Finally, a Phase II randomized study published by Rayson et al.  provided us with information regarding cardiotoxicity of the combination of PLD plus trastuzumab used concomitantly in adjuvant therapy for intermediate-risk breast cancer with HER2 overexpression and either negative or positive lymph nodes.
181 patients with a baseline LVEF >55% were selleck screening library included. They were randomized (1:2) to arm A: doxorubicin 60mg/m2 plus cyclophosphamide 600mg/m2 every 21days, four cycles or arm B: PLD 35mg/m2 plus cyclophosphamide 600mg/m2 every 21 days, four cycles plus trastuzumab 2mg/kg weekly for 12 weeks. Both groups subsequently received paclitaxel 80mg/m2 plus trastuzumab for 12 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical additional weeks, followed by trastuzumab in monotherapy to complete one-year therapy. The main objective of the study was cardiac toxicity: comparing the rate of cardiac events and/or the percentage of patients who were unable to complete one-year treatment with trastuzumab. The incidence of cardiac toxicity was 18.6% with doxorubicin Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical (95% CI 9.7%–30.9%) versus 4.2% with PLD (95% CI 1.4%–9.5%) (P = 0.0036). Among the
16 patients who had a cardiac event (11 in the conventional doxorubicin Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical arm and 5 in the PLD arm), 8 were over 55 years old. All the events occurred after the 4th course of therapy. One of the events was a myocardial infarction with subsequent clinical heart failure (this occurred in arm B). Of the remaining 15 cases, 7 were recorded as >10% reduction from baseline LVEF with absolute values of <50% (3 of them developing clinical symptoms were classed as NHYA class II heart failure). The other 8 cases were classed Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical as asymptomatic (NYHA class I). There were no cardiotoxicity-related deaths. The LVEF mean value was similar in both groups (64.0%, PLD + C + H/T + H and 64.4%, A + C/T + H). Mean reduction of LVEF values after the 8th cycle (end of chemotherapy) was significantly higher in
patients receiving conventional doxorubicin (5.6% versus 2.1%; P = 0.0014). Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Cardiac safety analysis for this study suggested that administering trastuzumab concomitantly with PLD in the tested regimen was feasible, caused less cardiotoxicity in the short term, and avoided the premature interruption of treatment with trastuzumab when compared with a standard regimen such as A + C/T + H. The authors Genome Research concluded that this strategy of incorporating early and concomitantly a liposomal anthracycline plus trastuzumab was safe, but its possible clinical role should be properly investigated in a randomized Phase III trial versus a nonanthracycline regimen such as TCH. 8. Conclusions Liposome-based drug delivery systems are able to modify the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of cytostatic agents, enabling us to increase the concentration of the drug released into the neoplastic tissue and, at the same time, reducing the exposure of normal tissue to the drug.