Therefore, it is necessary that athletes consume adequate amounts

Therefore, it is necessary that athletes consume adequate amounts of these vitamins to support their efforts for optimal performance and a robust immune system. Broadly speaking, the primary minerals which have been found to be Eltanexor supplier sub-optimal in the diets of athletes, particularly female athletes, are calcium, AZD7762 purchase iron, zinc and magnesium [12], but for many minerals, there are few or even contradictory data about the concentrations found in athletes at rest and during exercise [62]. This is the case of copper and chromium. Copper is a critical mineral involved in many aspects of energy metabolism and an important component for the synthesis of hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochromes and some peptide

hormones [63]. It is also related to the elimination of toxins and free radicals in athletes, as is a cofactor of proteins involved in redox processes. Chromium is involved in a large number of enzymatic processes. It increases tolerance to sugars through the glucose tolerance factor (GTF), a complex of unknown structure, which enhances insulin activity. Clearly, information about these oligoelements is compound screening assay scarce, and so the relevant

findings in the present study are of particular interest. Thus, chromium appears to contribute to the prevention of cell damage, since athletes with adequate chromium intake exhibited lower CK activity at rest. Moreover, we found that variations in the percentage of neutrophils and lymphocytes during exercise might be influenced by copper Glutamate dehydrogenase intake, pointing to copper as a non-immune-suppressive mineral. Conclusions The present

study contributes to a body of evidence that indicates specific nutrients may influence the antioxidant capacity of soccer players, as well as, cell damage, immunity and the inflammation response induced by playing a match. Thus, the present results concerning nutrition intake should be taken into account by nutritionists and coaches during training sessions and championships, in order to enhance players physiological response to the stress associated with playing a soccer match and eventually, their performance. Acknowledgements This study was partially supported by the University of The Basque Country (UPV/EHU), research project EHU09/44. References 1. Shephard RJ: Biology and medicine of soccer: an update. J Sports Sci 1999, 17:757–786.PubMedCrossRef 2. Stupka N, Lowther S, Chorneyko K, Bourgeois JM, Hogben C, Tarnopolsky MA: Gender differences in muscle inflammation after eccentric exercise. J Appl Physiol 2000, 89:2325–2332.PubMed 3. Aoi W, Naito Y, Takanami Y, Kawai Y, Sakuma K, Ichikawa H, Yoshida N, Yoshikawa T: Oxidative stress and delayed-onset muscle damage after exercise. Free Radic Biol Med 2004, 37:480–487.PubMedCrossRef 4. Finaud J, Lac G, Filaire E: Oxidative stress: relationship with exercise and training.

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