Potential mutants were verified by DNA sequence analysis None of

Potential mutants were verified by DNA sequence analysis. None of these mutations affected production of TraJ as monitored by immunoblot (data not shown). These mutants were then tested for their ability to complement Flac traJ90 (Table 3). The three point mutants reduced mating efficiency by approximately three to four orders of magnitude in comparison with wild-type TraJ. Because these mutations, which involve changes in amino acid charge and shape, are relatively drastic and could affect the overall conformation of TraJ, these amino acids were replaced with alanine to yield pB24J-G166A, pB24J-Y163A and pB24J-H169A. These mutant constructs complemented the traJ90 mutation to a greater extent

than the three original mutants, but were 10–250 times lower than wild-type pBADTraJ, with the greatest effect being seen with pB24J-G166A, an important residue in the HTH motif. Several other point mutants at conserved residues were constructed and tested for activity in the check details same manner as the ones in the putative DNA-binding region (Table 1). None showed significant differences in the complementation ability compared with wild-type TraJ. These mutants included pB24J-D2A, pB24J-Q11K, pB24J-P28A, pB24J-C30S, pB24J-S62A, pB24J-E74A, pB24J-W115A, pB24J-I178A, pB24J-S183A, pB24J-C221A, pB24J-I222L, pB24J-N224A and pB24J-R226A (data not shown and Table 3). A series of C-terminal deletion mutants were constructed Alpelisib molecular weight in pBADTraJ to

assess the importance of the putative C-terminal helices adjacent to the HTH motif for F TraJ function. The first mutant, pB24JΔ30, had a deletion of 30 aa at the C-terminus to yield a protein of 196 aa that still contains the HTH motif (Fig. 1 and Table 1). Complementation of the traJ90 mutation was considerably reduced, with similar results being obtained for progressively smaller deletions of 15 aa (pB24JΔ15; 211 aa), 10 aa (pB24JΔ10; selleck inhibitor 216 aa) and 6 aa (pB24JΔ6 or pB24J-C221*; 220 aa). Further mutagenesis of the last few residues of TraJ to yield pB24J-I222* (Δ5)

and pB24J-I223* (Δ4) also had reduced complementation ability, whereas mutants pB24JN224* (Δ3), pB24JT225* (Δ2) and pB24JR226* (Δ1) complemented Flac traJ90 (Table 3). None of these mutations affected the production of TraJ as monitored by immunoblot (data not shown). Electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated that purified F TraJ bound DNA nonspecifically (data not shown). The reason for this is currently unknown. In order to assess TraJ binding to PY, an in vivo DNA-binding assay was developed using the ChIP assay for MC4100 carrying either wild-type Flac or Flac traJ90 (see Materials and methods). The presence of DNA containing the PY promoter region was analyzed by PCR with appropriate primers (RWI91 and RWI92). The 200 bp PCR product includes the end of the traJ gene and an inverted repeat within the intergenic region between traJ and traY, which is considered to be the site of TraJ binding (sbj) in R100 (Taki et al., 1998).

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