Most patients can be treated effectively by following simple and

Most patients can be treated effectively by following simple and logical practices, as we have emphasized in this article. We note that most hospital patients would benefit from simple nutrition interventions: food enrichment and ONS. The feedM.E. Study Group thanks Cecilia Hofmann, PhD, for her valuable assistance with efficient compilation of the medical literature and with editing

this English-language review article. “
“Globally, concern for marine conservation grows rapidly because virtually no marine area remains unaffected by human influence and, indeed, a very large fraction of the seas (41%) is strongly affected Selleckchem LDN 193189 by multiple anthropic drivers (Halpern et al., 2008 and Pennisi, 2010). This growing interest in marine conservation is triggering a worldwide rush to establish Marine Protected Areas (MPAs), a tool intended to ensure the persistence of the full range of marine biodiversity, thus preserving the full functioning of the ecosystem in providing goods and services for present and future generations (Lubchenco et al., 2003). Simple stated, “No one should doubt that our seas need protection” (Anonymous, 2011). Yet, while simply stated and a fundamentally necessary objective, conserving biodiversity is in

fact a complex process that requires much more attention. Thus, a key question is to what extent we are in fact conserving a broad and representative array of marine areas that ensure the conservation of biodiversity and associated processes (Fox et al., 2012a). While this question is fundamental and of extreme importance to scientists, it is not clear that the question is understood, Alanine-glyoxylate transaminase much less taken FDA-approved Drug Library seriously, by politicians and MPA planners. This is

of outmost importance, since decision making in conservation relies in the political system and planners determine how and where MPAs are implemented. Although total ocean area protected by MPAs can be estimated at approximately 4.2 million km2 of ocean, this represents only 1.17% of the marine area of the world. Further, the focus remains mainly on Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs) of the continental shelf areas, where MPA coverage is ca. 4.32%. EEZs claimed by most nations cover roughly 40% of the world’s ocean surface, and thus there is a large fraction of ocean surface in off-shelf, international waters, where MPAs extents stands at 0.91%. Ecologically, MPA coverage is very uneven and does not adequately represent all ecoregions and habitats important for conservation (Toropova et al., 2010). Among nations, the distribution of MPAs varies from zero to over 30% of a country’s EEZ, and currently only 12 of 151 coastal countries exceed the 10% MPA target. Thus, we are still far from reaching the CBD target for achieving effective conservation of 10% of marine ecological regions. It is clear that despite the lack of a strong scientific foundation for such fixed percentage targets, they are politically appealing.

Tradicionalmente considerada uma síndrome de má absorção rara na

Tradicionalmente considerada uma síndrome de má absorção rara na infância, reconhece-se, atualmente, que a DC é uma condição mais frequente, que pode ser diagnosticada em qualquer idade e que afeta múltiplos sistemas de órgãos1 and 6. Estudos epidemiológicos realizados nos Estados Unidos da América e Europa indicam que a prevalência da DC GSI-IX chemical structure na população em geral é de aproximadamente 1%7, 8, 9 and 10. São frequentes os atrasos entre o início dos sintomas e o diagnóstico11 e a DC permanece ainda subdiagnosticada

apesar dos avanços no conhecimento do espetro clínico e nos métodos de rastreio e diagnóstico12, 13 and 14. O único tratamento disponível para a DC consiste na prática de uma dieta isenta de glúten (DIG) que deve ser mantida para toda a vida15 and 16. Todos os alimentos e medicamentos que contenham glúten na sua composição devem ser eliminados, dado que, mesmo a ingestão de pequenas quantidades, pode ser prejudicial1, 15, 17 and 18. Apesar dos benefícios para a saúde, a adesão à DIG varia de 42-91%19. Alguns dos learn more fatores que influenciam a adesão ao tratamento incluem: a pertença a grupos de apoio, a correta interpretação da rotulagem nutricional, ter conhecimentos acerca da DIG, o elevado custo

dos alimentos específicos sem glúten (AESG), a capacidade de excluir o glúten aquando da realização de refeições fora de casa, em viagem ou independentemente de alterações de humor ou situações de stresse, perceber os malefícios para a saúde que advém da exposição

