The dried starch was sprayed and stored in a plastic container un

The dried starch was sprayed and stored in a plastic container under refrigeration until use. The chemical composition of seeds and starch from hard and soft jackfruit seeds was determined according to the methodology described in the AOAC (2012). Analyses of moisture were conducted by desiccation in an oven at 105 °C until a constant weight was achieved; total lipids by extraction with hexane in Soxhlet; ash by incineration in a muffle furnace at 550 °C; selleckchem total protein by the Kjeldahl method (N × 6.25); and starch by acid hydrolysis followed by quantification by titration using Fehling reagents A and B. The shape of starch

granules was analysed by a digital scanning electron microscope model LEO-1430. Starch dispersions were placed on double-sided tape and coated with gold (sputtering). The mean particle size was determined using an inverted optical microscope (Axiovert 25 Zeiss). Twenty fields were randomly selected and photographed and 10 granules from each field were measured (for a click here total of 200 granules). The X-ray diffraction diffractogram was obtained from starch in the powder form containing approximately 11% moisture. The interval of 2θ angles ranged from 4 ° to 60 ° in the X-ray

Diffractometer (Model D5000, São Paulo, Brazil), at a rate of 1.2 °/min and operating at a power of 40 kV/20 mA. The diffractogram patterns were evaluated according to Zobel (1964). Swelling power and solubility were determined according to the method described by Leach, Mc Cowen, and Schoch (1959) by weighing 0.1 g of starch in previously weighed centrifuge tubes and adding 10 ml of distilled water. The suspension was stirred and placed in a water bath for 30 min at temperatures ranging from 55 °C to 95 °C, increasing 10 ° from time to time and centrifuging for 15 min at 3400g. A 5 ml aliquot was removed from the supernatant, placed in petri dishes and placed on the stove at 105 °C for 24 h to

determine the weight of the solubilised starch. After the outer walls of the tubes were dried, the tubes Ureohydrolase were carefully weighed, and the swelling power and solubility were determined as follows: Swellingpower=(weightoftube+residueaftercentrifugation)-(weightoftubeplussampleondrybasis)/weightofsample Solubility%=(weightofplatewithsampleafterevaporation)-(weightofplate)×100 The paste transparency was determined as described by Craig, Maningat, Seib, and Hoseney (1989). The paste transparency was determined by placing the starch suspension (3% w.v. −1) in deionised water. Transmittance (% T) was determined at 650 nm using a spectrophotometer (Coleman 33D Spectrometer). Samples were stored at 4 °C for 8 days, and transmittance readings were conducted every 24 h to monitor retrogradation. Viscosity was determined using a rapid viscosity analyser RVA-4, with the aid of the Thermocline for Windows software version 2.

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