The potential of obesity to mitigate breast cancer risk in both premenopausal and postmenopausal patients seems to be
influenced by hormone receptor status; for example, a stronger inverse association between obesity and premenopausal estrogen and progesterone receptor positive (ER +/PR +) breast cancer has been observed compared to ER-/PR- cases . Yang et al. recently found GSK2118436 mouse that obesity was more frequently associated with receptor ER-/PR- breast cancer compared with receptor positive disease in women 50 years old or younger but was more frequent only in patients with PR + postmenopausal breast cancers . An awareness of risk factors for the development of breast cancer in pregnant patients is critical to early diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. A breast exam should be performed early in pregnancy if possible, and
if exam is performed later in pregnancy, one should exercise vigilance regarding findings. A careful review of chemotherapeutics and their maternal as well as fetal effects should be instituted in a new diagnosis of breast cancer, with close coordination of care among specialists with the patient. No competing financial conflicts exist for any author–investigator. “
“While tuberculosis, especially Selleck BI6727 the pulmonary form is common; tuberculosis of the breast is extremely rare. The incidence of mammary tuberculosis is reported why as less than 0.1% of all breast lesions in developing countries  and , and diagnosing it is difficult, especially during pregnancy. The signs and symptoms may resemble a malignancy or a non-specific breast abscess, thus labeled a great masquerader (1). We report
a pregnant woman with primary tubercular mastitis who was initially misdiagnosed as having breast abscess. A 31-year-old primigravid pregnant woman was referred to our perinatology unit at 28 weeks of gestation complaining of a painful lump in her right breast that had enlarged progressively over the previous three weeks, as well as new onset pelvic pain. Ultrasonographic examination revealed a single live fetus concordant with 28 weeks, and her pelvic examination revealed minimal cervical dilatation and effacement. A non-stress test revealed regular contractions. The patient was found to have mild fever, and her right breast was minimally enlarged and appeared mildly erythematous when compared to the other side. She had a firm and tender 3–4 cm lump in the upper outer quadrant of the right breast. There was no skin retraction or nipple discharge, and no lymph nodes could be palpated in the axilla or in the cervical region. There was no history of cough or weight loss. The breast ultrasonography revealed a 4 cm complex cystic mass in her right breast. The patient was hospitalized for preterm labor and breast abscess. No family history of breast malignancy was recorded.