In this study, similar to our findings, the type of alcoholic beverages had no effect on the saliva acetaldehyde concentration 30 minutes or more after drinking, while a beverage dependency was observed directly after the completion of drinking (the period between Selleckchem PSI-7977 0 and 30 min was not further investigated by the authors, however). Apart from the ingestion used, our results are not directly comparable to those of Yokoyama et al.  as they used Selleck Sapanisertib spirits that had all been diluted to 13% vol. Our collective of alcoholic beverages also generally contained higher levels of acetaldehyde, as we intentionally selected
beverages with high contamination status for the experiment, in order to increase the likelihood of observing a significant effect when compared to non-contaminated vodka. The limitation of the comparably low sample size in our study must also be kept in mind. Our results are therefore not selleck compound generalizable for a population-based risk assessment, as the beverages are not representative of those available in the market. The contamination status of the beverages also explains the extremely high salivary acetaldehyde concentrations up to over 1000 μM, which were never before described in the literature, not even for ALDH2-deficient subjects [14, 16, 19, 42, 43]. Our in vivo results confirm our previous theoretical calculations of potentially high short-term acetaldehyde concentrations, as
mentioned in the introduction, which were
deduced from typical levels found in beverages . This now leaves the question regarding how to interpret the health effects of this short-term high exposure to acetaldehyde. Whether a threshold for the carcinogenicity of acetaldehyde exists is still debatable and its potential magnitude is unclear . The natural acetaldehyde background levels in human blood are very low and generally not detectable (< 0.5 μM)  and the endogenous salivary acetaldehyde levels Bumetanide are assumed to be likewise, as they are below 1 μM . This assumption was recently confirmed in vitro, as an average of 0.3 μM acetaldehyde occurred in 36 saliva samples without ethanol exposure . The lowest concentration of acetaldehyde that has induced sister chromatid exchange in Chinese hamster ovary cells in vitro (3.9 mg/l, 88 μM) in a study of Obe and Ristow was suggested as threshold for toxicity evaluation . This is in agreement not only with the 100 μM threshold for Cr-PdG formation , but also with indirect evidence on salivary acetaldehyde concentration provided by human studies on alcohol consumption. After a moderate dose of alcohol, acetaldehyde levels in the saliva range between 18 and 143 μM within 40 minutes of alcohol ingestion . After ingestion of a moderate dose of alcohol, ALDH2-deficient Asians have detectable acetaldehyde levels in their saliva that are 2-3 times higher than in Asians with the normal enzyme.