, 2009, Edsall et al , 1988 and Leach, 1991) but commercial harve

, 2009, Edsall et al., 1988 and Leach, 1991) but commercial harvest is now heavily restricted and recreational catch of four major sport fishes (walleye, yellow

perch, smallmouth bass and muskellunge) is a more common activity ( Thomas and Haas, 2004). The fish community of LSC has been diverse and abundant with about 70 species of warm and cool-water species, including yellow perch, walleye, smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui) and muskellunge as well as introduced species such as round gobies ( Leach, 1991 and Thomas and Haas, 2004). The wetland area of LSC was much greater historically than at present (especially along the Michigan side). It is estimated that 72% of the wetland high throughput screening area was lost from 1873 to 1973 mainly due to urbanization (Jaworski and Raphael, 1976 and Leach, 1991). Conversion of wetlands to agriculture

was also common on the Ontario side. Emergent wetland vegetation, including cattails (Typha latifolia, Typha angustifolia), bulrush (Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani), common reed (Phragmites australis) and spike rush (Eleocharis quadrangulata) were common in undeveloped areas including the St. Clair Flats and the eastern shoreline ( Edsall et al., 1988 and Leach, 1991). For migratory birds like mallards, Dasatinib research buy black ducks, Canada geese and tundra swans, the vast wetlands provided essential flyway resting and feeding habitat ( Leach, 1991). Most of the native fish species spawned along the St. Clair Flats or along the Olopatadine shoreline areas adjacent to the tributaries ( Goodyear et al., 1982 and Leach, 1991). The invasive common reed (P. australis) expanded across LSC when low lake levels followed the high lake levels in1986. P. australis can now be found along the coast line of LSC and poses problems because it forms thick strands, reduces functionality, biodiversity, and property values ( USGS Great Lakes Science Center, 2011 and Wilcox, 2012). Once Phragmites is established it can be difficult and expensive to remove

( USGS Great Lakes Science Center, 2011). In summary, the natural system of LSC has been influenced by human activities (i.e. contaminants and spread of invasive species), but the ecological condition also influences humans that depend on it for drinking water, recreational activities, and fishing. Thus identifying these components and linkages between human and natural systems is critical in planning for sustainability. The ecological condition and ecosystem services of LSC depend to a great extent on the human population, land use, climate and technological advances in water and wastewater management. We identified three periods during the last century that indicate fundamental changes to the socioeconomic system that might be appropriate for understanding changes to the ecology of LSC (Table 1).

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *


You may use these HTML tags and attributes: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <strike> <strong>