, Ueda et al.  demonstrated that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) rapidly and profoundly affects BM hematopoiesis by promoting granulopoiesis over lymphopoiesis. However, it was unclear from these studies whether TLR agonists could influence hematopoiesis by targeting HSPCs directly, or by acting indirectly via differentiated cells such as macrophages and neutrophils. New perspectives on emergency myelopoiesis came in 2006 when reports began to http://www.selleck.co.jp/products/Rapamycin.html emerge demonstrating that murine and human HSPCs express functional PRRs, including TLRs, and that TLR/PRR signals provoke cell cycle entry and myeloid differentiation [17-19]. Subsequent studies focused on determining whether direct recognition of microbial components by HSPCs induces myelopoiesis in vivo [20, 21]. The idea that PRRs on HSPCs play a role in the selection of innate immune populations during the early stages of infection sits outside the current dogma but is gaining momentum in the literature. In this review we will examine the in vitro and in vivo evidence
that TLRs on HSPCs directly sense microbial components and induce emergency myelopoiesis, and discuss the likely contribution of this mechanism to the control of blood cell production in response to microbial challenge, and immunity against infection. HSPC expansion and a bias toward myelopoiesis after infection have been described in several mouse models of bacterial, viral, and fungal infection (reviewed in ), although the contribution of TLR signaling to these phenomena was previously not unequivocally demonstrated. For example, the mouse BM Lin− c-Kit+ Sca-1+ (LKS+) population, which comprises HSCs and progenitors (see Fig. 1), expands rapidly and is mobilized into the circulation following Escherichia coli bacteremia in Balb/c mice .