In addition, bothersome side effects such as somnolence or sexual

In addition, bothersome side effects such as somnolence or sexual dysfunction, even when they do not lead to

premature drug discontinuation or inadequate dosing, clearly compromise quality of life. Methodological issues There are considerable methodological challenges related to the study and clinical management of side effects. When evaluating side-effect data, it is important to consider Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical whether the information was obtained by spontaneous report, self-report checklists, or responses to direct, questioning. Spontaneous reporting of side effects following an open-ended question (eg, “any change since last, visit?”) typically yields a lower incidence of adverse events than itemized self-report checklists Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical (eg, the Frequency, Intensity, and Burden of Side Effects Rating (FIBSER) Scale4) or direct questioning about specific side effects (The Systematic Assessment for Treatment Emergent Events-Specific Inquiry [SAFTEE-SI]5).The reporting of certain side effects, particularly sexual dysfunction, may also be influenced by the degree of comfort the patient/subject has with the subject area and

with the questioner; this may be affected by gender, culture, and other factors. Side-effect rates presented for an antidepressant in isolation tend to be of somewhat Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical limited benefit, as common experiences such as headache or rhinitis inevitably figure prominently, even if they bear Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical no specific relationship to the agent. Hence, side effects presented as placebo-adjusted rates are often more informative. So too arc comparative rates of specific side effects buy Ki16425 across a number of antidepressant agents, which allow clinicians and patients to make informed choices about the relative

risks of side effects of greatest concern to the patient. In both research and clinical contexts, an important challenge is presented by the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical phenomenological overlap between side effects and residual symptoms of depression. Thus, fatigue, cognitive impairment, apathy, jitteriness and irritability, and sleep and appetite changes are core features of depression, but may also be related to antidepressant, treatment. In a small study of 43 depressed inpatients,6 which investigated the Phosphoprotein phosphatase rate of somatic symptoms and complaints that were present before and after treatment, many symptoms often considered to be side effects of drugs were also present prior to treatment, including dry mouth, lightheadedness, sweating, tremors, and constipation. The distinction between residual symptoms and side effects is crucial, as they call for very different responses. In the latter case, a dose increase or pharmacological or other augmentation of treatment may be required. In the former case, a dose reduction or use of a pharmacological antidote would be important initial considerations.

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