ao glúten, o nível de educação, a idade de diagnóstico, a disponibilidade dos AESG no mercado e o grau de satisfação Sulfite dehydrogenase associado às suas características sensoriais e organoléticas e a satisfação com as informações prestadas pelos profissionais de saúde19, 20, 21, 22, 23 and 24. Um estudo finlandês mostrou que alguns destes fatores se associam, também, com a qualidade de vida dos celíacos25. É possível que, por sua vez, esta dimensão subjetiva esteja também relacionada com o cumprimento da DIG. O presente trabalho teve como principal objetivo avaliar a perceção do estado de saúde e a qualidade de vida de uma amostra de doentes celíacos portugueses, relacionando-os com o cumprimento da DIG. Realizou-se um estudo de caráter observacional, transversal e descritivo. Para tal, elaborou-se um questionário estruturado, preparado para autoaplicação e de preenchimento online, direcionado a doentes celíacos portugueses, com idade igual ou superior a 16 anos. Assegurou-se o anonimato dos participantes e o caráter voluntário da sua participação. Assumiu-se o consentimento presumido, a partir do momento em que o participante preenchesse o questionário. O estudo contou com o aval da Associação Portuguesa de Celíacos (APC).

These results

well correlated with the hydrophobicity and

These results

well correlated with the hydrophobicity and shorter selleck kinase inhibitor elution times of the respective peptides (see Table 1). The erythrocytes membranes show a zwitterionic character (Yeaman and Yount, 2003), and peptides with a lower charge and higher hydrophobicity present a stronger interaction with this type of membrane (de Souza et al., 2010). The ability of the peptides to induce mast cells degranulation was assayed in vitro in PT18 cells and RBL-2H3 cells, by the measurement of the enzyme β-hexosaminidase released. As shown in Fig. 8A, all the new peptides were able to induce mild degranulation in connective tissue-type mast cells with equivalent potencies and dose-dependent, Selleck Paclitaxel similarly to Eumenitin, and weaker than mastoparan ( Konno et al., 2006). On the other hand, in mucosal-type mast cells EMP-ER and EMP-EF,

which are similar to EMP-AF, exhibited more intense mast cell degranulation than eumenitin-R and eumenitin-F, which are highly homologous to eumenitin ( Fig. 8B). The results of the leishmanicidal assay are summarized in Table 5. For comparison, eumenitin and EMP-AF were also tested. Most peptides showed an activity, but only moderately. It is noteworthy that the eumenitin series (C-terminal free) are weaker than the EMP series (C-terminal amide). This is similar to our previous results of decoralin (C-terminal free) vs. decoralin-NH2 (C-terminal amide) ( Konno et al., 2007). In the present study,

we have purified four
ar cationic α-helical peptides from two species of the eumenine solitary wasps, E. rubrofemoratus and E. fraterculus, and characterized them both chemically and biologically. Of these, eumenitin-R and eumenitin-F are highly homologous to eumenitin, whereas the others, eumenine Sorafenib molecular weight mastoparan-ER (EMP-ER) and eumenine-mastoparan-EF (EMP-EF), are similar to EMP-AF, and thus, can be classified into mastoparan peptides. These results suggested that these types of peptide are commonly and widely distributed in the eumenine wasp venoms. All these peptides and anoplin present the following common interesting physicochemical and biological features: short chain length – 10 to 15 residues long, polycationic character, they assume α-helical conformation upon contact with membrane mimetic environments, and they are antimicrobial, hemolytic and mast cell degranulators at various levels. Conformational and pore-forming activity of these new peptides were investigated in asolectin bilayers, which due to its anionic character mimic the cytoplasmic membrane of bacteria. This phospholipid, whose approximate composition is 23.5% phosphatidylcholine, 20% phosphatidylethanolamine, and 14% inositol phosphatides (other components are 39.

The generation of stop codons in the coding sequences resulted ma

The generation of stop codons in the coding sequences resulted mainly from single-base transitions, with this website the C to T change predominating and accounting for about 70% of these [8] and [13]. Additionally, and consistent with recent studies [29] and [30] of other wheat genomic regions, it has been shown that α-gliadin genes in the Gli-2 regions are not evenly distributed, but are clustered mainly into numerous small gene islands separated by large blocks of repetitive elements, especially retrotransposons, which are abundant (accounting

for about 70% of the sequences) in these regions [7]. Thus, it has been suggested that retrotransposons contribute to the dynamic changes in these regions, including frequent gene duplications and insertions, as well as illegitimate recombination, which appears to have a major

