Male locusts, in groups of 6 or 7, were injected with 106 amoebae

Male locusts, in groups of 6 or 7, were injected with 106 amoebae in 10 μl of culture medium, and control locusts were injected with culture

medium alone. To make the separation and collection of faeces of single locusts feasible, the experimental locusts were maintained in individual cages with a wire-mesh floor so that faecal pellets fell through and could be collected easily (and could not be eaten by the locusts, which are coprophagic). Whole body fresh weight of individual locusts was recorded at intervals of 24 h. At the same time, faecal pellets produced by individual locusts over the previous 24 h were collected, air-dried at room temperature overnight, and

weighed. Parasitaemia and invasion of the CNS To determine amoebic dissemination, samples of haemolymph (5 μl) were collected at 24-h intervals from day1 to 6 post injection, and inoculated onto non-nutrient agar plates seeded with Escherichia coli K-12 for the recovery of live amoebae. Plates were incubated at 30°C and examined daily under an inverted microscope. Haemolymph collection was performed as AZD7762 purchase previously described [6, 7]. Briefly, the cuticle and arthrodial membrane at the base of one hind leg of locust was sterilised with 70% ethanol, which was allowed to air-dry; the membrane was punctured using a sterile needle and the outflowing haemolymph was collected into 5 μl calibrated glass capillaries. To

determine whether different isolates of Bioactive Compound Library mouse Acanthamoeba Glutamate dehydrogenase invaded the locust CNS, locust brains were isolated at 24 h intervals from day 1 to 6 post injection. To isolate the brains, the injected locusts were killed by decapitation, the left side of each head was removed by making a sagittal cut through the base of the left antenna, and each brain was dissected out. Each isolated brain was incubated with chlorhexidine (final concentration: 100 μM; Sigma Laboratories) at 37°C for 2 h to kill extracellular amoebae. Excess drug was removed subsequently by washing the brains with three separate 1 ml aliquots of PBS. Finally, the washed brains were disrupted physically using sterile pipette tips and by vigorous vortexing. These lysates were cultivated on bacteria-seeded agar plates. Plates were incubated at 30°C and the growth of Acanthamoeba was monitored daily using an inverted microscope. Histological studies For histological studies, locusts were injected with 106 amoebae. On days 3, 5, and 7 post-injection, they were decapitated and their head capsules were fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde in PBS under vaccum for 72 h (a small cut was made in the frons to facilitate the collapse of the air sacs under vacuum and aid penetration of the fixative).

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