Most patients can be treated effectively by following simple and logical practices, as we have emphasized in this article. We note that most hospital patients would benefit from simple nutrition interventions: food enrichment and ONS. The feedM.E. Study Group thanks Cecilia Hofmann, PhD, for her valuable assistance with efficient compilation of the medical literature and with editing
this English-language review article. “
“Globally, concern for marine conservation grows rapidly because virtually no marine area remains unaffected by human influence and, indeed, a very large fraction of the seas (41%) is strongly affected Selleckchem LDN 193189 by multiple anthropic drivers (Halpern et al., 2008 and Pennisi, 2010). This growing interest in marine conservation is triggering a worldwide rush to establish Marine Protected Areas (MPAs), a tool intended to ensure the persistence of the full range of marine biodiversity, thus preserving the full functioning of the ecosystem in providing goods and services for present and future generations (Lubchenco et al., 2003). Simple stated, “No one should doubt that our seas need protection” (Anonymous, 2011). Yet, while simply stated and a fundamentally necessary objective, conserving biodiversity is in
fact a complex process that requires much more attention. Thus, a key question is to what extent we are in fact conserving a broad and representative array of marine areas that ensure the conservation of biodiversity and associated processes (Fox et al., 2012a). While this question is fundamental and of extreme importance to scientists, it is not clear that the question is understood, Alanine-glyoxylate transaminase much less taken FDA-approved Drug Library seriously, by politicians and MPA planners. This is
of outmost importance, since decision making in conservation relies in the political system and planners determine how and where MPAs are implemented. Although total ocean area protected by MPAs can be estimated at approximately 4.2 million km2 of ocean, this represents only 1.17% of the marine area of the world. Further, the focus remains mainly on Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs) of the continental shelf areas, where MPA coverage is ca. 4.32%. EEZs claimed by most nations cover roughly 40% of the world’s ocean surface, and thus there is a large fraction of ocean surface in off-shelf, international waters, where MPAs extents stands at 0.91%. Ecologically, MPA coverage is very uneven and does not adequately represent all ecoregions and habitats important for conservation (Toropova et al., 2010). Among nations, the distribution of MPAs varies from zero to over 30% of a country’s EEZ, and currently only 12 of 151 coastal countries exceed the 10% MPA target. Thus, we are still far from reaching the CBD target for achieving effective conservation of 10% of marine ecological regions. It is clear that despite the lack of a strong scientific foundation for such fixed percentage targets, they are politically appealing.