Linkage clustering and the corresponding admixture model were use

Linkage Dasatinib clustering and the corresponding admixture model were used [18–21]. The estimation algorithm was used with 10 replicate runs where the maximum number of clusters was set to values in the interval 2-10 and STs were assigned to clusters with the highest posterior probability. Admixture inference was based on 100 Monte Carlo runs and 100 Monte Carlo reference samples Selleckchem VE 821 to estimate the p-values. Significant admixture was set at a threshold level of P ≤ 0.05 to detect admixed STs. To gain further insight into the BAPS derived clusters, we did a phylogenetic analysis of the

STs using software MEGA v 4.0.2 [45]. A neighbour-joining (NJ) tree based on maximum composite likelihood for concatenated allele sequence data was generated and the BAPS clusters were mapped on the tree. eBURST analysis [46] of the 74 STs in our dataset was performed using default options in eBURST version 3 available at http://​eburst.​mlst.​net[47]. Statistical analyses Analyses of association of each BAPS cluster, and ST or CC with the source of isolation

were carried out using the Chi-square or Fisher’s exact two-tailed test when appropriate. Results were considered statistically significant at P ≤ 0.05. Acknowledgements This study was funded by the Academy of Finland (FCoE MiFoSa, grant no. 118602 and ELVIRA, grant no. 118042) and by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (grant no. 4878/501/2005). Anna-Kaisa Keskinen is acknowledged for performing most of the technical part of the study. This 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase CH5183284 mw publication made use of the Campylobacter jejuni Multilocus Sequence Typing website [35] developed by Keith Jolley and Man-Suen Chan and sited at the University of Oxford [48]. The development of this site has been funded by the Wellcome Trust. References 1. Olson KE, Ethelberg S, van Pelt W, Tauxe RV: Epidemiology of Campylobacter

jejuni Infections in Industrialized Nations. In Campylobacter. Third edition. Edited by: Nachamkin I, Szymanski CM, Blaser MJ. ASM Press Washington, DC USA; 2008:163–189. 2. European Food Safety Authority [http://​www.​efsa.​europa.​eu/​en/​scdocs/​doc/​130r.​pdf] The community summary report on trends and sources of zoonoses zoonotic agents antimicrobial resistance and foodborne outbreaks in the Europian Union 2006 2007. 3. Terveyden Hyvinvoinnin Laitos Tilastotietokanta [http://​www3.​ktl.​fi/​stat/​] 4. Kapperud G, Espeland G, Wahl E, Walde A, Herikstad H, Gustavsen S, Tveit I, Natas O, Bevanger L, Digranes A: Factors associated with increased and decreased risk of Campylobacter infection: a prospective case-control study in Norway. Am J Epidemiol 2003, 158:234–242.PubMedCrossRef 5.

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