It is also necessary to study the effect

It is also necessary to study the effect cause under various conditions, such as a dim environment or the presence of a glaring light source. Taking into account various conditions encountered during sports activities, the present study aimed to clarify the effect of various types of color lenses on visual attributes. It is anticipated that effects of lenses color on visual attributes vary among lenses because luminous transmittance differ among color lenses. The results are expected to be of help in developing new color lenses for athletes and in assisting other types of consumers to choose an appropriate color lens. Material and Methods The subjects were 24 students (11 females, 13 males) at a sport-oriented university. Their average age was 21.0 �� 1.2 years.

Subjects whose decimal visual acuity, unaided or with contact lenses, was greater than 1.0 (logMAR 0.0) were included; 14 used contact lenses and 10 were unaided. All subjects had sports experience such as Squash, Basketball, Volleyball, Track and field, baseball, tennis, and so on. Contrast sensitivity, dynamic visual acuity, depth perception, and hand-eye coordination were measured with binocular vision. Visual acuity and low-contrast visual acuity were measured with the dominant eye, which was the left eye in 11 subjects and the right eye in 13. The dominant eye was determined by pointing to an object with the index finger or placing the object in a circle made with the hands. The subjects provided their written, informed consent before participating in the experiment.

This study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Juntendo University Graduate School of Health and Sports Science. Lenses of 5 colors were used: C, LY, DY, LG, and DG. Figure 1 shows the luminous transmittance of each lens. The five colors of lenses used in this experiment were: colorless (C; luminous transmittance 92.0%), light yellow (LY; luminous transmittance 65.2%), dark yellow (DY; luminous transmittance 30.4%), light gray (LG; luminous transmittance 65.9%), and dark gray (DG; luminous transmittance 30.2%). Figure 1 Visible light transmission of the lenses used in this experiment is shown. The luminous transmittance value is 92.0% for colorless lenses, 65.2% for light yellow lenses, 30.4% for dark yellow lenses, 65.9% for light gray lenses, and 30.2% for dark gray …

Measurement Procedure Before measuring, each experimental lens (experimental spectacles) was fitted by an optician for each subject. Lenses of each color were used in random order. For each lens condition, measurements were performed in a fixed order: contrast sensitivity, dynamic visual acuity, depth perception, hand-eye coordination and visual acuity and low-contrast AV-951 visual acuity. These measurements for each lens were considered a set, and an interval of >15 min was taken between sets. The measurement method is outlined below. A questionnaire was also administered at the end of the experiment.

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