For boys, height showed a negative association with urinary concentration of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) and positive associations with serum concentrations of HCB and PCB 118. For adults no significant associations between internal exposure and height were observed. For men. BMI showed negative associations with urinary cadmium
concentration and with serum levels of marker PCBs and positive associations with serum levels of HCB, p,p’-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p’-DDE), PCB 118 and the dioxin fraction of dioxin-like activity. For women, BMI showed a negative buy MRT67307 association with urinary cadmium concentration, with blood lead concentration and with the concentration of marker PCBs in serum, and a positive association with serum concentrations of HCB, p,p’-DDE and PCB 118. Associations between biological effects and internal exposures were, in terms of the regression coefficient, often stronger at exposures below the median. Environmental exposures to pollutants resulting in “”normal”" levels of internal exposure were associated with quite
substantial differences in body mass index. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: Greater quadriceps strength has been found to reduce risk for symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (SxKOA) and knee joint space narrowing (JSN). However, this finding could relate
to muscle mass or activation pattern. The purpose of this study was to assess whether greater thigh muscle mass protects against (1) Galardin incident radiographic (RKOA), (2) incident SxKOA or (3) worsening of knee JSN by 30-month follow-up.
Design: Multicenter Osteoarthritis (MOST) study participants, who underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the Iowa site were included. Thigh muscle mass was calculated from DXA image sub-regions. Sex-stratified, MK-2206 research buy knee-based analyses controlled for incomplete independence between limbs within subjects. The effect of thigh lean mass and specific strength as predictors of ipsilateral RKOA, SxKOA and worsening of JSN were assessed, while controlling for age, body mass index (BMI), and history of knee surgery.
Results: A total of 519 men (948 knees) and 784 women (1453 knees) were included. Mean age and BMI were 62 years and 30 kg/m(2). Thigh muscle mass was not associated with risk for RKOA, SxKOA or knee JSN. However, in comparison with the lowest tertile, those in the highest and middle tertiles of knee extensor specific strength had a lower risk for SxKOA and JSN [odds ratio (OR) 0.29-0.68].
Conclusions: Thigh muscle mass does not appear to confer protection against incident or worsening knee OA.