All authors read and approved the final manuscript “

All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Introduction Competitive ACY-1215 in vitro figure skating is a sport that can be beneficial to bone health and the prevention of osteoporosis in female athletes. Elite female skaters, who often begin before puberty, practice up to 30 hours per week on and off the ice. Their training Wnt antagonist sessions consist of repetitive, high impact, bone loading activities, which favor bone accretion [1–3]. However competitive figure skating is also a sport

which emphasizes leanness for performance enhancement and aesthetic reasons [4]. A decrease in energy availability due to intense physical activity and calorie restriction may lead to amenorrhea, bone demineralization, and stress fractures in these female athletes. [5, 6] Adolescent skaters, who attain elite

status, may find it particularly challenging to maintain intake adequate to support bone growth while controlling their body weight. There are several different disciplines in figure U0126 skating, including single and pair skating, and ice dancing. Technical requirements differ among these three disciplines. For example, the required elements for female singles short program include at least three jump series that contain double and triple jumps, and jump combinations. Pair skaters have fewer required jumps, however they must incorporate at least one throw jump. Methocarbamol So while the routines of single and pair skaters differ in their jump routines, both involve

a good deal of bone loading. Ice dancers incorporate more lifts in their routines, but they execute fewer jumps then single and pair skaters. Their landing forces and mechanical bone loading are expected to be much less. We studied the differences in total and region specific bone mineral density in 36 elite, adolescent female skaters, training to compete in single, pair, or ice dancing categories. We hypothesize that BMD is greater in single and pair skaters than in their dancer counterparts. Methods Subjects Data collected from 36 nationally ranked adolescent female figure skaters who attended a spring research camp at the US Olympic Trainer Center in Colorado Springs, CO from 1998–1999 were used for this analysis. Approval for conducting the study was received from the Human Subject Review Committee at the US Olympic Trainer Center, and from the Human Investigation Review Committee at the Tufts Medical Center in Boston. All patients provided informed consent prior to enrollment into the study. Assessment of dietary intake and physical activity Prior to their arrival at the training camp, food records and detailed instructions on how to fill them out were sent to the skaters. Skaters were asked to provide 3-day dietary intake records (2 consecutive days and 1 weekend day) during the 2 months prior to their arrival at camp.

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