Activation of the immune response following conjunctival immuniza

Activation of the immune response following conjunctival immunization is induced by conjunctiva-associated lymphoid tissue (CALT) and eye-associated lymphoid tissue (EALT). CALT can detect antigens on the ocular surface, and present the antigens to generate protective effector cells [42], [43] and [44]. Theoretically, antigens administrated into the conjunctival sac would also drain into nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT). The second factor is related to the use of a cross-immunization Selleck PD98059 scheme (prime and booster vaccination). On the basis of previous study [45], and in order to

achieve maximum expression of the Brucella proteins in vivo and elicit an increased T-cell immune response, the cattle were immunized using a double vaccination schedule with viral constructs of the H5N1 subtype (prime vaccination) and H1N1 subtype (booster vaccination). This immunization strategy effectively overcomes the immune background elicited against TSA HDAC ic50 the viral vector

during prime vaccination. Evidence of this is that after the booster vaccination was an increase of antigen-specific CD4+, CD8+ cells and IFN-γ, as well as antibody IgG, IgG1, IgG2a compared with the results of the prime vaccination. Third probable explanation of high immunogenicity and protectiveness of viral constructs vaccine formulations is Omp16 protein, which Astemizole expressed by influenza viral vector. According Pasquevich et al. [46]Brucella Omp16 protein itself can work as an adjuvant to stimulate dendritic cells and macrophages. The fourth explanation is the inclusion of commercial polymer adjuvant Montanide Gel01 in the vaccine. This adjuvant due to its mucoadhesive properties has prolonged contact with the mucous membrane of the virus, and possibly activated monocytes and macrophages (innate immunity factors) on the injection site for antigen presentation [47]. It should be noted that the adjuvant is used for the first time

for conjunctival administration. Therefore, the complete mechanism of this adjuvant in the conjunctival route of administration is not yet known. Thus, we can conclude that our proposed new candidate vaccine against B. abortus – bivalent vaccine formulation consisting of a mixture of recombinant influenza A viruses subtypes H5N1 or H1N1 expressing Brucella ribosomal protein L7/L12 or Omp16 in prime and booster immunization mode (with conjunctival injection) form antigen-specific humoral and predominantly Th cell immune response in cattle, and most importantly provides a high protectiveness, not inferior, and in combination with an adjuvant Montanide Gel01 far greater than commercial vaccine B. abortus S19. Based on the data for practical use in cattle we recommended bivalent vaccine formulation containing the adjuvant Montanide Gel01.

3 Although the most favorable outcomes have been reported with pa

3 Although the most favorable outcomes have been reported with patients who undergo a radical nephrectomy and lymph node dissection before the development of metastasis, successful and reliable

treatment regimens are lacking.4 For the patients who undergo radical nephrectomy, the challenge then lies in follow-up. A unique surveillance protocol has yet to be developed, although many agree that these patients should be categorized as high risk.2 and 3 Clinicians should be aware of this rare variant Selleck Tariquidar and various presentations to ensure appropriate patient management and surveillance. A 63-year-old woman was referred to us for a right renal pelvic mass detected on ultrasound during a gross hematuria and flank pain evaluation. Urine cytology was negative for malignancy, and computed tomography (CT) showed Small molecule library mw high-grade obstruction of the right kidney secondary to a 3.5-cm infiltrative lesion involving the proximal collecting system with infiltration into the superior renal pole parenchyma. The patient also had diffuse retroperitoneal and pelvic lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly, which were attributed to her chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) currently in remission on the basis of comparison with

previous imaging. In addition to CLL, past medical history included Moyamoya disease, transient ischemic attacks, hypertension, diabetes mellitus type 2, fibromyalgia, seizure disorder, asthma, and hypothyroidism ADP ribosylation factor due to thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid cancer. She remained highly functional despite her medical comorbidities. Chest CT revealed no evidence of metastasis, and the patient was counseled on the need for ureteroscopic biopsy for tissue diagnosis. Cystoscopy showed no abnormal findings. Retrograde ureteropyelogram identified a large filling defect within the right renal pelvis extending all the way to the mid ureter. Flexible ureteroscopy revealed a

