In the cortex samples of ovx animals, NCAM 180 was overall lower

In the cortex samples of ovx animals, NCAM 180 was overall lower than the intact control values (P<0.05). Noradrenaline, C59 wnt in vivo dopamine and their metabolites were decreased in the hippocampus of the letrozole-treated group (P<0.01). Letrozole had differential effects on noradrenaline and dopamine

content in the cortex. It appears that inhibition of estrogen synthesis in the brain may have beneficial effects on spatial memory. We suggest that structural changes such as NCAM expression and catecholaminergic neurotransmitters in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex may be the neural basis for estrogen-dependent alterations in cognitive functions. (C) 2008 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Cystatin C is a major inhibitor of the elastin- and collagen-degrading cysteine proteases and may therefore have an important role in preserving atherosclerotic plaque stability. In this study we analyzed the associations between human carotid plaque cystatin C expression and the plaque content of collagen and elastin. Methods: Thirty-one plaques were removed by endarterectomy and homogenized. Cystatin C levels were analyzed by densitometry

of Western blots and elastin and collagen levels were determined colorimetrically. Results: The plaque content of cystatin C Selleck Fedratinib correlated with total elastin (r = 0.58, p = 0.001) and collagen (r = 0.50, p = 0.004), as well as with cross-linked forms of elastin (r = 0.42, p = 0.022) and collagen AG-120 (r = 0.52, p = 0.003). Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that cystatin C colocalized with elastin and collagen. No correlation was seen between cystatin C and the amount of degraded elastin or collagen in plaques. Conclusion: The positive correlation between cystatin C levels and collagen and elastin levels in plaques supports the notion that cystatin C plays an important role in maintaining atherosclerotic plaque stability. Copyright (C) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.”
“Genetically selected for high or low two-way active avoidance, Roman high-avoidance (RHA) and Roman low-avoidance (RLA) rats differ in their central dopaminergic activity, sensation/novelty- and substance-seeking profiles. These animals

are, therefore, well suited to identify anatomical and neurochemical concomitants of behavioral sensitization, a phenomenon linked to addictive liability. We submitted inbred RHA (RHA-I), inbred RLA (RLA-I) and Sprague-Dawley-OFA (SD-OFA) rats to a sensitization regimen with amphetamine and studied the behavioral response to an amphetamine challenge after a 2-week withdrawal period. The expression patterns of nerve growth factor inducible clone A (NGFI-A), secretogranin, post-synaptic density protein of 95 Kd (PSD-95), prodynorphin and proenkephalin mRNA were also analyzed using in situ hybridization, after the challenge with amphetamine. RHA-I rats showed stronger sensitization than SD-OFA rats. RLA-I rats did not show sensitization but were hyper-reactive to amphetamine.

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