Again the evidence is quite limited, but low-dose aspirin should

Again the evidence is quite limited, but low-dose aspirin should not be withheld. There may be other considerations in this population. For example, there is some evidence that administration of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor post MI, when combined with low-dose aspirin or dual antiplatelet therapy, increases the risk of bleeding [18]. In contrast, administration of omeprazole with antiplatelet therapy reduces the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding [19]. Based upon the uncertainties in the haemophilic

population relative to the drugs they are receiving for their underlying coagulation defect and for vascular protection, platelet function testing would seem to be a step forward in the goal of developing personalized treatment strategies [20]. The prevailing Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor view that patients with haemophilia are at low risk of ischaemic heart Lorlatinib manufacturer disease has led to a level of complacency regarding other CV risk factors, and as this population ages we need to pay more attention to treating disorders such as dyslipidaemias, where suitable safe therapies are available such as the statins. There are a small number of publications investigating outcomes in patients undergoing cardiac catheterization or cardiac surgery [coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), cardiac valve replacement and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA)]

[21–23]. Replacement of deficient factor was the cornerstone of treatment in the studies and other therapeutic options included tranexamic acid, desmopressin and aprotinin. In this small group of patients with haemophilia (36 cases) cardiac surgery was performed safely with minimal morbidity and the results were similar to those achieved in patients

without haemophilia. Cardiac surgery is therefore clearly possible in patients with haemophilia, providing meticulous attention is paid to haemostatic treatment regimens. Some unanswered questions remain. For example, is it better to perform CABG immediately rather than MCE公司 PTCA which requires the administration of antiplatelet agents? With regards to valve replacement, bioprosthetic (tissue) valves are preferred to mechanical valves as they avoid the need for long-term anticoagulation [24]. The American Heart Association recommends that patients undergoing mitral valve replacement receive anticoagulation for 3 months. Patients having aortic valve replacement may not need anticoagulation unless they have certain risk factors such as: a history of thromboembolism/hypercoagulable condition; arrhythmia; low left ventricular ejection fraction (<30%); or an enlarged left atrium. All patients should be on low-dose aspirin. In patients with haemophilia during anticoagulation, factor trough levels should be ≥5%. Atrial fibrillation (AF) is becoming an increasing problem as the haemophilic population ages. A recent workshop recommended for a haemophiliac patient with AF [24]: 1  No anticoagulation if the AF was <48 h.

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