In contrast, PNU 282987 infusion resulted in reductions in these measures when administered into the NAc shell, but had no effect after administration into the anterior cingulate cortex. These data identify reduction of alpha 7 nAChR function as a potential mechanism for elevated tobacco use in schizophrenia and also identify activation of alpha 7 nAChRs as a
potential strategy for tobacco cessation therapy. Neuropsychopharmacology (2012) 37, 1134-1143; doi:10.1038/npp.2011.299; published online 14 December 2011″
“How does the brain learn those visual features that are relevant for behavior? SB202190 solubility dmso In this article, we focus on two factors that guide plasticity of visual representations. First, reinforcers cause the global release of diffusive neuromodulatory signals that gate plasticity. Second,
attentional feedback signals highlight the chain of neurons between sensory and motor cortex responsible for the selected action. We here propose that the attentional feedback signals guide learning by suppressing plasticity of irrelevant features while permitting the learning of relevant ones. By hypothesizing that sensory Selleck SP600125 signals that are too weak to be perceived can escape from this inhibitory feedback, we bring attentional learning theories and theories that emphasized the importance of neuromodulatory signals into a single, unified framework.”
“The metabolism of doxorubicin, a widely used anticancer drug, is different in young adult and old cancer patients. In this study, we demonstrate during that micellar electrokinetic chromatography with laser-induced fluorescence detection is highly suited to monitor the metabolism of doxorubicin in subcellular fractions isolated from young adult (11 months, 100% survival rate) and old (26 months, similar to 25% survival rate) Fischer 344 rat livers. The relative amounts of doxorubicin metabolized in both mitochondria-enriched
and postmitochondria fractions of young adult were larger than the respective fractions of old rat liver. 7-Deoxydoxorubicinolone and 7-deoxydoxorubicinone were identified using internal standard addition and structural elucidation by high-performance liquid chromatography with combined laser-induced fluorescence and mass spectrometry detection. Although high-performance liquid chromatography with combined laser-induced fluorescence and mass spectrometry detection is more useful in the identification of compounds, micellar electrokinetic chromatography with laser-induced fluorescence detection has low-sample requirements, simplified sample processing procedures, short analysis times and low limit of detection. Therefore, the combination of these two techniques provides a powerful approach to investigate metabolism of fluorescent drugs in aging studies.