large, elongated, and pale fleshy-appearing mass that did not appear to be consistent with urothelial carcinoma, but rather resembling a necrotic fibroepithelial polyp. The non-necrotic parts of tumor were biopsied despite extensive clot surrounding this mass which made visualization extremely challenging. Two large fragments were sent for permanent pathologic analysis. Immunohistochemical studies showed that the tumor cells were partially PAX8(+), CD10(+), CK7(−), p63(−), GATA3(−), and MiTF(−) with strong immunoreactivity for TFE3, excluding urothelial carcinoma. Considering the aggressive nature of Xp11 TRCC, the decision was made with the patient and family to promptly undergo a right laparoscopic radical nephrectomy and regional lymphadenectomy, which were performed without complications. Surgical pathology revealed pT3aN1Mx, Xp11.2-associated clear cell RCC, with Fuhrman nuclear grade 4 and negative margins (Fig. 1).

One ml of TBA (1%) and 1 ml of TCA (2 8%) were added to above mix

One ml of TBA (1%) and 1 ml of TCA (2.8%) were added to above mixture and incubated at 100 °C for 20 min. The development of pink color was measured at 532 nm and % inhibition was calculated. Lipid peroxidation inhibition was evaluated using

modified Halliwell and Gutteridge24 method. Freshly C59 wnt mouse excised goat liver was minced using glass Teflon homogenizer in cold phosphate buffered saline (pH 7.4). 10% homogenate was prepared and filtered to obtain a clear homogenate and this process was carried on ice. Varying concentrations (200–1000 μg/ml) of the extracts were added to the liver homogenate and lipid peroxidation was initiated by adding 100 μl ferrous sulfate (15 mM) to 3 ml of the tissue homogenate. After 30 min, 100 μl aliquot was taken in a tube containing 1.5 ml of 10% TCA. After 10 min, tubes were centrifuged and supernatant was mixed with 1.5 ml of 0.67% TBA in 50% acetic acid. The mixture was heated for 30 min in a boiling water bath. The intensity of the pink colored complex was measured at 535 nm. The degree of lipid peroxidation was assayed by estimating the TBARS

(TBA-reactive species) content and results were expressed as percentage inhibition. The ability of different extracts to protect DNA (pBR322, Merck, India) from damaging effects of hydroxyl radicals generated by Fenton’s reagent (FR) was assessed NVP-BGJ398 cell line by modified DNA nicking assay.25 The reaction mixture contained 2.5 μl of DNA (0.25 μg) and 10 μl FR (30 mM H2O2, 500 μM ascorbic acid and 800 μM FeCl3) followed by the addition of 5 μl of extracts and the final volume was made 20 μl with DW. The reaction mixture was then incubated for 45 min at 37 °C and followed by addition of 2.5 μl loading buffer (0.25% bromophenol blue, 50% glycerol). The results were analyzed on 0.8% agarose gel

electrophoresis using EtBr-staining. Oxidation of BSA (5 μg) in phosphate buffer was initiated by 25 mM AAPH26 and SB-3CT inhibited by different H. isora extracts (50 μg/ml). After incubation of 2 h at 37 °C, 0.02% BHT was added to prevent the formation of further peroxyl radical. The samples were then electrophoresed using 12% SDS-PAGE using the Protean® II System (Bio-Rad, USA) and the gel was stained with 0.25% CBB R-250. The results are presented as means of 3 replicates ± standard error (SE). Means were compared through Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at P ≤ 0.05, using MSTAT-C software. The graphs were plotted using Microcal Origin 6.0. Results depicted in Table 1 revealed that the plant is a rich source of phenols, flavonoids and ascorbic acid; and their quantities showed solvent-type-dependent variations. Several reports have shown a correlation between higher amounts of polyphenols in plants and correspondingly their higher antioxidant potential16, 25, 26 and 27 as they inhibit free radical formation and/or interrupt propagation of autoxidation.28 Our results supported these hypotheses. Phenolic contents were found in the range of 17.3–40.

