After ipsilateral injections of biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) into the CeA and cholera toxin B subunit (CTb) into the NRA, the prominent overlapping distribution of BDA-labeled axon terminals and CTb-labeled neurons was found ipsilaterally in the lateral/ventrolateral PAG, where some of the BDA-labeled terminals made symmetrical synaptic contacts with somata and dendrites of the STAT inhibitor CTb-labeled neurons. After CTb injection into the lateral/ventrolateral PAG, CTb-labeled neurons were distributed mainly in the medial division of the CeA. After BDA injection into the lateral/ventrolateral PAG, BDA-labeled fibers were distributed mainly in and around the NRA within the medulla oblongata.
Using a combined retrograde tracing and in situ hybridization technique, we further demonstrated that more than half of the CeA neurons labeled with Fluoro-Gold (FG) injected into the lateral/ventrolateral PAG were positive for glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 mRNA and that the vast majority of PAG neurons labeled
with FG injected into the NRA expressed vesicular glutamate transporter 2 mRNA. The present results suggest that the glutamatergic PAG-NRA pathway is under the inhibitory influence of the GABAergic CeA neurons. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: Laparoscopically recruited kidneys regain normal function more slowly than laparotomy harvested organs for several possible reasons. We Stem Cells antagonist investigated the effects of CO(2) induced pneumoperitoneum on kidney function, as reflected by blood and urine creatinine levels, and its relation with renal cell apoptosis.
Materials and Methods: CO(2) pneumoperitoneum was established in anesthetized Wistar male rats that were randomly allocated at 6 per group into 1 of 6 groups with an intraperitoneal pressure of 0 (control), 5, 8, 12, 15 or 18 mm Hg. Pressure was maintained for 60 minutes in all groups. Three additional groups were subjected to 30-minute pneumoperitoneum at
0, 12 and 18 mm Hg, respectively. The rats were kept alive for the ensuing 24 hours, after which blood and urine creatinine were analyzed and the abdominal organs were harvested. Various areas of the organs were analyzed for apoptotic SDHB cells using the TUNEL method. Cells were randomly counted in 10 eyeshots in 3 sections each using an ocular micrometer.
Results: Creatinine levels in blood and urine changed as pressure and pneumoperitoneum duration progressed. Isolated TUNEL positive nuclei were detected in the outer medulla and the cortex of control kidneys. There was a significantly higher number of TUNEL positive nuclei in the cortex and the medulla of all pressurized kidneys (p < 0.05), which increased in parallel with increasing intraperitoneal pressure and pneumoperitoneum exposure time.