We also

We also Selleck Doxorubicin found that hVISA was generated in vitro by selecting a hetero-MRSA strain ΔIP with imipenem [8] and [21], and that the appearance rate of hVISA

from ΔIP was much higher with imipenem than with vancomycin as a selective agent (2.0 × 10−5 vs. 3.6 × 10−7) [21]. Other regulator mutations are found in the walKR TCRS, where walK (yycG/vicK) is a sensor histidine kinase and walR (yycF/vicR) is the cognate response regulator. The TCRS is supposed to be the regulator of cell wall metabolism, including expression of autolysins [28], [29], [30] and [31]. Introduction of a walK mutation into VSSA strain N315LR5 raised vancomycin resistance from 1 mg/L to 3 mg/L and significantly depressed Triton X-100-induced autolysis [29]. As many as 18 (54.5%) of 33 tested VISA strains possessed mutations in the walK gene ( Table 1). Mutation in the response regulator gene graR(N197S) is present check details in Mu50 [32]. In another clinical MRSA strain, a mutation in the sensor kinase gene graS(T136I) was demonstrated to confer an hVISA phenotype on a VSSA strain [33].

In the Mu50 chromosome, graR(N197S) is one of the nine non-synonymous mutations compared with the Mu3 chromosome [32]. Introduction of graR(N197S) on a multiple-copy plasmid converted Mu3 into VISA with an MIC of 4 mg/L. However, introduction of graR(N197S) into Mu3 as a single copy by gene replacement raised the vancomycin MIC slightly from 2 mg/L to 3 mg/L, i.e. to the degree of resistance of hVISA. Conversion to VISA was finally achieved by subsequent introduction of an rpoB mutation. The rpoB gene encodes the β subunit of RNA polymerase (see below). Roflumilast Introduction of the graR mutation enhanced gene expression of the ABC transporter genes vraDE-SAS091, vraFG and mprF [32] and [34]. mprF encodes phosphatidylglycerol lysyltransferase that modifies membrane phosphatidylglycerol

with l-lysine [35]. The graRS genes together with vraFG and the adjacent orf graX are proposed to constitute the five-component system graXRS–vraFG to sense cationic antimicrobial peptides [36]. Although rarely represented in clinical VISA strains, graRS mutation is another regulator mutation that could convert VSSA into hVISA [33]. The most prevalent mutations in VISA clinical strains were those in the rpoB gene, which were carried by 21 (63.6%) VISA strains ( Table 1). Although rpoB is not a regulator gene, its mutation drastically changes the transcription profile of the cell much more than any of the regulator mutations [37]. We therefore regarded rpoB mutation as a ‘regulatory mutation’ [34] and [38]. As many as 29 (87.9%) of the 33 tested VISA strains possessed mutations in either one of the three genetic loci rpoB, walRK and vraUTSR ( Table 1).

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