Frequencies of ASC ranged from 52 to 1065 sfu/106 MNC for total I

Frequencies of ASC ranged from 52 to 1065 sfu/106 MNC for total IgG and from 115 to 906 sfu/106 MNC for total IgA in all tissues other than bone marrow, where frequencies for both isotypes exceeded 2500/106 MNC ( Table 4). In most instances, only low frequencies of anti-gp140 ASC were detected; notably however, IgG anti-gp140-specific ASC represented 6% and 16% of total IgG secreting cells recovered from the interior iliac lymph nodes of animals E53 and E56 respectively; the animals that failed to seroconvert after intravaginal immunisation but responded following intramuscular immunisation ( Table VRT752271 purchase 4). This is the first demonstration that intravaginally delivered learn more soluble

recombinant HIV-1 gp140 is immunogenic in primates in the absence of a conventional mucosal adjuvant. Although intravaginal immunisation alone was less efficient in macaques compared to in rabbits at inducing serum and mucosally-detected antibodies, where a single cycle of immunisation was sufficient to induce responsiveness [21], women in a parallel clinical trial, were also essentially unresponsive following a single cycle of immunisation (Lewis et al., personal communication). This may reflect inefficiency in accessing sites of inductive immunity,

despite the strategy of repeated inoculation designed to increase the likelihood of exposure to immunogen during the menstrual cycle. However, there may only be a narrow window for induction of immune function during any one cycle as shown by studies in women [19]. It was therefore

encouraging that two macaques responded with serum and mucosally-detected responses after multiple cycles of intravaginal administration and that a third macaque was primed for a response as revealed by subsequent intramuscular immunisation. This “silent priming” of a memory B-cell response may be similar to that observed in macaques following mucosal exposure to “subinfectious” doses of SIV where antigen-primed B cells were detected in vitro by amplified Megestrol Acetate ELISpot in the absence of seroconversion [32]. In the present study, for logistical reasons it was not possible to sample lymphoid tissues over time; intriguingly however, high frequencies of gp140-specific IgG ASC were detected post mortem in the interior iliac lymph nodes from the two intravaginally immunised macaques that seroconverted only after intramuscular immunisation. These lymph nodes, which drain both the female genital and the rectal tracts, have been associated with protective immunity in SIV challenge studies [33]. In the present study we were unable to recover sufficient cells directly from cervico-vaginal tissues for ELISpot analysis and therefore assessment of the frequency of mucosal ASC was not possible.

5 °C at 100 rpm At different time intervals, sample was withdraw

5 °C at 100 rpm. At different time intervals, sample was withdrawn, diluted and analyzed by UV-spectrophotometer at 335 nm and 210 nm for outer and core tablets respectively. After estimating different drugs contents and in-vitro study results, the optimized tab-in-tab formulation (T3) was retained for 3 months under accelerated stability conditions of temperature and relative humidity (40 ± 2 °C/75 ± 5% RH) in stability chamber (Thermolab, India). The samples were taken out at 30, 60 and 90 days and evaluated for appearance, weight, hardness, drugs content and dissolution study. Three male rabbits of weight 2–2.5 kg

were fasted overnight in each experiment, although free access to water was allowed. During the course of the experiment, water was not given until 2 h after administration of test preparation. The oral doses of the drugs were calculated on the basis of their SB203580 purchase body weights and then accordingly formulated for animals. After oral administration of the test preparation, 3 ml blood samples were collected at predetermined time intervals. Plasma

was immediately separated by centrifugation of the blood samples at 10,000 rpm for 10 min. All plasma samples were immediately frozen at −20 °C until analysis. A sample was extracted with methylene chloride, NIF was separated on ODS column by isocratic elution with acetonitrile- 5 mmol/L ammonium acetate (52:48 v/v) at the flow rate of 1 ml/min, and detected by mass spectrometry Tanespimycin concentration in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode.9 The solid-phase extraction technique was used for the extraction of RAM from the sample. Chromatography was performed on Aquasil column, with the simple reversed isocratic phase consisting of acetonitrile–water (65:35 ratio) and 1.0 ml/L ammonium trifluoroacetate solution (1.0 M) and followed by detection using mass spectrometry.10 Data was statistically evaluated using SPPS software. P value of <0.05 was considered to be significant. The SE micrograph of NIF-loaded gelatin microcapsule was spherical in shape

with smooth surface (Fig. 2). This might be due to proteinaceous nature Org 27569 of gelatin and decrease surface indentation. The geometric mean diameter of microcapsules was 6.52 ± 0.26 μm. The % EE of NIF in the gelatin microcapsules was 98.01 ± 2.1. The gelatin microcapsules enhance its encapsulation due to increase solubility in ethanol. SLS was used to avoid attaching gelatin microcapsule to the inner wall of spray-drying chamber and to produce free-flowing powder.11 NIF solubility and the amount of encapsulated ethanol increased due to optimum amount of SLS. The amount of NIF dissolved from gelatin microcapsules for 30 min were much higher 85.31 ± 0.96% as shown in Fig. 3. This signifies its solubility increased in SGF. The bioavailability of poorly water-soluble NIF was improved in gelatin microcapsules due to amorphous form of drug and cosolvent effect of ethanol because the gelatin wall of microcapsule was very soluble.


