This was driven by adult cases since the number of cases in child

This was driven by adult cases since the number of cases in children remained constant (Fig. 1). Over this 28-year time period, 28 paediatric patients with mucormycosis were identified. The annual incidence was 0.15 cases/10 000 patient-days in 1985 and persisted in 0.12 cases/10 000 patient-days in 2012 (Fig. 2). The incidence

increased mainly in 1992, 1997, 2000, 2006 and 2010. Averaged over the 28 years, the incidence was 0.12/10 000 patient-days. In the largest review of mucormycosis, Roden et al. [9] compiled the results of 929 cases. This review revealed that the rhinocerebral pattern was the most frequent clinical manifestation, find more accounting for 39% of the cases.[9] In our study, the rhinocerebral form was the predominant form accounting for 77.27% of the cases. The predominance is probably attributable to the interrelation between this pattern KU 57788 and the presence of DM. In the cited review, when evaluating only the fraction of patients with underlying DM, the percentage sum of rhinocerebral and sino-orbital cases was 66%,[9] which is similar to our results. It should be noted that 50% of our patients presented type 1 DM, which was frequently uncontrolled, provoking metabolic acidosis and the release of iron (Fe2+). Ibrahim et al. [3, 20] emphasised the role of high serum iron levels in the pathogenesis of mucormycosis. Notably, 100% of DM patients (type 1 and 2) were uncontrolled,

and nearly all had a history of non-adherence to medical treatment and suffered frequent decompensation or uncontrolled diabetes. The rhinocerebral form of mucormycosis

is Cediranib (AZD2171) the most acute and fatal pattern. Even with appropriate antifungal therapy, the disease cannot be cured if the metabolic process is not regulated, leading to death. A link between diabetic ketoacidosis and mucormycosis has been consistently reported, constituting the foremost association in some countries.[4, 14, 21, 22] In Mexico, the increase in obesity and DM rates could be an explanation for the general rise in incidence of mucormycosis.[23] The second predisposing factor in our series was HM, mainly ALL, which was present in 18% of the cases. This result correlated with various reports in the literature.[10, 13, 15, 24] HM was associated with the three clinical patterns reported: rhinocerebral, pulmonary and primary cutaneous. The latter result is remarkable since primary cutaneous mucormycosis has been reported to start under adhesive bandages, in venipuncture sites, and in locations where adhesive bandages are used to secure nasogastric tubes.[25, 26] Primary cutaneous mucormycosis has a good prognosis; nonetheless, the use of adhesive bandages in the nose facilitates dissemination to the nasal mucosa, and consequently it leads to the development of the rhinocerebral pattern, which has a fatal prognosis.[27, 28] The pulmonary case was related to ALL.

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