impact on increasing the number of genes [7], [29] and [30]. The extremely high copy numbers of α-gliadin not only make it more difficult to purify a single component from a compound of related proteins, but make it more complicated to elucidate the expression and function of individual genes [31]. Heterologous expression has frequently been used to produce single pure components for studying PCI-32765 nmr structure–function relationships of proteins in vitro. However, heterologous expression of a protein with stable disulfide bonds in E. coli inevitably results in the formation of an inclusion-body protein, and Cytidine deaminase the protein yield depends largely on the type of expressed gene. So the high-level expression of α-gliadins in vitro is still difficult [32] and [33], meaning that the study of structure–function relationships of single α-gliadin genes by heterologous expression, purification, and functional analysis in vitro is very limited [10]. In the present study, using a pair of degenerate primers that represent the majority of full-ORF α-gliadin genes in GenBank, 43 unique clones from Zhengmai 004 were obtained by

comparative analysis among a total of 85 positive clones. NCBI BLAST searching of each sequence showed that 42 of them had 84%–99% identity with sequences in GenBank (except for Z4A-22 with 100% identity with JX828270, which we had previously cloned from common wheat cultivar Zhengmai 9023), suggesting that they are new members of α-gliadin gene family. In addition, consistent with previous findings, about 49% of the clones are pseudogenes, 81% of which resulted from single-base transitions, especially the C to T change that accounted for 91% of these. Of the 22 full-ORF genes, one (Z4A-15) lacked the second conserved cysteine residue in the unique domain I, while four genes (Z4A-7, Z4A-14, Z4A-17 and Z4A-20) contained an extra cysteine residue in the C-terminal unique domain II.

Less is known about the poly-Ub linkage specificity of deubiquiti

Less is known about the poly-Ub linkage specificity of deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs), but the current view remains that Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolases (UCHs) mainly cleave ubiquitin precursors, whereas ubiquitin specific proteases (USPs), ovarian tumor containing proteases (OTUs), the Josephin and the JAB1/MPN/MOV34 (JAMM) proteases all have a various degree of promiscuity towards different poly-Ub linkages or cleave mono-ubiquitin from protein substrates [2• and 4]. Noncovalent interactions also contribute to the complexity of ubiquitin signaling. At least 20 different types of domains have

Selleckchem NVP-BKM120 been identified in ubiquitin binding proteins (UBP) that interact with ubiquitin in a noncovalent manner to regulate the fate of ubiquitinated proteins [5 and 6]. buy INCB024360 It is therefore not surprising

that many genes linked to ubiquitin processing and recognition have been found to be mutated within the context of human diseases (Figure 1). Interestingly, neurological disorders appear to be particularly vulnerable to mutations in ubiquitin conjugating and deconjugating enzymes. For instance, mutations in the parkin gene encoding for a E3 ubiquitin ligase and the uchl1 gene encoding for a ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase (UCH-L1) are associated with early-onset autosomal recessive forms of Parkinson’s disease [ 7]. Also, mutations in the E6-AP gene coding for the ubiquitin ligase E6-AP (UBE3A) are linked to the Angelman Syndrome Mirabegron [ 8], and single point mutations in the ubiquitin ligase HUWE/Mule/ARF-BP are the cause of mental retardation syndromic X-linked Turner type (MRXST), possibly through aberrant DNA repair [ 9 and 10]. In addition, the familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Machado-Joseph disease/spinocerebellar ataxia

type 3 is directly linked to mutation in a gene encoding for a deubiquitinating enzyme (Ataxin-3), which is involved in degradation of misfolded chaperone substrates via its interaction with STUB1/CHIP [ 11]. Aberrant expression/mutations of many E3 ubiquitin ligases and DUBs are also found in diverse cancer types (reviewed in [12, 13 and 14]). In some cases, E3 ligases and DUBs act as tumor suppressors, such as the von Hippel Lindau vhl gene encoding for an E3 ubiquitin ligase, where mutations are the underlying cause of susceptibility to pheochromocytoma (PCC) [ 15]. Another example is the cyld gene encoding for the deubiquitinase CYLD, and direct mutation in the protease domain have been linked to the turban tumor syndrome (cylindromatosis) [ 16]. These cases as well as many others of this type suggest that in some way the homeostasis and dynamics of ubiquitinated proteins is altered either as a consequence or potentially as an underlying cause contributing to disease pathogenesis.