the investigation of its use in children and a


the investigation of its use in children and adolescents with AIDS might provide information about the response to this vaccine, as well as its potential for preventing meningococcal disease. The main objective of this Selleck Epacadostat study was to evaluate the antibody response to the meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine in HIV-infected children, adolescents, and young adults. Additional objectives included determining whether the immunity acquired correlated with clinical, viral, and immunological parameters of infection; analysing the response to a second dose of the vaccine, if necessary; and reporting any side effects of the vaccine. This was a prospective clinical trial involving a cumulative sample of HIV-infected children, adolescents, and young adults (HIV+ group) and age-matched non-HIV-individuals (HIV− group). The sample

size was calculated considering an expected rate of 60% of subjects with a post-vaccination serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) titer ≥8, assuming an actual proportion of 90%. To compensate for a potential loss of 20%, we selected 40 subjects for inclusion in each group. The method employed was hypothesis testing for comparing two proportions [20]. All subjects were recruited among patients treated at the Instituto da Criança do Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade de São Paulo, Department of Pediatric Infectious Diseases – Brazil or at the Centro de Referência e Treinamento em DST/Aids – Programa Estadual São Paulo – Brazil, both located in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Patients GDC 0068 were considered eligible if they were between 10 and 20 years of age, had never been vaccinated with meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine, had no prior history of meningococcal disease or meningitis of undetermined etiology, had not used corticosteroids at immunosuppressive doses, had not

and been treated with immunosuppressive therapy or chemotherapy, and presented with no evidence of significant dyslipidemia [21]. The inclusion criteria for the HIV+ group were being HIV-infected, having a CD4 count ≥100 cells/mm3, and not having received immunoglobulin therapy within the last six months. The inclusion criterion for the HIV− group was having no underlying disease that would result in immunosuppression or would require immunosuppressive therapy. The HIV− group patients with unknown HIV serologic status were submitted to a rapid HIV test to confirm that status. We collected demographic, clinical, viral and immunological data at inclusion. All patients underwent an initial blood test to determine pre-vaccination SBA titers, after which they were vaccinated with the meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine in isolation (i.e., no other vaccine was administered).

10 The Blue Mountains Eye Study was approved by the Human Researc

10 The Blue Mountains Eye Study was approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee of the University of Sydney for investigation of the epidemiology and genetics of ocular disease. The BMES has been described previously.10 Briefly, the BMES is a population-based study of individuals living in the Blue Mountains region west of Sydney, Australia. Any permanent, noninstitutionalized resident of the defined geographic region born before January 1, 1943 (aged over 49 years at time of recruitment) and able to give written

informed consent was eligible for enrollment in BMES and was contacted by door-to-door canvassing. Participants underwent a baseline visit, with follow-up at 5 years and at 10 years. At baseline, NVP-BGJ398 datasheet all participants received a detailed eye examination, including applanation tonometry, suprathreshold automated perimetry (Humphrey 76-point test, followed by 30-2 fields [Humphrey Visual Field

Analyser 630 with StatPac 2, Humphrey Instruments, Inc, San Leandro, California, USA]), and stereoscopic optic disc photography (Carl Zeiss Australia, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia). The current sub-study consisted of a case-control design from within the BMES cohort study. Participants with normal threshold or suprathreshold field tests and no sign of glaucoma at the baseline visit were included in the current study. Participants with OAG at baseline (prevalent OAG) were excluded. As previously reported,11 incident OAG cases were defined as participants free of OAG at baseline who showed glaucomatous field loss on full-threshold perimetry (Humphrey 24-2 or 3-deazaneplanocin A 30-2), which matched the optic disc appearance, at either the 5-year or 10-year follow-up visit, without reference to intraocular pressure. Patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome

