“Here we review findings from studies investigating functional and structural brain connectivity in high functioning individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The dominant
theory regarding brain connectivity in people with ASD is that there is long distance under-connectivity and local over-connectivity of the frontal cortex. Consistent with this theory, long-range cortico-cortical selleck compound functional and structural connectivity appears to be weaker in people with ASD than in controls. However, in contrast to the theory, there is less evidence for local over-connectivity of the frontal cortex. Moreover, some patterns of abnormal functional connectivity in ASD are not captured by current theoretical
models. Taken together, empirical findings measuring different forms of connectivity demonstrate complex patterns of abnormal connectivity in people with ASD. The frequently Selleckchem LDK378 suggested pattern of long-range under-connectivity and local over-connectivity is in need of refinement. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Retention times in HPLC yield valuable information for the identification of various analytes and the prediction of peptide retention is useful for the identification of peptides/proteins in LC-MS-based proteomics. Informatics methods such as artificial neural networks and support vector machines capable of solving nonlinear problems made possible the accurate modeling of quantitative structure-retention relationships of peptides (including large polymers) up to 5 kDa to which classical linear models cannot be applied, as well as the proteome-wide prediction of peptide retention. Proteome-wide retention prediction and accurate mass-information facilitate the identification of peptides in complex proteomic samples. In this review, we address recent developments in solid informatics methods and their application to peptide-retention properties in ‘bottom-up’ Gemcitabine shotgun proteomics. We also describe future prospects for the standardization and application of retention times.”
GTPases of the Arf family are best known for their role in vesicular transport, wherein they nucleate the assembly of coat proteins at sites of carrier vesicle formation. However, accumulating evidence indicates that the Arfs are also important regulators of actin cytoskeleton dynamics and are involved in a variety of actin-based processes, including cell adhesion, migration and neurite outgrowth. The mechanisms of this regulation are remarkably diverse, ranging from the integration of vesicular transport with cytoskeleton assembly to the direct regulation of Rho-family GTPase function. Here, we review recent progress in our understanding of how Arfs and their interacting proteins function to integrate membrane and cytoskeletal dynamics.