6b) Modeled station-specific FIB decay – driven only by advectio

6b). Modeled station-specific FIB decay – driven only by advection and diffusion – was exponential for all alongshore stations ( SI Fig. 6), and exhibited a spatial pattern similar to HB06 FIB data, with significantly faster decay observed at northern stations than southern stations (Fig. 5a). Although the spatial patterns of decay estimated by the AD model matched those of HB06 FIB well, the actual magnitudes of the ON-01910 molecular weight decay rates were lower than observed (Fig. 5). The only station where the AD model captured FIB decay rates accurately (p < 0.05) was SAR, for E. coli (Fig. 5a). At all other stations, AD modeled FIB decay accounted for ⩽50% of observed decay (Fig. 5). This underestimation of FIB

decay rates suggests that an additional source of decay must be included in the model to accurately reproduce FIB dynamics during HB06. This additional decay is likely to be intrinsic to the FIB taxa, as the amount of unexplained FIB decay during HB06 was group-specific (Fig. 5). In the cross-shore, the AD model successfully reproduced FIB patterns for surfzone stations (F1, F3) and the offshore mooring (Enterococcus only), where FIB concentrations were consistently

near zero. It failed, however, to reproduce FIB patterns for offshore stations exhibiting FIB contamination (F5, F7) (Fig. 6b). Poor model-data fits at these stations likely reflect over-retention of offshore FIB (Figs. 4 and 6a). Modeled FIB decay at these stations was significantly slower

than decay at F1 and F3, while observed FIB decay rates were constant across-shore (Fig. 5b). Together, the relatively poor model-data fits and decay-rate estimates for offshore stations suggest that, although the AD model performs well in the surfzone, it is missing a dominant process structuring offshore FIB concentrations during HB06. Through a synthesis of field observations and models, we have shown that a model including only horizontal advection and diffusion can explain a significant portion of the variability in FIB concentrations at Huntington Beach, Nintedanib (BIBF 1120) especially in the alongshore (Skill of 0.45–0.90 at alongshore stations and −0.23 to 0.74 at cross-shore stations, Fig. 6b). To our knowledge, HB06 is the first study to perform high-resolution monitoring of FIB, waves, and currents both in the surfzone and offshore, providing an opportunity to directly quantify the importance of these physical processes in structuring nearshore FIB pollution. The strong role of advection and diffusion in structuring patterns of FIB during HB06 was somewhat surprising given the temporal decays observed at each sampling station often attributed to solar insolation (e.g., Ki et al., 2007). Our analyses suggest, however, that a significant portion of this decay (mean of 38% for E. coli, and 14% for Enterococcus) was due to southward advection and diffusion of FIB patches through the study area (Fig. 5).

5, 5 or 50 μg is effective at the microcirculatory environment (

5, 5 or 50 μg is effective at the microcirculatory environment ( Fig. 10). The toxin at 0.5 μg promoted a sustained augmented rolling of leukocytes with few adherent leukocytes at endothelial cells. Also, we observed that an increase in the dose of toxin induced a decrease in the rolling of leukocytes in the post-capillary venules of microcirculation ( Fig. 10A and B), but in contrast promoted a significant increase in the number of adherent leukocytes at the endothelial layer ( Fig. 10C and D). As reported by Wright (2009) possibly over 1600 species of catfishes may be venomous, a number which is far greater than

any previous estimate of venomous catfish CCI-779 molecular weight diversity. Catfish spine envenomations are common injuries, reported in both freshwater and saltwater. Such injuries are complex puncture wounds, often complicated by severe infection. Signs and symptoms range from simple local pain and bleeding to systemic manifestations with hemodynamic compromise. The fish Cathorops spixii, Ariidae family, is probably the most common catfish on the Brazilian coast that cause intense local pain in human victims. Apart from the involvement of skin mucus in the defense against pathogens, the contribution Venetoclax research buy of skin mucus components to the development of injuries provoked

by venomous fish species has not been investigated. The present study was conducted to understand the peptide and protein components of fish skin mucus in comparison with those in the sting venom from the catfish C. spixii and the biological functions of both types of components in the microcirculation of mice using an intravital microscopy. Initially the electrophoretic analysis of both samples (sting venom and skin mucus) revealed differences in the number of bands