were not excluded (n = 7). DNA was extracted from peripheral whole blood using standard techniques. Genotyping was performed on the HumanHap670 array (Illumina, San Diego, California, USA) as part of the not Wellcome Trust Case Control Cohort 2 Genome-Wide Association Study. Data were cleaned and genotypes called as previously described.12 No significant population stratification was detected in this population.12 Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected for analysis if they had been previously reported to be associated with OAG (including normal tension glaucoma) at genome-wide significance in white populations. The reported SNPs with the smallest P values at each locus were chosen for this analysis. In the case of the 9p21 locus reported independently in 2 papers, 7 and 9 the top SNP from each paper was chosen, as well as a third SNP at genome-wide significance in the replication cohorts of Burdon and associates (rs1412829). 7 We hypothesize that if this SNP had been typed in the discovery cohort for this study, it would likely have been the top-ranked SNP at this locus. Seven SNPs at 5 loci were chosen for analysis in total.

The micromeritic properties of agglomerates such as flowability,

The micromeritic properties of agglomerates such as flowability, packability and compatibility were dramatically improved, resulting in successful direct tableting. The main factor in the improvement of flowability and packability was due to their spherical shapes and smooth surfaces. The agglomerates have shown improved in ZD1839 chemical structure vitro drug release performance comparable with untreated zaltoprofen. Therefore, from the above it can be concluded that spherical crystallization is

a tool of particle engineering, which can transform the poorly flowable drug powders into spherical crystals, those are best suited for direct compression. The conversion of poorly flowable powders into spherical agglomerates

enhances the speed of tableting because of elimination of most of steps, which required in the wet granulation and in dry granulation process. All authors have none to declare. “
“Breast milk is the natural first food of babies and provides all the energy and nutrients that infant needs for first months of life.1 Lactation is the process of milk formation or secretion in the breasts during the period following child birth referred as breastfeeding or nursing.2 For offspring breastfeeding confers protection against both under nutrition and over nutrition during early childhood and may lower risk of developing obesity, hypertension, coronary CDK inhibitor vascular disease, diabetes later in life. Therefore breastfeeding is recommended as a preferred method of infant feeding for the first year of life or longer and exclusive breastfeeding is recommended for first six months.3 Lactogenesis or the mode of formation of milk is divided into two stages. Lactogenesis-I occurs during pregnancy and is the initiation of the synthetic capacity of the mammary glands. Lactogenesis-II commences after delivery

and is the initiation of plentiful milk secretion.4 Time to lactogenesis is defined as the number of hours between delivery and the time that the sign of a surge in milk production is first observed.5 If the onset of lactogenesis occurs 72 h postpartum it is defined as delayed.6 and 7 A significant delay in lactogenesis out may adversely influence the lactation. Some of the suggested risk factors for delayed or failed lactogenesis-II are primiparity; maternal obesity; medical conditions – gestational diabetes mellitus, pregnancy induced hypertension, hypothyroidism; stressful labor and delivery; unscheduled cesarean section8; delayed first breastfeed episode; low prenatal breastfeeding frequency; and breast surgery or injury.2 Breastfeeding should begin as soon as possible after birth and should continue every 2–3 h.9 Studies have shown that maternal age had no relation to lactogenesis time.

1) BL

1). check details To date 15 vaccines are recommended to be included in the national immunization programmes in the Americas2. For example, influenza vaccines had greatest uptake in this region of the world with 40 countries adopting seasonal vaccination, with majority for elderly, health workers and persons with chronic diseases, and approximately half of the countries offering

vaccination to pregnant women and children. The PAHO Revolving Fund represents for manufacturers a “single window” to access 40 countries, a vaccine market with sustainable demand, prompt payment, post marketing surveillance, among other features. Also 60 days credit line to countries supports promptly placement of purchase orders. Presently there are needs for yellow fever supply, varicella and DTaP. Also the Region represents an opportunity for increasing competition for seasonal influenza, PCV, Rotavirus, and HPV vaccines. M. Malhame presented the GAVI Alliance Vaccine Investment Strategy update, which is the mechanism to make decisions

