The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the funding agencies. Conflict of interest statement: The authors declare no conflicts of interest in preparing this article. Contributor Information Chadi A. Calarge, Associate Professor, Departments of Psychiatry and selleck chemical Carfilzomib Pediatrics, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Psychiatry Research, 2-209 MEB, 500 Newton
Road, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA. Stephanie D. Ivins, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA, USA. Katherine J. Motyl, Maine Medical Center Research Institute, Scarborough, ME, USA. Amal A. Shibli-Rahhal, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA, USA. Michael M. Bliziotes, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR, USA. Janet A. Schlechte, Department of Internal Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Medicine, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA, USA.
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by chronic instability of Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical affect and interpersonal relationships, and recurrent suicidal or self-injurious behavior.
BPD affects approximately 1–2% of the general population and up to 20% of psychiatric patients [Gunderson, 2008]. Approximately 1 in 10 individuals with BPD dies by suicide [Paris and Zweig-Frank, 2001]. Suicidal Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical or self-injurious behaviors in individuals with BPD often result in recurrent, costly and prolonged hospitalizations. Clozapine decreases aggressive [Krakowski
et al. 2006] and self-injurious [Meltzer et al. 2003] behaviors in individuals with schizophrenia. Frankenburg and Zanarini reported improved functioning and reductions in aggressive and self-injurious behaviors in 15 individuals with BPD whom they treated with clozapine; moreover, these individuals chose to continue treatment with clozapine despite troubling side effects [Frankenburg and Zanarini, 1993]. Benedetti and colleagues noted reduced aggressive and self-injurious behaviors and Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical improved functioning in 12 individuals with BPD treated with clozapine [Benedetti et al. 1998]. make it clear Chengappa and colleagues noted fewer incidents of self-mutilation and injuries against staff and peers, and decreased need for seclusion and restraint in seven chronically hospitalized women with severe BPD; four of the seven were released from the hospital and the remaining Entinostat three achieved higher levels of freedom in the hospital [Chengappa et al. 1999]. Parker was able to discharge seven out of eight chronically hospitalized self-injurious individuals with BPD after treating them with clozapine, saving Ohio more than US$36,000 per patient per year [Parker, 2002]. Numerous other case reports document comparable dramatic therapeutic benefits for similar severely ill individuals [Ferreri et al. 2004; Vohra, 2010; Swinton, 2001].