(9 in the sting venom and 12 in the skin mucus), in the intensity and the masses of some of the bands. Sting venom and skin mucus showed similar bands with 101.8 and 111.1 kDa. The skin mucus presented bands at 84.6, 76.6 and 74.0 kDa unlike the venom which had only one band of 75.7 kDa, in Exoribonuclease addition it was noticeable that the components of skin mucus are fewer than those of the sting venom in this range of mass. Interesting, venom presented a band in 65.1 kDa and skin mucus at 62.5 kDa, which is more intense in sting venom, and the presence of a band of 48.1 kDa in sting venom and 46.4 kDa in skin mucus, more intense in skin mucus. Also, we observe a band of 38.8 kDa only in skin mucus and one of 28.0 kDa only in sting venom, moreover, a band of 12.4 kDa was present in both samples at the same intensity. Thus, these results suggest that the large difference in concentration indicates that venom gland cells are likely responsible for production of most of 75.7, 65.1 and 28 kDa proteins and skin mucus for the production of 38.8 kDa. Fractionation of sting venom and skin mucus of C.

4(a)) We determined whether miR-150 and SOCS1 mRNA levels were r

4(a)). We determined whether miR-150 and SOCS1 mRNA levels were reciprocally regulated in DENV-2-infected PBMCs. DENV-2 infection induced the expression of SOCS1 after 24 h, and this was inversely correlated to the levels of miR-150 expression

(Fig. 4(b)). To demonstrate that miR-150 specifically down-regulated SOCS1 check details expression, we transfected a miR-150 mimic into CD14+ cells and assessed the reciprocal relationship between miR-150 and SOCS1 expression. Control CD14+ cells and those transfected with miR-150 for 24 h were infected with DENV-2 at an MOI of 5 in 24-well plates for 4 h, and then the expression of miR-150 and SOCS1 was assessed. Overexpression of miR-150 suppressed the DENV-2-induced expression of SOCS1 in a dose-dependent manner (Fig. 4(c)). The outcomes of

DENV infections are dictated by a myriad of interactions between viral, immunological, and human genetic factors, as well as kinetic Selleckchem Epacadostat interactions between innate and adaptive immunity. The theory of viral virulence versus secondary immune enhancement in the pathogenesis of DENV infections has been a matter of debate for many years.24 and 25 Our group19 and 26 and others27 have previously shown that viral load is not significantly associated with DHF. Thus, the underlying mechanism of DHFV pathogenesis might be related to activation of virus-infected leukocytes, resulting in alteration of cytokine induction. In this study, we provide the first evidence showing that the suppression of SOCS-1 expression was correlated to augmented miR-150 expression in patients with DHF and in CD14+ monocytes infected

with DENV-2. The SOCS proteins are key negative regulators of cytokine signalling and the Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signalling pathway.28 Production of SOCS1 proteins may be induced by a wide range of stimuli, including lipopolysaccharide (LPS), TNFα, IL-6, and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β).29 and 30 Several reports link SOCS1 many to the dysregulation of cytokine. SOCS1-deficient mice are hypersensitive to LPS, leading to an increase in TNFα and IL-12 production.31 and 32 Several mechanisms have been proposed for the suppression of cytokine production by SOCS1. An important mechanism for the suppression of macrophage activation is SOCS1-mediated inhibition of the secondarily activated JAK/STAT pathway.33 Wang et al.34 report that vesicular stomatitis virus-mediated induction of miR-155 occurred through a retinoic acid-inducible gene I/JNK/nuclear factor κB-dependent mechanism. Up-regulated miR-155 suppressed SOCS1 expression in macrophages and subsequently enhanced type I IFN effector gene expression, thereby suppressing viral replication. Notably, SOCS1 is also a tumour suppressor. Jiang et al.

The patients’ selection for surgical or endovascular intervention

The patients’ selection for surgical or endovascular intervention

is based on the degree of carotid stenosis, therefore an accurate assessment is required by means of non-invasive imaging and in some cases by catheter-based angiography. Several methods can be used during catheter-based angiography for stenosis measurement, but the most frequently used one is the NASCET (North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial) [13], which define the degree of stenosis by measuring the minimal residual lumen at the level of the stenosis, then selleck products comparing it with the diameter of the more distal ICA, where the arterial walls become parallel. The diameter of the artery cannot be assessed directly by carotid duplex ultrasound. This method uses blood selleck screening library flow velocity to indicate the severity of stenosis. Duplex ultrasound may be insensitive to distinguish high-grade stenosis from complete occlusion [14]. The severity of stenosis measured by ultrasound can be categorized into 2 groups: 50–69% stenosis when flow velocity exceeds the normal value due to plaque formation, and 70–99% stenosis in case of more severe atherosclerotic alterations. In case of 50–69% stenosis the peak systolic velocity is in range of 125–230 cm/s and a plaque can be seen in the ultrasound picture. The ratio of peak systolic