for support to introduction of vaccines in the poor countries financed by GAVI. In 2008 the GAVI board asked for a comprehensive process, instead of case-studies, as in the previous BGJ398 solubility dmso years to define the funding portfolio. Based on analytical data, including demand forecast, Carnitine dehydrogenase and technical and country consultations, surveys and interviews with stakeholders along

the last 12 months, 15 vaccines were reviewed according to demand, cost, impact and other features. Five vaccines were prioritized: malaria and maternal influenza based on to public health impact, cholera and yellow fever based on epidemic potential, and rabies based on cost-effectiveness (cost per death averted). The prioritized vaccines were discussed at the board meeting on November 21st, and two vaccines were selected: malaria, cholera stockpile and additional yellow fever campaigns. GAVI will reevaluate the vaccine landscape in 2018. The speakers, moderated by K. Bush and M. Datla, discussed the challenges of global vaccines’ procurement. K. Bush acknowledged the DCVM group for commitment and investments in vaccines manufacturing, and mentioned that the BMGF works through partnerships: there is no purchase, no storage, but help through not-for-profit partners. He explained that the life sciences group at the Foundation focuses on industry partnerships for a deeper and broader engagement and understand the industry capabilities and sustainability of goals. The group has dedicated resources for working with multinationals, biotech, and DCVMs that have different operating models and expectations. Another group working with vaccine policy groups supports the interface between supply and demand.

The lymph nodes were mechanically homogenized with a pestle, foll

The lymph nodes were mechanically homogenized with a pestle, followed by centrifugation at 4 °C. Supernatant was transferred to another tube and frozen on dry ice. Cytokine levels in the samples were analyzed by a Luminex-based assay (Milliplex) purchased from Millipore. For one experiment, levels of 32 cytokines were tested using the Milliplex MAP Mouse Cytokine/Chemokine Premixed 32 Plex (Millipore). Samples were analyzed by Millipore, and 30 cytokines were successfully detected. A 10-plex assay detected G-CSF, GM-CSF, IFN-γ, IL-5, IL-6, IL-12p40, IP-10, MIG, MIP-1β, and TNF and was performed by the Clinical

Proteomics Laboratory at Thurston Arthritis Research DAPT Center, University of North Carolina. Multianalyte profiling was performed on the Luminex-100 system and the XY Platform (Luminex Corporation, Austin, TX). Calibration microspheres for classification and reporter readings, as well as sheath fluid were also from Luminex Corporation. Fluorescence data was acquired by MasterPlex™ CT 1.2 software (MiraiBio, Alameda, CA). Data analysis was performed using the MasterPlex QT 4.0 system (MiraiBio, CB-839 research buy Alameda, CA). A five-parameter regression formula was used to calculate the sample concentrations from the standard curves. Cytokines which were undetectable were assigned

a value of half of the lowest limit of detection as determined by the standard curve. Cytokine levels which exceeded the standard curve were assigned a value of 10,000 pg/ml. Spleens or draining popliteal or iliac lymph nodes were harvested at the time points indicated, homogenized through 40 μm cell strainers, and cells counted. For intracellular IFN-γ staining, spleen cells were cultured in RPMI-10 containing brefeldin A (GolgiPlug, BD Biosciences) either in the presence of OVA peptide (SIINFEKL) or an irrelevant peptide (2 μg/ml) for 5 h at 37 °C. Cells were washed and stained at 4 °C for desired surface receptors with fluorochrome-conjugated Methisazone antibodies specific for CD3, CD8, CD11c, CD19, and CD69 (eBioscience) in 1% BSA/PBS. Brefeldin

A was included in this step if cells were to be stained for IFN-γ. Cells were fixed in 2% paraformaldehyde for 15 min at room temperature. For IFN-γ staining, fixed cells were washed and permeabilized in staining buffer containing 0.5% saponin and stained with anti-IFN-γ (eBioscience) at 4 °C. Cells were then washed with saponin buffer and analyzed on an Accuri flow cytometer. In initial studies of its adjuvant properties, the VRP which were used, designated VRP16M, contained a 59 nt non-coding sequence and a 118-nt 3′ UTR after the 26S promoter start site (Fig. 1A) [17]. UV inactivation of the VRP RNA indicated that transcription and/or replication of the VRP genome is necessary for its function as an adjuvant [17], but it was unknown if the 26S promoter played a role.