Activation of the immune response following conjunctival immunization is induced by conjunctiva-associated lymphoid tissue (CALT) and eye-associated lymphoid tissue (EALT). CALT can detect antigens on the ocular surface, and present the antigens to generate protective effector cells ,  and . Theoretically, antigens administrated into the conjunctival sac would also drain into nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT). The second factor is related to the use of a cross-immunization Selleck PD98059 scheme (prime and booster vaccination). On the basis of previous study , and in order to
achieve maximum expression of the Brucella proteins in vivo and elicit an increased T-cell immune response, the cattle were immunized using a double vaccination schedule with viral constructs of the H5N1 subtype (prime vaccination) and H1N1 subtype (booster vaccination). This immunization strategy effectively overcomes the immune background elicited against TSA HDAC ic50 the viral vector
during prime vaccination. Evidence of this is that after the booster vaccination was an increase of antigen-specific CD4+, CD8+ cells and IFN-γ, as well as antibody IgG, IgG1, IgG2a compared with the results of the prime vaccination. Third probable explanation of high immunogenicity and protectiveness of viral constructs vaccine formulations is Omp16 protein, which Astemizole expressed by influenza viral vector. According Pasquevich et al. Brucella Omp16 protein itself can work as an adjuvant to stimulate dendritic cells and macrophages. The fourth explanation is the inclusion of commercial polymer adjuvant Montanide Gel01 in the vaccine. This adjuvant due to its mucoadhesive properties has prolonged contact with the mucous membrane of the virus, and possibly activated monocytes and macrophages (innate immunity factors) on the injection site for antigen presentation . It should be noted that the adjuvant is used for the first time
for conjunctival administration. Therefore, the complete mechanism of this adjuvant in the conjunctival route of administration is not yet known. Thus, we can conclude that our proposed new candidate vaccine against B. abortus – bivalent vaccine formulation consisting of a mixture of recombinant influenza A viruses subtypes H5N1 or H1N1 expressing Brucella ribosomal protein L7/L12 or Omp16 in prime and booster immunization mode (with conjunctival injection) form antigen-specific humoral and predominantly Th cell immune response in cattle, and most importantly provides a high protectiveness, not inferior, and in combination with an adjuvant Montanide Gel01 far greater than commercial vaccine B. abortus S19. Based on the data for practical use in cattle we recommended bivalent vaccine formulation containing the adjuvant Montanide Gel01.