velocities of internal to common carotid artery is between 2 and 4, while the end-diastolic velocity of ICA

reaches 40–100 cm/s. In case of >70% stenosis the peak systolic velocity exceeds 230 cm/s in ICA, the ratio of this value of internal to common carotid artery is above 4 and end-diastolic velocity accelerates above 100 cm/s in ICA [15]. The velocities of 70% and less severe stenosis overlap, which results in difficulties in the degree Tacrolimus (FK506) grading and which therefore indicates the use of other vascular imaging methods as well. Several factors can reduce the accuracy of ultrasound measurements, like obesity, vascular tortuosity, high carotid bifurcation or in situ carotid stents and it is also influenced by operator expertise. Because of the some diagnostic uncertainty new efforts tend to be invested to improve the accuracy of these measurements. The multi-parametric German “DEGUM ultrasound criteria”, which contained Doppler and imaging criteria combination, have been revised and transferred to NASCET measurement. The criteria are categorized into main and additional groups, in combination if which the accuracy of carotid stenosis grading by ultrasonography can be improved [16]. In 2011 a new guideline was published by ASA/ACCF/AHA/AANN/AANS/ACR/ASNR/CNS/SAIP/SCAI/SIR/SNIS/SVM/SVS [4] which specifies the principles of the management of patients with symptomatic or asymptomatic carotid and vertebral artery disease. The importance of non-invasive imaging methods in the diagnostic routine is evident.

In comparison to the non-supplemented negative control, no growth

In comparison to the non-supplemented negative control, no growth was observed for fucoidan. Decreased growth rates and longer doubling times were found for all substrates tested compared to the positive control grown on a complex medium.

The comparable or even better growth performance regarding λ-carrageenan and chondroitin sulfate given equal concentrations of substrate applied is probably a consequence of those substrates matching the natural environment of R. baltica SH1T more GSK1210151A than glucose. Both, chondroitin sulfate and λ-carrageenan occur in significant amounts in marine environments and also niches inhabited by R. baltica SH1T ( Zierer and Mourao, 2000 and Ziervogel and Arnosti, 2008). The finding, that R. baltica SH1T does not grow on fucoidan was surprising. Closely related species of R. baltica SH1T are known to dominate biofilms on the brown algae Laminaria hyperborea. These brown algae are known to secrete significant amounts of fucoidans. R. baltica SH1T features one single gene encoding for an α-l-fucoidase. Two other species of this genus (R. sallentina and R. maiorica) were found to bear more than 20 copies of this gene (not shown). Therefore, other species of this genus probably inhabit these ecosystems. In the past, it was proposed that secreted fucoidans can probably function as growth Selleckchem RAD001 substrate for present marine Planctomycetes. However, fucoidans from different algal species can strongly

differ in their structure ( Bilan et al., 2006 and Li et al., 2008). In this study fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus was used as a growth substrate. The lack of growth during the study is probably due to structural differences between

fucoidans of different origin or due to the aforementioned lack of suitable hydrolase activities. Differently sized datasets were obtained from microarray analyses. Generally, 1000 to 1500 genes were found to be expressed, representing 14 to 20% of all genes present in the genome of R. baltica SH1T. The fucoidan-related dataset was an outlier with only 524 genes. In the context of chondroitin sulfate, approximately 10% of all expressed genes have been upregulated. 3% have been downregulated. With respect to λ-carrageenan and fucoidan, smaller fractions of the expressed genes have been upregulated (7 and 5%, respectively). Larger portions, 18% and 17% have been expressed at a lower these degree. Generally, large portions of genes expressed have been linked to the respective substrate. For instance, 611 of 1500 expressed genes in case of chondroitin sulfate were exclusively expressed regarding this substrate. The focus of the gene expression analyses was set on potentially expressed sulfatases and FGEs. Out of six predicted FGEs in R. baltica SH1T (Gene IDs: RB4229, RB5028, RB8026, RB11498, RB11811, RB11998), one, RB11998, was found to be active in the presence of all sulfated polysaccharides, but not in the glucose grown cells ( Table 3).