The U24 protein expressed by human herpesvirus 6A, a ubiquitous human pathogen, selleck kinase inhibitor has been previously shown to downregulate the T-cell receptor. Here, we show that U24 also mediates cell surface downregulation of a canonical early endosomal recycling receptor,
the transferrin receptor, indicating that this viral protein acts by blocking early endosomal recycling. We present evidence that U24 is a C-tail-anchored protein that is dependent for its function on TRC40/Asna-1, a component of a posttranslational membrane insertion pathway. Finally, we find that U24 proteins from other roseoloviruses have a similar genetic organization and a conserved function that is dependent on a proline-rich motif. Inhibition of a basic cellular process by U24 has interesting implications PD0332991 concentration not only for the pathogenicity of roseoloviruses but also for our understanding of the biology of endosomal transport.”
“Transport of thyroid hormones across the plasma membrane is required for binding to their nuclear
receptors. Monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) is a plasma membrane thyroid hormone transport protein, which has recently gained much attention, since mutations in MCT8 are associated with severe mental retardation in patients afflicted with the Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome. MCT8 is expressed along the blood-brain-barrier and on central neurons. We have found that desipramine (DMI), a tricyclic antidepressant, acts as an inhibitor of thyroid hormone transport by MCT8. Uptake of 3,5,3′-triiodo-L-thyronine (T-3) into primary cortical neurons could be blocked with desipramine as well as with the known, but unspecific, Bay 11-7085 inhibitor bromosulphtalein (BSP). T-3 uptake by neurons derived
from Mct8-deficient cells was not further decreased by DMI. In a heterologous expression system, both human MCT8 and its close homolog, MCT10, were sensitive to inhibition by DMI. Kinetic experiments demonstrated a non-competitive mode of inhibition. Numerous interactions between thyroid hormones, depressive symptoms, and antidepressant treatments have been reported in the literature. Our findings add to the evidence that antidepressant drugs may affect CNS thyroid hormone function. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) is made up of at least 17 species of Gram-negative opportunistic bacterial pathogens that cause fatal infections in patients with cystic fibrosis and chronic granulomatous disease. KS9 (vB_BcenS_KS9), one of a number of temperate phages isolated from BCC species, is a prophage of Burkholderia pyrrocinia LMG 21824. Transmission electron micrographs indicate that KS9 belongs to the family Siphoviridae and exhibits the B1 morphotype. The 39,896-bp KS9 genome, comprised of 50 predicted genes, integrates into the 3′ end of the LMG 21824 GTP cyclohydrolase II open reading frame.