4) Because of the strong correlation between pine height and dia

4). Because of the strong correlation between pine height and diameter, this implies that taller trees were more likely to be attacked

than smaller ones. The model including the diameter × location Adriamycin research buy interaction was within a ΔAICc = 2 units of the best model, but the weight of this interaction was weak (wH = 0.31, Table 1) as compared to the weights of diameter (wH = 1), location (wH = 1) and density (wH = 0.82). The comparison of marginal (Rm2 = 0.41) and conditional (Rc2 = 0.18) R2 indicates that more variance (23%, Rm2 − Rc2) in probability of attack was explained by the random effects (i.e. stand and plot) than by fixed effects (18%). Binary recursive partitioning identified two nodes, splitting the dataset into three groups of edge aspects on the basis of PPM infestation rate. The first node separated edges with westerly and south-westerly aspects from all other edges. Infestations levels were highest in this group, with, on average, 34.8% trees attacked by PPM (Fig. 5). The second node split the remaining edges into two groups: moderately infested edges (South, South-East, East and North-West, Fig. 5) with, on average, 24.7% of trees attacked, and edges with low levels of PPM infestation (North, North-East, buy SRT1720 Fig. 5), with a mean of 19.1% of trees infected. Distance from stand edge did not contribute to the explanation of egg mortality in sentinel egg batches as model including this predictor (AICc = 1598.77) was within

2 units (ΔAICc = 0.98) of the null model (AICc = 1597.79), suggesting that pattern of nests aggregation at stand edge was not due to lower egg mortality at this location. The mean daily temperature did not differ depending on distance from stand edge as model including it (AICc = −45.77) was within 2 units (ΔAICc = 1.61) of the null model (AICc = −47.37). The cumulative mean daily temperatures of

780 °C required for hatching was reached between 40 and 42 days after exposure of the egg batches, regardless of distance from stand edge. These findings clearly demonstrate that PPM nests and PPM-infested trees are not evenly distributed within and between pine stands. We initially hypothesized that the probability of a tree being attacked by PPM was dependent on stand characteristics, such as tree density (H1). We found that PPM population density (number of nests/ha) did not differ VAV2 significantly between stands and was not correlated with stand density. This finding questions the host concentration hypothesis, according to which insect load should be greater in stands containing a larger number of host trees (Root, 1973). By contrast, it is consistent with the long-range dispersal capacities (several km) of the PPM (Robinet et al., 2012) and with the observation of spatial autocorrelations of PPM densities of the order of several kilometers (Samalens and Rossi, 2011). In our study area, maritime pine plantations account for more than 90% of the land cover (Samalens, 2009).

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