To monitor growth, 200 μL of culture was sampled in triplicate an

To monitor growth, 200 μL of culture was sampled in triplicate and 10-fold serial dilutions were made in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and 50 μL of the dilutions were spread on TSA plates to determine the CFUs after incubation for 2–3 days at 37 °C under 5% CO2. The J774A.1 murine macrophage-like cells were grown in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM) supplemented with 10% heat-inactivated fetal calf serum in a humidified 5% CO2 atmosphere at 37 °C. About 1 × 106 Selleck Fulvestrant cells were seeded

per well in a 24-well plate (Corning Incorporated). After 18 h of the incubation, the cells were infected with a multiplicity of infection of 100 : 1 (100 Brucella per macrophage). After 1 h of incubation (which was considered as the 0-h time point for all the experiments), the cells were washed three times with DMEM media containing 50 μg mL−1 gentamicin to wash off all the extracellular bacteria. Fresh DMEM containing 50 μg mL−1 gentamicin and 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) was added for further incubation. As needed, 30 μM deferoxamine mesylate (DFA) was added to the culture media 48 h before infecting the J774A.1 cells to allow the chemical binding between DFA and iron. At 0, 24 and 48 h postinfection, macrophages were lysed using 1 mL of 0.1% TritonX-100, and lysates were collected and serial dilutions prepared in PBS and spread

on TSA plates to determine the CFUs of Brucella. All statistical analyses were performed using the Student two-tailed t-test using Microsoft excel. P-values ≤0.005 were considered significant (*). Deletion of 497 base pairs from the entF gene (BAN1 strain) and complementation ABT-737 cost by pNSGro∷entF plasmid (BAN2 strain) were confirmed by PCR using the entF forward and reverse primers (data not shown).

Further, to confirm the expression of entF gene in the complemented strain, RT-PCR (Fig. 2) revealed that the entF gene was expressed in the BAN2 strain, but not in the ΔentF mutant Mannose-binding protein-associated serine protease (BAN1). Intergenic expression of entB-A or dhbB-A, shown (Bellaire et al., 2003b) to occur under iron-limiting conditions by B. abortus 2308, was used as the positive control. Under iron limitation, the wild-type strain did not reach the same cell density and had a slower growth rate compared with growth in IMM supplemented with iron (Fig. 3). This confirms the importance of iron for the growth of B. abortus 2308 as shown by others (Evenson & Gerhardt, 1955; Parent et al., 2002; Wandersman & Delepelaire, 2004). The ΔentF strain (BAN1) grew even more slowly compared with the wild-type strain in IMM, suggesting the importance of entF gene with respect to growth. The addition of 50 μM FeCl3 restored the growth of both wild-type and mutant strains, suggesting that iron was the only limiting factor in the medium. If a particular mutated gene affects the growth of a bacterium under iron-limiting conditions, the mutated gene might be involved in acquisition, transport or metabolism within the iron pathway.

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