Hafner et al [9] suggested that E6 expression was linked to lymph

Hafner et al [9] suggested that E6 expression was linked to lymph node status but, as in previous studies [27, 28], there was a high overlapping of values between positive and negative lymph nodes. Coutant et al reported that HPV DNA screening in SLN by means of PCR might help to identify patients at risk of lymph node metastases and recurrence although HPV DNA was noted in only 46.7% of positive SLN and in 13.6% of negative SLN [29]. While molecular techniques (such as RT-PCR) may be more sensitive than IHC, they carry a high false positive rate [30]. Indeed, Van Trappen et al underlined that specific tumour DNA found in

histologically normal lymph nodes may originate from dead cell material or macrophages and that viral DNA can be found in various Pevonedistat research buy cell types thus limiting its usefulness as a molecular marker for micrometastases

[27]. Marchiolé et al noted that even RT-PCR had a better sensitivity than IHC though this is counterbalanced by a lack of specificity [12]. Moreover, it is not possible to differentiate macrometastasis from benign glandular inclusion using only RT-PCR. In addition, even if a correlation has been established between the number of copy cells and the size of metastases, RT-PCR lacks accuracy in differentiating true macrometastases with proved prognostic value from multiple micrometastases or submicrometastases with questionable clinical relevance. In endometrial cancer few data are selleck chemicals available on the contribution of molecular techniques to detect lymph node metastases. Fishman et al were the first to report a high CK-20 expression by RT-PCR in primary tumours www.selleckchem.com/products/tariquidar.html and in pelvic lymph nodes. Among the 18 patients with negative pelvic lymph nodes by routine H&E histology, six (33%) were CK-20 positive suggesting

a potential contribution of molecular biology in assessing lymph node status. So far, no data are available on CK-20 expression by RT-PCR in SLN in patients with endometrial cancer [31]. Incidence of micrometastases and potential clinical implications in patients with uterine Isotretinoin cancers The definition of micrometastases is rarely clearly mentioned in published reports representing a potential bias in the interpretation of their prognostic relevance. Moreover, as previously noted, the incidence of micrometastases can differ significantly according to the histological and biological technique used. In cervical cancer, whatever the histological technique used for detecting lymph node involvement, the rate of macrometastases varied from 7.1% to 42% (table 1, 2). Table 1 Ultrastaging of sentinel lymph node using H&E and IHC in patients with cervical cancer Study Year Method of analysis Nb of patients FIGO stage Macrometastatic SLN (%) Micrometastatic SLN (%) Lambaudie 2003 H&E +IHC 12 IA2-IB1 2 (18.2) 0 Niikura 2004 H&E +IHC 20 IB1-IIA 2 (10) 0 Martinez Palones 2004 H&E +IHC 23 IA2-IIA 3 (13) 0 Kraft 2006 H&E +IHC 54 IB1-III 21 (42) na Total     109   28 (25.

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